Outcomes of Research or Clinical Trials Activity Levels Acute Flaccid Paralysis Ageing Anaerobic Threshold Anaesthesia Assistive Technology Brain Cardiorespiratory Cardiovascular Clinical Evaluation Cold Intolerance Complementary Therapies Continence Coping Styles and Strategies Cultural Context Diagnosis and Management Differential Diagnosis Drugs Dysphagia Dysphonia Epidemiology Exercise Falls Fatigue Fractures Gender Differences Immune Response Inflammation Late Effects of Polio Muscle Strength Muscular Atrophy Orthoses Pain Polio Immunisation Post-Polio Motor Unit Psychology Quality of Life Renal Complications Respiratory Complications and Management Restless Legs Syndrome Sleep Analaysis Surgery Vitality Vocational Implications

Title order Author order Journal order Date order
Category: Acute Flaccid Paralysis

Title: Acute Flaccid Paralysis Associated with Novel Enterovirus C105
Author: Horner LM, Poulter MD, Brenton JN, Turner RB
Affiliation: University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
Journal: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Citation: Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Oct. Vol. 21:10. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2110.150759
Publication Year and Month: 2015 10

Abstract: An outbreak of acute flaccid paralysis among children in the United States during summer 2014 was tentatively associated with enterovirus D68 infection. This syndrome in a child in fall 2014 was associated with enterovirus C105 infection. The presence of this virus strain in North America may pose a diagnostic challenge.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Acute Flaccid Paralysis

Title: Acute Flaccid paralysis in adults: Our experience
Author: Kaushik R (1), Kharbanda PS (2), Bhalla A (1), Rajan R (2), Prabhakar S (2)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Internal Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, Punjab and Haryana, India; (2) Department of Neurology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, Punjab and Haryana, India
Journal: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
Citation: J Emerg Trauma Shock. 2014 Jul-Sep; 7(3): 149–154. doi: 10.4103/0974-2700.136847
Publication Year and Month: 2014 07

Abstract: Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a complex clinical syndrome with a broad array of potential etiologies that vary with age. We present our experience of acute onset lower motor neuron paralysis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and thirty-three consecutive adult patients presenting with weakness of duration less than four weeks over 12 months period were enrolled. Detailed history, clinical examination, and relevant investigations according to a pre-defined diagnostic algorithm were carried out. The patients were followed through their hospital stay till discharge or death.

RESULTS: The mean age was 33.27 (range 13-89) years with male preponderance (67.7%). The most common etiology was neuroparalytic snake envenomation (51.9%), followed by Guillain Barre syndrome (33.1%), constituting 85% of all patients. Hypokalemic paralysis (7.5%) and acute intermittent porphyria (4.5%) were the other important conditions. We did not encounter any case of acute poliomylitis in adults. In-hospital mortality due to respiratory paralysis was 9%.

Conclusions: Neuroparalytic snakebite and Guillain Barre syndrome were the most common causes of acute flaccid paralysis in adults in our study.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Acute Flaccid Paralysis

Title: Human Enteroviruses isolated during acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Ghana: implications for the post eradication era
Author: Odoom JK, Obodai E, Barnor JS, Ashun M, Arthur-Quarm J, Osei-Kwasi M
Affiliation: Department of Virology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana
Journal: Pan African Medical Journal
Citation: Pan Afr Med J. 2012; 12: 74
Publication Year and Month: 2012 07

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Surveillance of acute flaccid surveillance (AFP) has been used world-wide to monitor the control and eradication of circulating wild polioviruses. The Polio Laboratory since its accreditation in 1996 has supported the Disease Surveillance Department for AFP surveillance. This study aims to isolate and characterize human enteroviruses from patients with AFP in Ghana.

METHOD: Stool suspension was prepared from 308 samples received in 2009 from the surveillance activities throughout the country and inoculated on both RD and L20B cell lines. Isolates that showed growth on L20B were selected for real-time RT-PCR using degenerate and non-degenerate primers and probes. RD isolates were however characterized by microneutralisation technique with antisera pools from RIVM, The Netherlands and viruses that were untypable subjected to neutralization assay using antibodies specific for E71.

RESULTS: Of the 308 samples processed, 17 (5.5%) grew on both L20B and RD cells while 32 (10.4%) grew on RD only. All 28 isolates from L20B were characterized by rRT-PCR as Sabin-like polioviruses. No wild poliovirus or VDPV was found. However from the microneutralisation assay, six different enteroviruses were characterized. Among these, Coxsackie B viruses were most predominant followed by Echovirus. Three children from whom non-polio enteroviruses were isolated had residual paralysis while one child with VAPP found. The non-polio enteroviruses circulated throughout the country with the majority (20.7%) from Ashanti region.

Conclusions: This study showed the absence of wild or vaccine-derived poliovirus circulation in the country. However, the detection of three non-polio enteroviruses and one Sabin-like poliovirus with residual paralysis call for continuous surveillance even in the post polio eradication era.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Acute Flaccid Paralysis

Title: Potential for the Australian and New Zealand paediatric intensive care registry to enhance acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Australia: a data-linkage study
Author: Hobday LK (1), Thorley BR (1), Alexander J (2), Aitken T (1), Massey PD (3,4), Cretikos M (5,6), Slater A (2,7), Durrheim DN (3,8)
Affiliation: (1) National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; (2) Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society, Herston, Queensland, Australia; (3) Hunter New England Population Health, Wallsend, NSW, Australia; (4) School of Health, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, Australia; (5) School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Darlington, NSW, Australia; (6) Centre for Epidemiology and Evidence, NSW Ministry of Health, Sydney, NSW, Australia; (7) Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Royal Children’s Hospital, Herston, Queensland, Australia; (8) Hunter Medical Research Institute, New Lambton, NSW, Australia
Journal: BioMed Central Infectious Diseases
Citation: BMC Infect Dis. 2013 Aug 21;13:384. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-384.
Publication Year and Month: 2013 08

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Australia uses acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance to monitor its polio-free status. The World Health Organization criterion for a sensitive AFP surveillance system is the annual detection of at least one non-polio AFP case per 100,000 children aged less than 15 years, a target Australia has not consistently achieved. Children exhibiting AFP are likely to be hospitalised and may be admitted to an intensive care unit. This provides a potential opportunity for active AFP surveillance.

METHODS: A data-linkage study for the period from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2008 compared 165 non-polio AFP cases classified by the Polio Expert Panel with 880 acute neurological presentations potentially compatible with AFP documented in the Australian and New Zealand Paediatric Intensive Care (ANZPIC) Registry.

RESULTS: Forty-two (25%) AFP cases classified by the Polio Expert Panel were matched to case records in the ANZPIC Registry. Of these, nineteen (45%) cases were classified as Guillain-Barré syndrome on both registries. Ten additional Guillain-Barré syndrome cases recorded in the ANZPIC Registry were not notified to the national AFP surveillance system.

Conclusions: The identification of a further ten AFP cases supports inclusion of intensive care units in national AFP surveillance, particularly specialist paediatric intensive care units, to identify AFP cases that may not otherwise be reported to the national surveillance system.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Acute Flaccid Paralysis

Title: Recent advances on the role of host factors during non-poliovirus enteroviral infections
Author: Owino C.O., Jang Hahn Cu J.
Affiliation:
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Owino C.O., Jang Hahn Cu J. Recent advances on the role of host factors during non-poliovirus enteroviral infections. Journal of Biomedical Science. 2019. 26:47 doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12929-019-0540-y
Publication Year and Month: 2019 06

Abstract: Non-polio enteroviruses are emerging viruses known to cause outbreaks of polio-like infections in different parts of the world with several cases already reported in Asia Pacific, Europe and in United States of America. These outbreaks normally result in overstretching of health facilities as well as death in children under the age of five. Most of these infections are usually self-limiting except for the neurological complications associated with human enterovirus A 71 (EV-A71). The infection dynamics of these viruses have not been fully understood, with most inferences made from previous studies conducted with poliovirus.

Non-poliovirus enteroviral infections are responsible for major outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) often associated with neurological complications and severe respiratory diseases. The myriad of disease presentations observed so far in children calls for an urgent need to fully elucidate the replication processes of these viruses. There are concerted efforts from different research groups to fully map out the role of human host factors in the replication cycle of these viral infections. Understanding the interaction between viral proteins and human host factors will unravel important insights on the lifecycle of this groups of viruses.

This review provides the latest update on the interplay between human host factors/processes and non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV). We focus on the interactions involved in viral attachment, entry, internalization, uncoating, replication, virion assembly and eventual egress of the NPEV from the infected cells. We emphasize on the virus- human host interplay and highlight existing knowledge gaps that needs further studies. Understanding the NPEV-human host factors interactions will be key in the design and development of vaccines as well as antivirals against enteroviral infections. Dissecting the role of human host factors during NPEV infection cycle will provide a clear picture of how NPEVs usurp the human cellular processes to establish an efficient infection. This will be a boost to the drug and vaccine development against enteroviruses which will be key in control and eventual elimination of the viral infections.

Conclusions: The emergence of outbreaks of enteroviral infections in different parts of the world point to the need of mapping all the host factors involved in the infection paradigm. Given that viruses need host factors in every step of their infection from attachment, entry, replication, virion assembly and eventual entry, there is need to elucidate all the host factors involved for an improved understanding of the molecular dynamics of enteroviral infections. This will be a big boost towards the long overdue antiviral and vaccine development against these epidemiologically important viruses. There is much to be elucidated on the formation of NPEV replication complex formation as the existing mechanisms do not wholly explain the processes and steps involved in this important process during viral replication. The nuclear host factors involved in the enteroviral replication also needs to be fully described as this is a vital step in maintaining viral replication and eventual life cycle. Viral entry studies need to be carried out as the known receptors and viral entry requirements do not fully explain the myriad of disease features observed during viral infections. The role of cellular processes such as autophagy, apoptosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis as well as post-translational modifications in enteroviral infections also needs to be fully elucidated. This will be specifically important in explaining the little-known stages of viral infections such as non-lytic egress for continuous viral cycle within the host.

The paucity of information on the infection dynamics of these viruses calls for concerted efforts to elucidate the viral-human cell interactions. There is still a lot to be investigated to fill the gaps that exist on the life cycle of non-polio enteroviruses. With new cases emerging in different parts of the world, it is just a matter of time before we have a global outbreak of non-poliovirus enteroviral infections in different parts of the world. There is also an urgent need for further studies especially in the field of vaccine developments as well as antiviral therapy against enteroviruses.

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


There are currently 5 papers in this category.

Category: Acute Flaccid Paralysis

Title: Potential for the Australian and New Zealand paediatric intensive care registry to enhance acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Australia: a data-linkage study
Author: Hobday LK (1), Thorley BR (1), Alexander J (2), Aitken T (1), Massey PD (3,4), Cretikos M (5,6), Slater A (2,7), Durrheim DN (3,8)
Affiliation: (1) National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; (2) Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society, Herston, Queensland, Australia; (3) Hunter New England Population Health, Wallsend, NSW, Australia; (4) School of Health, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, Australia; (5) School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Darlington, NSW, Australia; (6) Centre for Epidemiology and Evidence, NSW Ministry of Health, Sydney, NSW, Australia; (7) Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Royal Children’s Hospital, Herston, Queensland, Australia; (8) Hunter Medical Research Institute, New Lambton, NSW, Australia
Journal: BioMed Central Infectious Diseases
Citation: BMC Infect Dis. 2013 Aug 21;13:384. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-384.
Publication Year and Month: 2013 08

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Australia uses acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance to monitor its polio-free status. The World Health Organization criterion for a sensitive AFP surveillance system is the annual detection of at least one non-polio AFP case per 100,000 children aged less than 15 years, a target Australia has not consistently achieved. Children exhibiting AFP are likely to be hospitalised and may be admitted to an intensive care unit. This provides a potential opportunity for active AFP surveillance.

METHODS: A data-linkage study for the period from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2008 compared 165 non-polio AFP cases classified by the Polio Expert Panel with 880 acute neurological presentations potentially compatible with AFP documented in the Australian and New Zealand Paediatric Intensive Care (ANZPIC) Registry.

RESULTS: Forty-two (25%) AFP cases classified by the Polio Expert Panel were matched to case records in the ANZPIC Registry. Of these, nineteen (45%) cases were classified as Guillain-Barré syndrome on both registries. Ten additional Guillain-Barré syndrome cases recorded in the ANZPIC Registry were not notified to the national AFP surveillance system.

Conclusions: The identification of a further ten AFP cases supports inclusion of intensive care units in national AFP surveillance, particularly specialist paediatric intensive care units, to identify AFP cases that may not otherwise be reported to the national surveillance system.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Acute Flaccid Paralysis

Title: Acute Flaccid Paralysis Associated with Novel Enterovirus C105
Author: Horner LM, Poulter MD, Brenton JN, Turner RB
Affiliation: University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
Journal: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Citation: Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Oct. Vol. 21:10. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2110.150759
Publication Year and Month: 2015 10

Abstract: An outbreak of acute flaccid paralysis among children in the United States during summer 2014 was tentatively associated with enterovirus D68 infection. This syndrome in a child in fall 2014 was associated with enterovirus C105 infection. The presence of this virus strain in North America may pose a diagnostic challenge.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Acute Flaccid Paralysis

Title: Acute Flaccid paralysis in adults: Our experience
Author: Kaushik R (1), Kharbanda PS (2), Bhalla A (1), Rajan R (2), Prabhakar S (2)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Internal Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, Punjab and Haryana, India; (2) Department of Neurology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, Punjab and Haryana, India
Journal: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
Citation: J Emerg Trauma Shock. 2014 Jul-Sep; 7(3): 149–154. doi: 10.4103/0974-2700.136847
Publication Year and Month: 2014 07

Abstract: Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a complex clinical syndrome with a broad array of potential etiologies that vary with age. We present our experience of acute onset lower motor neuron paralysis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and thirty-three consecutive adult patients presenting with weakness of duration less than four weeks over 12 months period were enrolled. Detailed history, clinical examination, and relevant investigations according to a pre-defined diagnostic algorithm were carried out. The patients were followed through their hospital stay till discharge or death.

RESULTS: The mean age was 33.27 (range 13-89) years with male preponderance (67.7%). The most common etiology was neuroparalytic snake envenomation (51.9%), followed by Guillain Barre syndrome (33.1%), constituting 85% of all patients. Hypokalemic paralysis (7.5%) and acute intermittent porphyria (4.5%) were the other important conditions. We did not encounter any case of acute poliomylitis in adults. In-hospital mortality due to respiratory paralysis was 9%.

Conclusions: Neuroparalytic snakebite and Guillain Barre syndrome were the most common causes of acute flaccid paralysis in adults in our study.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Acute Flaccid Paralysis

Title: Human Enteroviruses isolated during acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Ghana: implications for the post eradication era
Author: Odoom JK, Obodai E, Barnor JS, Ashun M, Arthur-Quarm J, Osei-Kwasi M
Affiliation: Department of Virology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana
Journal: Pan African Medical Journal
Citation: Pan Afr Med J. 2012; 12: 74
Publication Year and Month: 2012 07

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Surveillance of acute flaccid surveillance (AFP) has been used world-wide to monitor the control and eradication of circulating wild polioviruses. The Polio Laboratory since its accreditation in 1996 has supported the Disease Surveillance Department for AFP surveillance. This study aims to isolate and characterize human enteroviruses from patients with AFP in Ghana.

METHOD: Stool suspension was prepared from 308 samples received in 2009 from the surveillance activities throughout the country and inoculated on both RD and L20B cell lines. Isolates that showed growth on L20B were selected for real-time RT-PCR using degenerate and non-degenerate primers and probes. RD isolates were however characterized by microneutralisation technique with antisera pools from RIVM, The Netherlands and viruses that were untypable subjected to neutralization assay using antibodies specific for E71.

RESULTS: Of the 308 samples processed, 17 (5.5%) grew on both L20B and RD cells while 32 (10.4%) grew on RD only. All 28 isolates from L20B were characterized by rRT-PCR as Sabin-like polioviruses. No wild poliovirus or VDPV was found. However from the microneutralisation assay, six different enteroviruses were characterized. Among these, Coxsackie B viruses were most predominant followed by Echovirus. Three children from whom non-polio enteroviruses were isolated had residual paralysis while one child with VAPP found. The non-polio enteroviruses circulated throughout the country with the majority (20.7%) from Ashanti region.

Conclusions: This study showed the absence of wild or vaccine-derived poliovirus circulation in the country. However, the detection of three non-polio enteroviruses and one Sabin-like poliovirus with residual paralysis call for continuous surveillance even in the post polio eradication era.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Acute Flaccid Paralysis

Title: Recent advances on the role of host factors during non-poliovirus enteroviral infections
Author: Owino C.O., Jang Hahn Cu J.
Affiliation:
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Owino C.O., Jang Hahn Cu J. Recent advances on the role of host factors during non-poliovirus enteroviral infections. Journal of Biomedical Science. 2019. 26:47 doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12929-019-0540-y
Publication Year and Month: 2019 06

Abstract: Non-polio enteroviruses are emerging viruses known to cause outbreaks of polio-like infections in different parts of the world with several cases already reported in Asia Pacific, Europe and in United States of America. These outbreaks normally result in overstretching of health facilities as well as death in children under the age of five. Most of these infections are usually self-limiting except for the neurological complications associated with human enterovirus A 71 (EV-A71). The infection dynamics of these viruses have not been fully understood, with most inferences made from previous studies conducted with poliovirus.

Non-poliovirus enteroviral infections are responsible for major outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) often associated with neurological complications and severe respiratory diseases. The myriad of disease presentations observed so far in children calls for an urgent need to fully elucidate the replication processes of these viruses. There are concerted efforts from different research groups to fully map out the role of human host factors in the replication cycle of these viral infections. Understanding the interaction between viral proteins and human host factors will unravel important insights on the lifecycle of this groups of viruses.

This review provides the latest update on the interplay between human host factors/processes and non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV). We focus on the interactions involved in viral attachment, entry, internalization, uncoating, replication, virion assembly and eventual egress of the NPEV from the infected cells. We emphasize on the virus- human host interplay and highlight existing knowledge gaps that needs further studies. Understanding the NPEV-human host factors interactions will be key in the design and development of vaccines as well as antivirals against enteroviral infections. Dissecting the role of human host factors during NPEV infection cycle will provide a clear picture of how NPEVs usurp the human cellular processes to establish an efficient infection. This will be a boost to the drug and vaccine development against enteroviruses which will be key in control and eventual elimination of the viral infections.

Conclusions: The emergence of outbreaks of enteroviral infections in different parts of the world point to the need of mapping all the host factors involved in the infection paradigm. Given that viruses need host factors in every step of their infection from attachment, entry, replication, virion assembly and eventual entry, there is need to elucidate all the host factors involved for an improved understanding of the molecular dynamics of enteroviral infections. This will be a big boost towards the long overdue antiviral and vaccine development against these epidemiologically important viruses. There is much to be elucidated on the formation of NPEV replication complex formation as the existing mechanisms do not wholly explain the processes and steps involved in this important process during viral replication. The nuclear host factors involved in the enteroviral replication also needs to be fully described as this is a vital step in maintaining viral replication and eventual life cycle. Viral entry studies need to be carried out as the known receptors and viral entry requirements do not fully explain the myriad of disease features observed during viral infections. The role of cellular processes such as autophagy, apoptosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis as well as post-translational modifications in enteroviral infections also needs to be fully elucidated. This will be specifically important in explaining the little-known stages of viral infections such as non-lytic egress for continuous viral cycle within the host.

The paucity of information on the infection dynamics of these viruses calls for concerted efforts to elucidate the viral-human cell interactions. There is still a lot to be investigated to fill the gaps that exist on the life cycle of non-polio enteroviruses. With new cases emerging in different parts of the world, it is just a matter of time before we have a global outbreak of non-poliovirus enteroviral infections in different parts of the world. There is also an urgent need for further studies especially in the field of vaccine developments as well as antiviral therapy against enteroviruses.

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


There are currently 5 papers in this category.

Category: Acute Flaccid Paralysis

Title: Potential for the Australian and New Zealand paediatric intensive care registry to enhance acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Australia: a data-linkage study
Author: Hobday LK (1), Thorley BR (1), Alexander J (2), Aitken T (1), Massey PD (3,4), Cretikos M (5,6), Slater A (2,7), Durrheim DN (3,8)
Affiliation: (1) National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; (2) Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society, Herston, Queensland, Australia; (3) Hunter New England Population Health, Wallsend, NSW, Australia; (4) School of Health, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, Australia; (5) School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Darlington, NSW, Australia; (6) Centre for Epidemiology and Evidence, NSW Ministry of Health, Sydney, NSW, Australia; (7) Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Royal Children’s Hospital, Herston, Queensland, Australia; (8) Hunter Medical Research Institute, New Lambton, NSW, Australia
Journal: BioMed Central Infectious Diseases
Citation: BMC Infect Dis. 2013 Aug 21;13:384. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-384.
Publication Year and Month: 2013 08

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Australia uses acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance to monitor its polio-free status. The World Health Organization criterion for a sensitive AFP surveillance system is the annual detection of at least one non-polio AFP case per 100,000 children aged less than 15 years, a target Australia has not consistently achieved. Children exhibiting AFP are likely to be hospitalised and may be admitted to an intensive care unit. This provides a potential opportunity for active AFP surveillance.

METHODS: A data-linkage study for the period from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2008 compared 165 non-polio AFP cases classified by the Polio Expert Panel with 880 acute neurological presentations potentially compatible with AFP documented in the Australian and New Zealand Paediatric Intensive Care (ANZPIC) Registry.

RESULTS: Forty-two (25%) AFP cases classified by the Polio Expert Panel were matched to case records in the ANZPIC Registry. Of these, nineteen (45%) cases were classified as Guillain-Barré syndrome on both registries. Ten additional Guillain-Barré syndrome cases recorded in the ANZPIC Registry were not notified to the national AFP surveillance system.

Conclusions: The identification of a further ten AFP cases supports inclusion of intensive care units in national AFP surveillance, particularly specialist paediatric intensive care units, to identify AFP cases that may not otherwise be reported to the national surveillance system.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Acute Flaccid Paralysis

Title: Acute Flaccid Paralysis Associated with Novel Enterovirus C105
Author: Horner LM, Poulter MD, Brenton JN, Turner RB
Affiliation: University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
Journal: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Citation: Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Oct. Vol. 21:10. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2110.150759
Publication Year and Month: 2015 10

Abstract: An outbreak of acute flaccid paralysis among children in the United States during summer 2014 was tentatively associated with enterovirus D68 infection. This syndrome in a child in fall 2014 was associated with enterovirus C105 infection. The presence of this virus strain in North America may pose a diagnostic challenge.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Acute Flaccid Paralysis

Title: Acute Flaccid paralysis in adults: Our experience
Author: Kaushik R (1), Kharbanda PS (2), Bhalla A (1), Rajan R (2), Prabhakar S (2)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Internal Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, Punjab and Haryana, India; (2) Department of Neurology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, Punjab and Haryana, India
Journal: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
Citation: J Emerg Trauma Shock. 2014 Jul-Sep; 7(3): 149–154. doi: 10.4103/0974-2700.136847
Publication Year and Month: 2014 07

Abstract: Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a complex clinical syndrome with a broad array of potential etiologies that vary with age. We present our experience of acute onset lower motor neuron paralysis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and thirty-three consecutive adult patients presenting with weakness of duration less than four weeks over 12 months period were enrolled. Detailed history, clinical examination, and relevant investigations according to a pre-defined diagnostic algorithm were carried out. The patients were followed through their hospital stay till discharge or death.

RESULTS: The mean age was 33.27 (range 13-89) years with male preponderance (67.7%). The most common etiology was neuroparalytic snake envenomation (51.9%), followed by Guillain Barre syndrome (33.1%), constituting 85% of all patients. Hypokalemic paralysis (7.5%) and acute intermittent porphyria (4.5%) were the other important conditions. We did not encounter any case of acute poliomylitis in adults. In-hospital mortality due to respiratory paralysis was 9%.

Conclusions: Neuroparalytic snakebite and Guillain Barre syndrome were the most common causes of acute flaccid paralysis in adults in our study.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Acute Flaccid Paralysis

Title: Recent advances on the role of host factors during non-poliovirus enteroviral infections
Author: Owino C.O., Jang Hahn Cu J.
Affiliation:
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Owino C.O., Jang Hahn Cu J. Recent advances on the role of host factors during non-poliovirus enteroviral infections. Journal of Biomedical Science. 2019. 26:47 doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12929-019-0540-y
Publication Year and Month: 2019 06

Abstract: Non-polio enteroviruses are emerging viruses known to cause outbreaks of polio-like infections in different parts of the world with several cases already reported in Asia Pacific, Europe and in United States of America. These outbreaks normally result in overstretching of health facilities as well as death in children under the age of five. Most of these infections are usually self-limiting except for the neurological complications associated with human enterovirus A 71 (EV-A71). The infection dynamics of these viruses have not been fully understood, with most inferences made from previous studies conducted with poliovirus.

Non-poliovirus enteroviral infections are responsible for major outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) often associated with neurological complications and severe respiratory diseases. The myriad of disease presentations observed so far in children calls for an urgent need to fully elucidate the replication processes of these viruses. There are concerted efforts from different research groups to fully map out the role of human host factors in the replication cycle of these viral infections. Understanding the interaction between viral proteins and human host factors will unravel important insights on the lifecycle of this groups of viruses.

This review provides the latest update on the interplay between human host factors/processes and non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV). We focus on the interactions involved in viral attachment, entry, internalization, uncoating, replication, virion assembly and eventual egress of the NPEV from the infected cells. We emphasize on the virus- human host interplay and highlight existing knowledge gaps that needs further studies. Understanding the NPEV-human host factors interactions will be key in the design and development of vaccines as well as antivirals against enteroviral infections. Dissecting the role of human host factors during NPEV infection cycle will provide a clear picture of how NPEVs usurp the human cellular processes to establish an efficient infection. This will be a boost to the drug and vaccine development against enteroviruses which will be key in control and eventual elimination of the viral infections.

Conclusions: The emergence of outbreaks of enteroviral infections in different parts of the world point to the need of mapping all the host factors involved in the infection paradigm. Given that viruses need host factors in every step of their infection from attachment, entry, replication, virion assembly and eventual entry, there is need to elucidate all the host factors involved for an improved understanding of the molecular dynamics of enteroviral infections. This will be a big boost towards the long overdue antiviral and vaccine development against these epidemiologically important viruses. There is much to be elucidated on the formation of NPEV replication complex formation as the existing mechanisms do not wholly explain the processes and steps involved in this important process during viral replication. The nuclear host factors involved in the enteroviral replication also needs to be fully described as this is a vital step in maintaining viral replication and eventual life cycle. Viral entry studies need to be carried out as the known receptors and viral entry requirements do not fully explain the myriad of disease features observed during viral infections. The role of cellular processes such as autophagy, apoptosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis as well as post-translational modifications in enteroviral infections also needs to be fully elucidated. This will be specifically important in explaining the little-known stages of viral infections such as non-lytic egress for continuous viral cycle within the host.

The paucity of information on the infection dynamics of these viruses calls for concerted efforts to elucidate the viral-human cell interactions. There is still a lot to be investigated to fill the gaps that exist on the life cycle of non-polio enteroviruses. With new cases emerging in different parts of the world, it is just a matter of time before we have a global outbreak of non-poliovirus enteroviral infections in different parts of the world. There is also an urgent need for further studies especially in the field of vaccine developments as well as antiviral therapy against enteroviruses.

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Acute Flaccid Paralysis

Title: Human Enteroviruses isolated during acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Ghana: implications for the post eradication era
Author: Odoom JK, Obodai E, Barnor JS, Ashun M, Arthur-Quarm J, Osei-Kwasi M
Affiliation: Department of Virology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana
Journal: Pan African Medical Journal
Citation: Pan Afr Med J. 2012; 12: 74
Publication Year and Month: 2012 07

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Surveillance of acute flaccid surveillance (AFP) has been used world-wide to monitor the control and eradication of circulating wild polioviruses. The Polio Laboratory since its accreditation in 1996 has supported the Disease Surveillance Department for AFP surveillance. This study aims to isolate and characterize human enteroviruses from patients with AFP in Ghana.

METHOD: Stool suspension was prepared from 308 samples received in 2009 from the surveillance activities throughout the country and inoculated on both RD and L20B cell lines. Isolates that showed growth on L20B were selected for real-time RT-PCR using degenerate and non-degenerate primers and probes. RD isolates were however characterized by microneutralisation technique with antisera pools from RIVM, The Netherlands and viruses that were untypable subjected to neutralization assay using antibodies specific for E71.

RESULTS: Of the 308 samples processed, 17 (5.5%) grew on both L20B and RD cells while 32 (10.4%) grew on RD only. All 28 isolates from L20B were characterized by rRT-PCR as Sabin-like polioviruses. No wild poliovirus or VDPV was found. However from the microneutralisation assay, six different enteroviruses were characterized. Among these, Coxsackie B viruses were most predominant followed by Echovirus. Three children from whom non-polio enteroviruses were isolated had residual paralysis while one child with VAPP found. The non-polio enteroviruses circulated throughout the country with the majority (20.7%) from Ashanti region.

Conclusions: This study showed the absence of wild or vaccine-derived poliovirus circulation in the country. However, the detection of three non-polio enteroviruses and one Sabin-like poliovirus with residual paralysis call for continuous surveillance even in the post polio eradication era.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


There are currently 5 papers in this category.

Category: Acute Flaccid Paralysis

Title: Recent advances on the role of host factors during non-poliovirus enteroviral infections
Author: Owino C.O., Jang Hahn Cu J.
Affiliation:
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Owino C.O., Jang Hahn Cu J. Recent advances on the role of host factors during non-poliovirus enteroviral infections. Journal of Biomedical Science. 2019. 26:47 doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12929-019-0540-y
Publication Year and Month: 2019 06

Abstract: Non-polio enteroviruses are emerging viruses known to cause outbreaks of polio-like infections in different parts of the world with several cases already reported in Asia Pacific, Europe and in United States of America. These outbreaks normally result in overstretching of health facilities as well as death in children under the age of five. Most of these infections are usually self-limiting except for the neurological complications associated with human enterovirus A 71 (EV-A71). The infection dynamics of these viruses have not been fully understood, with most inferences made from previous studies conducted with poliovirus.

Non-poliovirus enteroviral infections are responsible for major outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) often associated with neurological complications and severe respiratory diseases. The myriad of disease presentations observed so far in children calls for an urgent need to fully elucidate the replication processes of these viruses. There are concerted efforts from different research groups to fully map out the role of human host factors in the replication cycle of these viral infections. Understanding the interaction between viral proteins and human host factors will unravel important insights on the lifecycle of this groups of viruses.

This review provides the latest update on the interplay between human host factors/processes and non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV). We focus on the interactions involved in viral attachment, entry, internalization, uncoating, replication, virion assembly and eventual egress of the NPEV from the infected cells. We emphasize on the virus- human host interplay and highlight existing knowledge gaps that needs further studies. Understanding the NPEV-human host factors interactions will be key in the design and development of vaccines as well as antivirals against enteroviral infections. Dissecting the role of human host factors during NPEV infection cycle will provide a clear picture of how NPEVs usurp the human cellular processes to establish an efficient infection. This will be a boost to the drug and vaccine development against enteroviruses which will be key in control and eventual elimination of the viral infections.

Conclusions: The emergence of outbreaks of enteroviral infections in different parts of the world point to the need of mapping all the host factors involved in the infection paradigm. Given that viruses need host factors in every step of their infection from attachment, entry, replication, virion assembly and eventual entry, there is need to elucidate all the host factors involved for an improved understanding of the molecular dynamics of enteroviral infections. This will be a big boost towards the long overdue antiviral and vaccine development against these epidemiologically important viruses. There is much to be elucidated on the formation of NPEV replication complex formation as the existing mechanisms do not wholly explain the processes and steps involved in this important process during viral replication. The nuclear host factors involved in the enteroviral replication also needs to be fully described as this is a vital step in maintaining viral replication and eventual life cycle. Viral entry studies need to be carried out as the known receptors and viral entry requirements do not fully explain the myriad of disease features observed during viral infections. The role of cellular processes such as autophagy, apoptosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis as well as post-translational modifications in enteroviral infections also needs to be fully elucidated. This will be specifically important in explaining the little-known stages of viral infections such as non-lytic egress for continuous viral cycle within the host.

The paucity of information on the infection dynamics of these viruses calls for concerted efforts to elucidate the viral-human cell interactions. There is still a lot to be investigated to fill the gaps that exist on the life cycle of non-polio enteroviruses. With new cases emerging in different parts of the world, it is just a matter of time before we have a global outbreak of non-poliovirus enteroviral infections in different parts of the world. There is also an urgent need for further studies especially in the field of vaccine developments as well as antiviral therapy against enteroviruses.

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Acute Flaccid Paralysis

Title: Acute Flaccid Paralysis Associated with Novel Enterovirus C105
Author: Horner LM, Poulter MD, Brenton JN, Turner RB
Affiliation: University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
Journal: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Citation: Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Oct. Vol. 21:10. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2110.150759
Publication Year and Month: 2015 10

Abstract: An outbreak of acute flaccid paralysis among children in the United States during summer 2014 was tentatively associated with enterovirus D68 infection. This syndrome in a child in fall 2014 was associated with enterovirus C105 infection. The presence of this virus strain in North America may pose a diagnostic challenge.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

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Category: Acute Flaccid Paralysis

Title: Acute Flaccid paralysis in adults: Our experience
Author: Kaushik R (1), Kharbanda PS (2), Bhalla A (1), Rajan R (2), Prabhakar S (2)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Internal Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, Punjab and Haryana, India; (2) Department of Neurology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, Punjab and Haryana, India
Journal: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
Citation: J Emerg Trauma Shock. 2014 Jul-Sep; 7(3): 149–154. doi: 10.4103/0974-2700.136847
Publication Year and Month: 2014 07

Abstract: Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a complex clinical syndrome with a broad array of potential etiologies that vary with age. We present our experience of acute onset lower motor neuron paralysis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and thirty-three consecutive adult patients presenting with weakness of duration less than four weeks over 12 months period were enrolled. Detailed history, clinical examination, and relevant investigations according to a pre-defined diagnostic algorithm were carried out. The patients were followed through their hospital stay till discharge or death.

RESULTS: The mean age was 33.27 (range 13-89) years with male preponderance (67.7%). The most common etiology was neuroparalytic snake envenomation (51.9%), followed by Guillain Barre syndrome (33.1%), constituting 85% of all patients. Hypokalemic paralysis (7.5%) and acute intermittent porphyria (4.5%) were the other important conditions. We did not encounter any case of acute poliomylitis in adults. In-hospital mortality due to respiratory paralysis was 9%.

Conclusions: Neuroparalytic snakebite and Guillain Barre syndrome were the most common causes of acute flaccid paralysis in adults in our study.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

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Category: Acute Flaccid Paralysis

Title: Potential for the Australian and New Zealand paediatric intensive care registry to enhance acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Australia: a data-linkage study
Author: Hobday LK (1), Thorley BR (1), Alexander J (2), Aitken T (1), Massey PD (3,4), Cretikos M (5,6), Slater A (2,7), Durrheim DN (3,8)
Affiliation: (1) National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; (2) Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society, Herston, Queensland, Australia; (3) Hunter New England Population Health, Wallsend, NSW, Australia; (4) School of Health, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, Australia; (5) School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Darlington, NSW, Australia; (6) Centre for Epidemiology and Evidence, NSW Ministry of Health, Sydney, NSW, Australia; (7) Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Royal Children’s Hospital, Herston, Queensland, Australia; (8) Hunter Medical Research Institute, New Lambton, NSW, Australia
Journal: BioMed Central Infectious Diseases
Citation: BMC Infect Dis. 2013 Aug 21;13:384. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-384.
Publication Year and Month: 2013 08

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Australia uses acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance to monitor its polio-free status. The World Health Organization criterion for a sensitive AFP surveillance system is the annual detection of at least one non-polio AFP case per 100,000 children aged less than 15 years, a target Australia has not consistently achieved. Children exhibiting AFP are likely to be hospitalised and may be admitted to an intensive care unit. This provides a potential opportunity for active AFP surveillance.

METHODS: A data-linkage study for the period from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2008 compared 165 non-polio AFP cases classified by the Polio Expert Panel with 880 acute neurological presentations potentially compatible with AFP documented in the Australian and New Zealand Paediatric Intensive Care (ANZPIC) Registry.

RESULTS: Forty-two (25%) AFP cases classified by the Polio Expert Panel were matched to case records in the ANZPIC Registry. Of these, nineteen (45%) cases were classified as Guillain-Barré syndrome on both registries. Ten additional Guillain-Barré syndrome cases recorded in the ANZPIC Registry were not notified to the national AFP surveillance system.

Conclusions: The identification of a further ten AFP cases supports inclusion of intensive care units in national AFP surveillance, particularly specialist paediatric intensive care units, to identify AFP cases that may not otherwise be reported to the national surveillance system.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Acute Flaccid Paralysis

Title: Human Enteroviruses isolated during acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Ghana: implications for the post eradication era
Author: Odoom JK, Obodai E, Barnor JS, Ashun M, Arthur-Quarm J, Osei-Kwasi M
Affiliation: Department of Virology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana
Journal: Pan African Medical Journal
Citation: Pan Afr Med J. 2012; 12: 74
Publication Year and Month: 2012 07

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Surveillance of acute flaccid surveillance (AFP) has been used world-wide to monitor the control and eradication of circulating wild polioviruses. The Polio Laboratory since its accreditation in 1996 has supported the Disease Surveillance Department for AFP surveillance. This study aims to isolate and characterize human enteroviruses from patients with AFP in Ghana.

METHOD: Stool suspension was prepared from 308 samples received in 2009 from the surveillance activities throughout the country and inoculated on both RD and L20B cell lines. Isolates that showed growth on L20B were selected for real-time RT-PCR using degenerate and non-degenerate primers and probes. RD isolates were however characterized by microneutralisation technique with antisera pools from RIVM, The Netherlands and viruses that were untypable subjected to neutralization assay using antibodies specific for E71.

RESULTS: Of the 308 samples processed, 17 (5.5%) grew on both L20B and RD cells while 32 (10.4%) grew on RD only. All 28 isolates from L20B were characterized by rRT-PCR as Sabin-like polioviruses. No wild poliovirus or VDPV was found. However from the microneutralisation assay, six different enteroviruses were characterized. Among these, Coxsackie B viruses were most predominant followed by Echovirus. Three children from whom non-polio enteroviruses were isolated had residual paralysis while one child with VAPP found. The non-polio enteroviruses circulated throughout the country with the majority (20.7%) from Ashanti region.

Conclusions: This study showed the absence of wild or vaccine-derived poliovirus circulation in the country. However, the detection of three non-polio enteroviruses and one Sabin-like poliovirus with residual paralysis call for continuous surveillance even in the post polio eradication era.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


There are currently 5 papers in this category.

Outcomes of Research or Clinical Trials Activity Levels Acute Flaccid Paralysis Ageing Anaerobic Threshold Anaesthesia Assistive Technology Brain Cardiorespiratory Cardiovascular Clinical Evaluation Cold Intolerance Complementary Therapies Continence Coping Styles and Strategies Cultural Context Diagnosis and Management Differential Diagnosis Drugs Dysphagia Dysphonia Epidemiology Exercise Falls Fatigue Fractures Gender Differences Immune Response Inflammation Late Effects of Polio Muscle Strength Muscular Atrophy Orthoses Pain Polio Immunisation Post-Polio Motor Unit Psychology Quality of Life Renal Complications Respiratory Complications and Management Restless Legs Syndrome Sleep Analaysis Surgery Vitality Vocational Implications