Category: Quality of Life

Title: Life satisfaction in persons with late effects of polio. Applied Research in Quality of Life
Author: Lund ML, Lexell J.
Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. [email protected]
Journal: Disability and Rehabilitation
Citation: 2009;31(19):1592-7.
Publication Year and Month: 2009 09

Abstract: PURPOSE:
To assess the relationship between participation and problems with participation in life situations, and life satisfaction in persons with late effects of polio.

METHODS:
One hundred fifty-eight persons with late effects of polio responded to a postal questionnaire including the Swedish versions of the Impact on Participation and Autonomy Questionnaire (IPA-S) and Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LiSat-11).

RESULTS:
The persons' perceived participation in the five domains of participation in the IPA-S was significantly correlated with their satisfaction with life as a whole and with most of the 10 domains of life satisfaction. Significant differences in satisfaction with life as a whole and with eight of the 10 domains in LiSat-11 were found between groups of increasing severe problems with participation. Greater number of reports of severe problems with participation corresponded with gradually decreased satisfaction with life as a whole and with satisfaction in the eight domains in LiSat-11.

Conclusions: Perceived participation and problems with participation in life situations are determinants of life satisfaction in persons with late effects of polio. This implies that addressing participation and problems with participation in the rehabilitation of persons with late effects of polio may lead to an enhanced life satisfaction.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Respiratory Complications and Management

Title: 1246: Missed chronic respiratory failure in a post-polio syndrome patient
Author: Aljasmi M, Agarwal K, Uppalapati S, Bazan L
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: Critical Care Medicine
Citation: Crit Care Med. 2015 Dec;43(12 Suppl 1):313
Publication Year and Month: 2015 12

Abstract: This is a brief Case Report which does not have an abstract. This is an extract:

INTRODUCTION: Prior to the introduction of the polio vaccine, paralytic poliomyelitis was a major cause of morbidity and death. Twenty-five to fifty percent of the survivors are known to develop post-polio syndrome. Symptoms include fatigue, insidious respiratory failure, obstructive sleep apnea, bulbar neuropathy, central ventilatory abnormalities, hemi-diaphragmatic paralysis and progressive functional decline with new onset weakness, among others. We present a case of post-polio syndrome presenting with hypercapnic respiratory failure.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Fatigue

Title: A 5-year longitudinal study of fatigue in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis
Author: Tersteeg IM (1), Koopman FS, Stolwijk-Swüste JM, Beelen A, Nollet F; CARPA Study Group
Affiliation: (1) Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. [email protected]
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011 Jun;92(6):899-904. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2011.01.005
Publication Year and Month: 2011 06

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To study the severity and 5-year course of fatigue in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis (LOSP) and to identify physical and psychosocial determinants of fatigue.

DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with 5 measurements over 5 years.

SETTING: University hospital.

PARTICIPANTS: Patients with LOSP (N=168); 89% of the subjects completed the study.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fatigue assessed with the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Potential determinants were perceived physical functioning, bodily pain and mental health, extent of paresis, walking capacity, comorbidity, sleeping disorders, coping, and social support. Associations were investigated by multivariable longitudinal analysis using generalized estimating equations.

RESULTS: The mean FSS score ± SD at baseline was 5.1±1.4, which did not change significantly during the 5-year follow-up. Reduced physical functioning, increased bodily pain, reduced sleep quality, more psychologic distress, and higher task-oriented coping were independently associated with fatigue. The extent of paresis and walking capacity were strongly associated with physical functioning.

Conclusions: Fatigue is severe and persistent in patients with LOSP due to physical and psychologic factors, which has implications for counseling and treatment. In addition to the commonly applied interventions targeting physical aspects, psychologic interventions are a potential area for reducing fatigue.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Activity Levels

Title: A Brief Questionnaire to Assess Post-Exertional Malaise
Author: Joseph Cotler, Carly Holtzman, Catherine Dudun and Leonard A. Jason
Affiliation:
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Diagnostics, 11 September 2018
Publication Year and Month: 2018 09

Abstract: Post-exertional malaise (PEM) is a key symptom of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Currently, five PEM-items from the DePaul Symptom Questionnaire (DSQ) were recommended as a first step in measuring this symptom for patients with ME and CFS by the National Institutes of Health/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (NIH/CDC) Common Data Elements’ (CDE) working group. The second step in this process, as recommended by the NIH/CDC CDE working group, involves assembling information from various sources to confirm the presence of PEM. There have not been any efforts, to date, to standardize this second-step process in the assessment of PEM. The current study examined whether five supplementary items on the DSQ could be used to operationalize the second step of the recommendations made by the NIH/CDC CDE working group. The five supplementary DSQ PEM duration items correctly categorized patients with ME or CFS 81.7% of the time, while incorrectly categorizing multiple sclerosis (MS) and post-polio syndrome (PPS) as ME or CFS only 16.6% of the time. The findings suggested that a PEM second-step process could be operationalized using supplementary DSQ items.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Muscular Atrophy

Title: A case of post-poliomyelitis muscular atrophy with cranial nerve signs and widespread muscular atrophy of extremities
Author: Hoshino S, Hayashi A, Ohkoshi N, Mizusawa H, Shoji S
Affiliation: Department of Neurology, University of Tsukuba
Journal: Rinsho Shinkeigaku (Clinical Neurology)
Citation: Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 1997 May; 37(5):407-9
Publication Year and Month: 1997 05

Abstract: Here we report a case of a 56-year-old male with post-poliomyelitis muscular atrophy (PPMA), who presented with cranial nerve signs and widespread atrophy of the extremities. He had suffered from poliomyelitis at the age of 2 years. After recovery from the acute stage, the paralysis remained in his left arm. He noticed muscle weakness of the right upper and lower extremities at the age of 45 years and the muscle atrophy progressed to his arms, hip and thigh at the age of 55 years. Neurological examination revealed muscle atrophy of the neck and disturbance of left V, VIII, IX, X and bilateral XI cranial nerves. We diagnosed this case as PPMA from his history and electromyographic and muscle biopsy findings which suggested chronic denervation. Among the 21 PPMA cases in the past in which the acute poliomyelitis had resulted in paralysis of the only one limb, ours was the only case that had muscle atrophy of all the limbs. Cranial nerve involvement is known to occur in acute poliomyelitis; therefore, there is a possibility that the involvement of the cranial nerves in our case might be a delayed progressive symptoms.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Fatigue

Title: A comparison of 4 questionnaires to measure fatigue in postpoliomyelitis syndrome
Author: Horemans HL, Nollet F, Beelen A, Lankhorst GJ
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004 Mar;85(3):392-8
Publication Year and Month: 2004 03

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the comparability and reproducibility of 4 questionnaires used to measure fatigue in postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS).

DESIGN: Repeated-measures at a 3-week interval.

SETTING: University hospital.

PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of 65 patients with PPS.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) energy category, the Polio Problem List (PPL) fatigue item, and the Dutch Short Fatigue Questionnaire (SFQ).

RESULTS: Correlations of scores between questionnaires were all significant (P<.01) and ranged from .43 (between the NHP energy category and the PPL fatigue item) to .68 (between the PPL fatigue item and the SFQ). Scores on the second visit, normalized to a 0 to 100 scale, were: FSS, 78+/-15; NHP energy category, 47+/-35; PPL fatigue item, 81+/-17; and SFQ, 65+/-22. Except for the difference between the FSS and the PPL fatigue item, the differences in scores between the questionnaires were significant (P<.01). Scale analysis indicated that all questionnaires measured the same unidimensional construct. The reproducibility of the FSS, the PPL fatigue item, and the SFQ was moderate. The smallest detectable change was 1.5 points for the FSS, 2.0 points for the PPL fatigue item, and 1.9 points for the SFQ.

Conclusions: Although the questionnaires measure the same fatigue construct in PPS, the results are not interchangeable because the ranges of measurement differ. The NHP energy category, in particular, appeared to have a high detection threshold. The moderate reproducibility of the questionnaires indicates a lack of precision, especially when applied at the individual patient level.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Muscle Strength

Title: A comparison of symptoms between Swedish and American post-polio individuals and assessment of lower-limb strength- a four year cohort study.
Author: Agre, J., Grimby, G., Rodriguez, A., Einarsson, G., Swiggum, E. & Franke, T.
Affiliation: Agre- Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison Medical School, USA
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Scandanavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. 1995;27(3):183-92
Publication Year and Month: 1995 09

Abstract: A cohort study with initial and 4-year follow-up evaluations was performed in 78 post-polio volunteers aged 34-65 years at the time of enrolment in the study, which was made to compare post-polio individuals living in Sweden and the United States, to determine whether lower limb musculature becomes weaker over time, and to determine whether individuals with complaints of post-polio syndrome, new weakness, fatigue, walking or stair climbing difficulty were weaker or lost more strength over a 4-year interval than those individuals without such complaints. Dynametrically-measured knee extensor and flexor strength and questionnaire data were obtained initially and 4 years later. The two cohorts were fairly similar, though they differed in weight gain. The Americans gained significantly (p < 0.05) more weight than the Swedish subjects. Both groups lost significant (p < 0.05) knee extensor strength (approximately 8%), but the loss was not significantly (p < 0.05) different between the groups. Knee flexor strength did not change significantly (p < 0.05) over time. Subjects acknowledging new strength loss were not significantly (p < 0.05) weaker than those denying strength loss; however, they lost significantly (p < 0.05) more isometric knee extensor strength than the other individuals. Subjects acknowledging new fatigue, walking or stair climbing difficulty were significantly (p < 0.05) weaker in both muscle groups than those without such complaints. Subjects acknowledging post-polio syndrome were significantly (p < 0.05) weaker than those denying this symptom, but the amount of loss of strength over time was not significantly (p < 0.05) different. We conclude that the two cohorts were quite similar. Knee extensor strength decreased during the study interval. Individuals acknowledging post-polio syndrome had weaker knee extensor musculature. Subjects with new fatigue, walking difficulty, or stair climbing difficulty were weaker in both the knee extensors and the knee flexors than the other subjects. Subjects reporting new muscle weakness also had a greater decline in isometric knee extensor strength during the study interval than those without such complaint.

Conclusions: Knee extensor strength decreased during the study interval. Individuals acknowledging post-polio syndrome had weaker knee extensor musculature. Subjects with new fatigue, walking difficulty, or stair climbing difficulty were weaker in both the knee extensors and the knee flexors than the other subjects. Subjects reporting new muscle weakness also had a greater decline in isometric knee extensor strength during the study interval than those without such complaint.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Polio Immunisation

Title: A cross-sectional survey of healthcare workers on the knowledge and attitudes towards polio vaccination in Pakistan
Author: Khan MU (1), Ahmad A (1), Aqeel T (2), Akbar N (2), Salman S (3), Idress J (4)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UCSI University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; (2) Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Baluchistan, Quetta, Pakistan; (3) Department of Pharmacy, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan; (4) Department of Integrated Sciences, Post Graduate Nursing College, Peshawar, Pakistan.
Journal: Public Library of Science
Citation: PLoS One. 2015 Nov 11;10(11):e0142485. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142485. eCollection 2015.
Publication Year and Month: 2015 11

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Pakistan accounts for 85.2% of the total polio cases reported worldwide. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are an integral part of immunization campaigns and source of education for the general public. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards polio vaccination among HCWs providing immunisation and education to general public in Quetta and Peshawar divisions of Pakistan.

METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 490 HCWs was conducted in two major referral public teaching hospitals of Quetta and Peshawar divisions. During February to April, 2015, a random sample of 490 HCWs was invited to participate in this study. Knowledge and attitudes were assessed by using self-administered, anonymous and pretested questionnaire. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used to express the results.

RESULTS: A total of 468 participants responded to the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 95.5%. Overall, participants demonstrated good knowledge and positive attitudes towards polio vaccination. The mean knowledge score of HCWs about polio was 13.42±2.39 (based on 18 knowledge questions) while the mean attitude score was 28.75±5.5 (based on 9 attitudes statements). Knowledge gaps were identified about the incubation period of poliovirus (19.5%), management issues (31.9%), use of polio vaccine in mild illnesses (34.7%) and the consequences of the polio virus (36.9%). The majority of participants agreed that all children should be vaccinated for polio (95.1%), while reservations were noted about the need of a booster (38.9%), and sterility issues associated with polio vaccines (43.6%). Internet (n = 167, 37%) and Posters (n = 158, 35%) were the main sources used by HCWs to educate themselves about polio.

Conclusions: Participants in this study had good knowledge and positive attitudes towards polio vaccination. Although the data are indicative of gaps in the knowledge of HCWs, the findings may not be generalized to other hospitals in Pakistan.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: A long-term follow-up study of patients with post-poliomyelitis neuromuscular symptoms
Author: Dalakas MC, Elder G, Hallett M, Ravits J, Baker M, Papadopoulos N, Albrecht P, Sever J
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: The New England Journal of Medicine
Citation: N Engl J Med. 1986 Apr 10; 314(15):959-63
Publication Year and Month: 1986 04

Abstract: A “post-polio” syndrome characterized by new neuromuscular symptoms, including muscle weakness, may develop years after recovery from acute paralytic poliomyelitis. We studied 27 patients (mean age, 50.6 years) in whom new muscle weakness developed a mean of 28.8 years after recovery from acute polio. We reevaluated these patients during a mean follow-up period of 8.2 years (range, 4.5 to 20) after they were originally studied at the National Institutes of Health. The total mean follow-up period after the onset of new weakness was 12.2 years (range, 6 to 29). The patients were assessed with quantitative muscle testing, muscle biopsy, electromyography, and virologic and immunologic examination of the cerebrospinal fluid. Muscle strength had declined in all patients. The rate of decline averaged 1 percent per year. The decrease was irregular, with subjective plateau periods that ranged from 1 to 10 years. None of the patients had amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Oligoclonal bands (IgG) were found in the cerebrospinal fluid of 7 of 13 patients studied, but no specific elevation of antibodies to poliovirus was observed in the cerebrospinal fluid. The newly affected muscles that were evaluated longitudinally with follow-up muscle biopsies and electromyography showed signs of chronic and new denervation. Groups of atrophic muscle fibers (group atrophy) and "neurogenic jitter" were not present. New post-polio muscle weakness is not a life-threatening form of motor-neuron deterioration. It appears that this weakness is not due to a loss of whole motor neurons, as in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but that it is due to a dysfunction of the surviving motor neurons that causes a slow disintegration of the terminals of individual nerve axons.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: A positive turning point in life -- how persons with late effects of polio experience the influence of an interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme
Author: Larsson Lund M (1), Lexell J
Affiliation: (1) Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy , Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2010 Jun;42(6):559-65. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0559
Publication Year and Month: 2010 06

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To describe and enhance our understanding of how persons with late effects of polio experience the influence of an interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme.

PARTICIPANTS: Twelve persons with clinically verified late effects of polio who had participated in an individualized, goal-oriented, comprehensive interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme.

METHODS: Qualitative research interviews analysed using the constant comparative method of grounded theory.

RESULTS: The rehabilitation programme was experienced as a turning point in the participants' lives. Before rehabilitation they felt they were on a downward slope without control. Rehabilitation was the start of a process of change whereby they acquired new skills, which, over time, contributed to a different but good life. After approximately a year, they had a sense of control and had accepted life with late effects of polio. They had also established new habits, taken on a changed valued self and could look to the future with confidence.

Conclusions: This qualitative study has shown that persons with late effects of polio can benefit from an individualized, goal-oriented, comprehensive interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme and experience positive changes in their management of daily activities and in their view of their late effects of polio, their future and their self.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Complementary Therapies

Title: A randomized controlled trial of coenzyme Q10 for fatigue in the late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis
Author: Peel MM (1), Cooke M (1), Lewis-Peel HJ (1), Lea RA (2), Moyle W (1)
Affiliation: (1) NHMRC Centre for Research Excellence in Nursing Interventions, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Centre for Health Practice Innovation, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia; (2) Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Queensland, Australia
Journal: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Citation: Complementary Therapies in Medicine 23 (2015), pp. 789-793; DOI information: 10.1016/j.ctim.2015.09.002

Publication Year and Month: 2015 12

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine if coenzyme Q10 alleviates fatigue in the late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis.

DESIGN: Parallel-group, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

BACKGROUND SETTING: Coenzyme Q10 has been shown to boost muscle energy metabolism in post-polio subjects but it does not promote muscle strength, endurance or function in polio survivors with post-poliomyelitis syndrome. However, the collective increased energy metabolism might contribute to a reduction in post-polio fatigue.

PARTICIPANTS: Polio survivors from the Australian post-polio networks in Queensland and New South Wales who attribute a moderate to high level of fatigue to their diagnosed late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis. Those with fatigue-associated comorbidities of diabetes, anaemia, hypothyroidism and fibromyalgia were excluded.

METHOD: Participants were assigned (1:1), with stratification of those who use energy-saving mobility aids, to receive 100 mg coenzyme Q10 or matching placebo daily for 60 days. Participants and investigators were blinded to group allocation. Fatigue was assessed by the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue as the primary outcome and the Fatigue Severity Scale as secondary outcome.

RESULTS: Of 103 participants, 54 were assigned to receive coenzyme Q10 and 49 to receive the placebo. The difference in the mean score reductions between the two groups was not statistically significant for either fatigue measure. Oral supplementation with coenzyme Q10 was safe and well-tolerated.

The registration number for the clinical trial is ACTRN 12612000552886.

Conclusions: A daily dose of 100 mg coenzyme Q10 for 60 days does not alleviate the fatigue of the late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: A rat model of the post-polio motor unit
Author: Pachter BR, Eberstein A
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, New York University Medical Center, NY 10016
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Dec; 14(12):1367-73
Publication Year and Month: 1991 12

Abstract: We examined the long-term effects of muscle usage on a rat model of the post-polio motor unit. Isometric tensions, type I and type II muscle fiber areas, the incidence of collateral sprouting, and motor endplate morphology were examined following 1, 3, 6, and 9 months of partial denervation in rat plantaris muscle. Full morphologic and functional stability of the expanded motor units occurred at 6 months post-partial denervation. Fiber hypertrophy was observed, possibly the result of compensatory work hypertrophy due to muscle overuse. Following 9 months of partial denervation and muscle overuse, the twitch and tetanic tensions and type I and type II muscle fiber areas were significantly reduced as compared to sham controls; angulated myofibers and group atrophy also were seen. The percent collateral sprouting, the number of terminal branches per endplate, and the endplate area were all increased, possibly a compensatory response to a decreased synthesis of neurotrophic factor(s) and/or transmitter-related components. These aging-like changes seem to occur earlier in chronically stressed, overenlarged, and overworked motor units.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Respiratory Complications and Management

Title: A Short History of Medical Expert Guidelines and How They Pertain to Tracheostomy Tubes and Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author: Bach JR
Affiliation: Professor of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department of PM&R, Professor of Neurology, Department of Neurology, Medical Director of the Center for Ventilator Management Alternatives and Pulmonary Rehabilitation of the University Hospital, of the Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA. [email protected]
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: 2019 Feb 27. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0000000000001172.
Publication Year and Month: 2019 02

Abstract: Continuous noninvasive ventilatory support (CNVS) and mechanical insufflation exsufflation (MIE) have been used since 1953 to spare patients with ventilatory pump failure from ever requiring tracheostomy tubes for ventilatory support or secretion management. Today there are patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 who are 25 years old and CNVS dependent since 4 months or age, post-polio survivors CNVS dependent for 64 years, Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients over age 45 CNVS dependent for over 25 years, high level spinal cord injured patients CNVS dependent for over 20 years, and even lung disease patients dependent on CNVS. All these patients, although unweanable from ventilatory support and with little or no measurable vital capacity, can also be extubated to CNVS and MIE without resort to tracheotomies when necessary to continue CNVS. However, for various reasons, this is not cited in academic society expert guidelines. This article considers the extent of the damage being caused by this.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Polio Immunisation

Title: A systematic review of the worldwide prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis reported in 31 studies
Author: Kelly M Jones, Shivanthi Balalla, Alice Theadom, Gordon Jackman, Valery L Feigin
Affiliation: National Institute for Stroke and Applied Neurosciences, School of Public Health & Psychosocial Studies, Faculty of Health and Environmental Studies, Auckland University of Technology, North Shore Campus, AA254, 90 Akoranga Dr, Northcote 0627, Private Bag 92006, Auckland, New Zealand
Polio New Zealand Inc., New Plymouth, New Zealand
Correspondence to
Dr Kelly M Jones; [email protected]
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: BMJ Open 2017;7:e015470. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015470
Publication Year and Month: 2017

Abstract: Background Accurate prevalence figures estimating the number of survivors of poliomyelitis (disease causing acute flaccid paralysis) following poliovirus infection are not available. We aim to undertake a systematic review of all literature concerning the prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis.

Methods Electronic databases were searched from 1900 up to May 2016 for peer-reviewed studies using a population-based approach witha defined denominator and some form of diagnostic or clinical verification of polio. Exclusion criteria were any prevalence data that were unable to be extracted or calculated and studies reporting on incidence only. The quality of each included study was assessed using an existing tool modified for use in prevalence studies. Average crude prevalence rates were used to calculate worldwide estimates.

Results Thirty-one studies met criteria with 90% of studies conducted in low-income to lower middle-income countries. Significant variability in the prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis was revealed, in low- income to lower middle-income (15 per 100 000 in Nigeria to 1733 in India) and upper-middle to high-income countries (24 (Japan) to 380 per 100 000 (Brazil). The total combined prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis for those studies at low to moderate risk of bias ranged from 165 (high-income countries) to 425 (low-income to lower middle-income countries) per 100 000 person-years. Historical lameness surveys of children predominated, with wide variation in case definition and assessment criteria, and limited relevance to current prevalence given the lack of incidence of poliovirus infection in the ensuing years.

Conclusions: These results highlight the need for future epidemiological studies of poliomyelitis to examine nationally representative samples, including all ages and greater focus on high-income countries. Such efforts will improve capacity to provide reliable and more robust worldwide prevalence estimates.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Surgery

Title: A Two-Stage Foot Repair in a 55-Year-Old Man with Poliomyelitis
Author: Daniel Pollack
Affiliation: Department of Podiatric Surgery, Wyckoff Heights Medical Center, 374 Stockholm Ave, Brooklyn, NY;Madison Podiatry, 52 Skyline Drive, Ringwood, NJ 07456
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association Volume 108, Issue 1 (January 2018)
Publication Year and Month: 2018 01

Abstract: A 55-year-old man with poliomyelitis presented with a plantarflexed foot and painful ulceration of the sub–first metatarsophalangeal joint present for many years. A two-stage procedure was performed to bring the foot to 90°, perpendicular to the leg, and resolve the ulceration. The first stage corrected only soft-tissue components. It involved using a hydrosurgery system to debride and prepare the ulcer, a unilobed rotational skin plasty to close the ulcer, and a tendo Achillis lengthening to decrease forefoot pressure. The second stage corrected the osseous deformity with a dorsiflexory wedge osteotomy of the first metatarsal. The ulceration has remained closed since the procedures, with complete resolution of pain.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Fatigue

Title: Activity and post-polio fatigue
Author: Packer TL, Martins I, Krefting L, Brouwer B
Affiliation: Division of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Therapy, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1223-6
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Fatigue was studied in 12 subjects with post-polio sequelae (PPS). Results of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) demonstrated a mean score of 4.8 +/- 1.6 (non-disabled scores = 2.3 +/- 0.7). The Human Activity Profile (HAP) was not sensitive enough to measure fatigue. Fifty percent of subjects scored below the first percentile based on age and sex matched norms. The Activity Record (ACTRE) results revealed that subjects spent 5% of their time resting and 1% in planning or preparation activities. Fatigue peaked in the late morning or early afternoon and was relieved by rest periods. Use of energy conservation and work simplification skills along with frequent rest periods was suggested as a possible method for managing PPS fatigue.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Pain

Title: Activity pacing in chronic pain: concepts, evidence, and future directions
Author: Nielson WR, Jensen MP, Karsdorp PA, Vlaeyen JW.
Affiliation: St Joseph's Health Care London, Lawson Research Institute, London, ON, Canada. [email protected]
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: The Clinical Journal of Pain, 2013 May;29(5):461-8. doi: 10.1097/AJP.0b013e3182608561
Publication Year and Month: 2013 05

Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Activity pacing (AP) is a concept that is central to many chronic pain theories and treatments, yet there remains confusion regarding its definition and effects.

OBJECTIVE:
To review the current knowledge concerning AP and integrate this knowledge in a manner that allows for a clear definition and useful directions for future research.

METHODS:
A narrative review of the major theoretical approaches to AP and of the empirical evidence regarding the effects of AP interventions, followed by an integrative discussion.

RESULTS:
The concept of AP is derived from 2 main traditions: operant and energy conservation. Although there are common elements across these traditions, significant conceptual and practical differences exist, which has led to confusion. Little empirical evidence exists concerning the efficacy of AP as a treatment for chronic pain.

Conclusions: DISCUSSION:
Future research on AP should be based on a clear theoretical foundation, consider the context in which the AP behavior occurs and the type of pacing problem ("underactivity" vs. "overactivity"), and should examine the impact of AP treatment on multiple clinical outcomes. We provide a provisional definition of AP and specific recommendations that we believe will move the field forward.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Pain

Title: Activity pacing, avoidance, endurance, and associations with patient functioning in chronic pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Author: Andrews NE, Strong J, Meredith PJ.
Affiliation: Division of Occupational Therapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia. [email protected]
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: 2012 Nov;93(11):2109-2121.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2012.05.029
Publication Year and Month: 2012 11

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To systematically review the associations between different approaches to activity (ie, activity pacing, avoidance, or endurance) and indicators of patient functioning in chronic pain samples.

DATA SOURCES:
A key word search was conducted in PsycINFO, MEDLINE via Ovid, EMBASE, and PubMed up to March 2011.

STUDY SELECTION:
To be included, studies had to (1) be written in English, (2) report on an adult chronic pain sample, and (3) report a correlation coefficient between at least 1 measure of 1 of the 3 "approach to activity" variables and an indicator of patient functioning.

DATA EXTRACTION:
Two reviewers independently screened abstracts and full-text articles for eligibility and extracted the data. Results of correlation analyses were grouped on the basis of measure of approach to activity (pacing/avoidance/endurance) and the criterion variable measured (pain/physical functioning/psychological functioning), resulting in 9 categories. Random-effects modeling was then used to pool data across studies in each category.

DATA SYNTHESIS:
Forty-one studies were eligible for inclusion. Results demonstrated that avoidance of activity was consistently associated with more pain, poorer psychological functioning, and more physical disability. While enduring with activity was associated with enhanced physical and psychological functioning, these relationships appeared to be dependent on the measure used, with measures more reflective of persisting with activities to the point of severe pain aggravation (overactivity) linked to poorer outcomes. Pacing was generally linked to better psychological functioning but more pain and disability.

Conclusions: Although causation cannot be determined, results of this study suggest that both avoidance of activity and overactivity are associated with poorer patient outcomes. Unexpected results relating to pacing may reflect either the ineffectiveness of pacing if not used to gradually increase an individual's activity level or the notion that individuals with better psychological functioning but more pain and disability are more inclined to pace activity.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Activity Levels

Title: Actual and perceived activity levels in polio survivors and older controls: a longitudinal study
Author: Klein MG, Braitman LE, Costello R, Keenan MA, Esquenazi A
Affiliation: Moss Rehabilitation Research Institute, Philadelphia, PA; Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia 19141, USA – [email protected]
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008 Feb; 89(2):297-303
Publication Year and Month: 2008 02

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To examine factors associated with daily step activity, perceived activity, maximum walking speed, and walking speed reserve over time in polio survivors and older adults with no history of polio.

DESIGN: Longitudinal study.

SETTING: A research clinic and the community.

PARTICIPANTS: Polio survivors (n=96; 65 in postpolio syndrome [PPS] group, 31 in non-PPS group) and older adults (n=112) with no history of polio.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Daily step activity, perceived activity, maximum walking speed, and walking speed reserve.

RESULTS: Results showed decreases in perceived activity over time in the PPS group. However, there was no change in average daily walking activity. Overall, polio survivors walk less and have a smaller walking speed reserve than controls. Knee strength was positively associated with maximum walking speed and walking speed reserve in all groups. Weight and age were associated with daily step activity in controls but not polio survivors.

Conclusions: Daily walking activity did not change statistically over the 3-year study period, although perceived activity and the walking speed reserve decreased among polio survivors with PPS. On average, polio survivors appear to function with minimal functional reserve, as their preferred walking speed was close to their maximum speed.

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: Acute and latent effect of poliomyelitis on the motor unit as revealed by electromyography
Author: Wiechers DO
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1985 Jul; 8(7):870-2
Publication Year and Month: 1985 07

Abstract: When polio virus attacks the motor neuron it may be completely destroyed, damaged, or unaffected. Muscle fibers of a destroyed motor neuron are orphaned or reinnervated. Nearby functioning motor units will then send terminal axon sprouts to reinnervate the orphaned muscle fibers. If there are too many orphaned muscle fibers and not enough surviving motor units to reinnervate them, the orphaned muscle fibers will continue to fibrillate until they atrophy and die. The resultant effect of poliomyelitis upon the affected muscle is an overall loss of motor units with the remaining units innervating many more muscle fibers than they originally did. There appears to be a late effect of polio upon these larger reinnervated motor units. After approximately 20 to 30 years, impulse transmission to the muscle fibers of the large reinnervated motor unit begins to fail. These transmission difficulties increase with age and time from recovery. These late onset transmission abnormalities may be factors in patient complaints of fatigue and progressive weakness.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Acute Flaccid Paralysis

Title: Acute Flaccid Paralysis Associated with Novel Enterovirus C105
Author: Horner LM, Poulter MD, Brenton JN, Turner RB
Affiliation: University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
Journal: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Citation: Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Oct. Vol. 21:10. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2110.150759
Publication Year and Month: 2015 10

Abstract: An outbreak of acute flaccid paralysis among children in the United States during summer 2014 was tentatively associated with enterovirus D68 infection. This syndrome in a child in fall 2014 was associated with enterovirus C105 infection. The presence of this virus strain in North America may pose a diagnostic challenge.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Acute Flaccid Paralysis

Title: Acute Flaccid paralysis in adults: Our experience
Author: Kaushik R (1), Kharbanda PS (2), Bhalla A (1), Rajan R (2), Prabhakar S (2)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Internal Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, Punjab and Haryana, India; (2) Department of Neurology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, Punjab and Haryana, India
Journal: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
Citation: J Emerg Trauma Shock. 2014 Jul-Sep; 7(3): 149–154. doi: 10.4103/0974-2700.136847
Publication Year and Month: 2014 07

Abstract: Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a complex clinical syndrome with a broad array of potential etiologies that vary with age. We present our experience of acute onset lower motor neuron paralysis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and thirty-three consecutive adult patients presenting with weakness of duration less than four weeks over 12 months period were enrolled. Detailed history, clinical examination, and relevant investigations according to a pre-defined diagnostic algorithm were carried out. The patients were followed through their hospital stay till discharge or death.

RESULTS: The mean age was 33.27 (range 13-89) years with male preponderance (67.7%). The most common etiology was neuroparalytic snake envenomation (51.9%), followed by Guillain Barre syndrome (33.1%), constituting 85% of all patients. Hypokalemic paralysis (7.5%) and acute intermittent porphyria (4.5%) were the other important conditions. We did not encounter any case of acute poliomylitis in adults. In-hospital mortality due to respiratory paralysis was 9%.

Conclusions: Neuroparalytic snakebite and Guillain Barre syndrome were the most common causes of acute flaccid paralysis in adults in our study.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Exercise

Title: Aerobic exercise in adult neuromuscular rehabilitation: A survey of healthcare professionals
Author: Voorn EL, Koopman F, Nollet F, Brehm MA.
Affiliation: Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: Voorn EL, Koopman F, Nollet F, Brehm MA. (2019) Aerobic exercise in adult neuromuscular rehabilitation: A survey of healthcare professionals. J Rehabil Med. 51: 518–524
Publication Year and Month: 2019 07

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the current application of
aerobic exercise in adult neuromuscular rehabilitation.
Design: Cross-sectional survey.
Participants: Dutch rehabilitation specialists and physical therapists in specialized centres for slowly progressive neuromuscular diseases and in primary care.
Methods: Participants received a self-designed, web-based, questionnaire, including 27 close-ended questions covering 4 categories: respondent profile, application of aerobic exercise, barriers to prescribing aerobic exercise, and need for support to improve the application of aerobic exercise.
Results: All respondents (n = 52) prescribed aerobic exercise and in a wide variety of neuromuscular diseases, mostly applying sessions of more than 20 min, 2 days per week, over a period of 9–16 weeks, using different exercise modes and methods to target intensity. The majority (81%) agreed that aerobic exercise should be incorporated into neuromuscular
rehabilitation. However, all respondents perceived barriers to the application of aerobic exercise
in one or more domains, and 77% of the respondents indicated needing support to improve application of this type of training, mostly with respect to screening procedures (54%) and dosing of exercise programmes (48%).
Conclusion: Aerobic exercise is widely applied, yet our results raise awareness of the necessity of more evidence based knowledge, in order to develop and implement guidelines in adult neuromuscular rehabilitation.

Conclusions: More evidence-based knowledge is needed, in order to develop guidelines to support healthcare professionals in prescribing aerobic exercise in neuromuscular rehabilitation.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Ageing

Title: Aging and sequelae of poliomyelitis
Author: Laffont I, Julia M, Tiffreau V, Yelnik A, Herisson C, Pelissier J
Affiliation: centre hospitalier régional universitaire de Montpellier, hôpital Lapeyronie, France –
[email protected]
Journal: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2010 Feb;53(1):24-33 – Epub 2009 Nov 10
Publication Year and Month: 2010 02

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: We estimate that there are about 50,000 persons who survived poliomyelitis in their childhood in France (mean age estimated between 50 and 65 years). After a few decades of stability, 30 to 65% of individuals who had been infected and recovered from polio begin to experience new signs and symptoms.

METHOD: Review of the literature on Pubmed with the following keywords "Poliomyelitis" and "Post-Polio Syndrome (PPS)".

RESULTS: These new signs and symptoms are characterized by muscular atrophy (decreased muscle mass), muscle weakness and fatigue, muscle and/or joint pain. All these symptoms lead to significant changes in mobility with falls and inability to carry on with daily life activities. There are several intricate causes. The normal aging process and weight gain are regularly blamed. Respiratory disorders and sleep disorders must be looked for: respiratory insufficiency, sleep-related breathing disorders such as sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome. Orthopedics complications are quite common: soft-tissue pathologies of the upper limbs, degenerative pathologies of the large joints or spinal cord, fall-related fractures. Finally, the onset of an authentic PPS is possible.

Conclusions: The therapeutic care of this late functional deterioration requires regular monitoring check-ups in order to implement preventive measures and appropriate treatment. This therapeutic care must be multidisciplinary as physical rehabilitation, orthotics and technical aids are all essential.

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Coping Styles and Strategies

Title: Aging With Long-Term Mobility Impairment: Maintaining Activities of Daily Living via Selection, Optimization, and Compensation
Author: Remillard, E.T., Bailey Fausset, C., Fain, W.B.
Affiliation: Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30318
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: The Gerontologist, gnx186, https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnx186
Publication Year and Month: 2017 11

Abstract: There is a growing number of adults with long-term mobility impairment aging into the older adult population. Little is known about the experiences of these individuals in maintaining activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) as they face age-related changes in addition to a pre-existing mobility impairment.

Research Design and Methods
Through in-home interviews with 21 participants (ages 52–86) with long-term mobility impairment, the present study employed a qualitative description design to explore perceptions of how and why select ADL/IADL routines (e.g., bed transfer, toileting) have changed over time. The selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) model was used as a framework to organize participants’ adaptations.

Results
Among the ADL/IADL routine changes mentioned, elective selection strategies, in which a person continues to work at maintaining a task, were more frequently endorsed than loss-based selection strategies, in which a person does a task less or gets help from someone. Findings suggest that this population is actively adapting their routines to preserve their involvement in, and frequency of doing, these ADLs/IADLs. Counter to expectation, perceived age-related changes underlying activity routine changes were subtle and generally did not include sensory and cognitive declines.

Discussion and Implications
Findings provide insights into the difficulties adults with long-term mobility impairment experience as they age, as well as the adaptations they employ to overcome those challenges. Results highlight the need for customizable, mobility supports (e.g., assistive technologies, home modifications) that can adjust to an individual’s changing abilities across the life span.

Conclusions: Despite challenges, this population is actively adapting their routines to maintain ADLs/IADLs and preserve their involvement in, and frequency of doing, these activities. For older adults with long-term mobility impairment, age-related changes underlying ADL/IADL routine changes are often subtle and can be difficult for individuals to identify and articulate about themselves. More research is necessary to understand the aging trajectories among this understudied population. Results highlight the need for customizable, supports (e.g., assistive technologies, home modifications) that can adjust to an individual’s changing abilities across the life span to promote independence at home.

Innovations in design and technology hold great potential to empower individuals aging with mobility impairment to maintain everyday activities and thrive. However, access to supportive devices, equipment, and housing remains a barrier for many individuals in this population. Income and insurance coverage are just a few of the factors that could limit one’s options for overcoming ADL/IADL challenges in the home. There is a need for convergence among aging and disability services, which tend to operate in silos, serving older adults, or people with disabilities; this divide is echoed in how supportive devices and equipment are accessed, delivered, and paid for in terms of eligibility and insurance. By moving from a model that emphasizes aging or disability, to one that addresses impairment as a spectrum, practitioners, and policy makers can better meet the needs of a diverse older adult population (Putnam, 2014).

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Respiratory Complications and Management

Title: Airway Secretion Clearance by Mechanical Exsufflation for Post-Poliomyelitis Ventilator-Assisted Individuals
Author: John R. Bach, William H. Smith, Jennifier Michaels, Lou Saporito, Augusta S. Alba, Rajeev Dayal, Jeffrey Pan.
Affiliation:
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 74:170-177, February 1993.
Publication Year and Month: 1992 03

Abstract: Pulmonary complications from impaired airway secretion clearance mechanisms are major causes of morbidity and mortality for post-poliomyelitis individuals. The purpose of this study was to review the long-term use of manually assisted coughing and mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MI-E) by post-poliomyelitis ventilator-assisted individuals (PVAIs) and to compare the peak cough expiratory flows (PCEF) created during unassisted and assisted coughing. Twenty-four PVAIs who have used noninvasive methods of ventilatory support for an average of 27 years, relied on methods of manually assisted coughing and/or MI-E without complications during intercurrent respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Nine of the 24 individuals were studied for PCEF. They had a mean forced vital capacity (FVC) of 0.54 ± 0.47L and a mean maximum insufflation capacity achieved by air stacking of ventilator insufflations and glossopharyngeal breathing of 1.7L. The PCEF were as follows: unassisted, 1.78 ± 1.16L/sec; following a maximum assisted insufflation, 3.75 ± 0.73L/sec; with manual assistance by abdominal compression following a maximum assisted insufflation, 4.64 ± 1.42L/sec; and with MI-E, 6.97 ± 0.89L/sec. We conclude that manually assisted coughing and MI-E are effective and safe methods of airway secretion clearance for PVAIs with impaired expiratory muscle function who would otherwise be managed by endotracheal suctioning. Severely decreased maximum insufflation capacity but not vital capacity indicate need for a tracheostomy.

Conclusions: Post-poliomyelitis individuals using noninvasive methods of ventilatory support have greater PCEF produced by manually assisted coughing and by MI-E than can be produced by unassisted coughing. Thus, if intubation and tracheostomy are to be avoided, it becomes crucial for these individuals and their caregivers to learn and have access to these methods, particularly during RTIs when expiratory muscle weakness is exacerbated.[55] These principles may also apply to individuals with severe expiratory muscle weakness due to other neuromuscular conditions. We believe that it is largely because of the lack of general knowledge of and access to MI-E that other centers are more likely to resort to intubation and tracheostomy for patients with advanced neuromuscular disease and RTIs. We conclude that loss of FVC in itself does not mandate the need for intubation or tracheostomy for ventilatory support. A maximum insufflation capacity below 500mL may be a better indicator. MI-E should be further explored as a convenient and probably more effective alternative to endotracheal suctioning for ventilator-supported neuromuscular individuals.

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Muscle Strength

Title: An 8-year longitudinal study of muscle strength, muscle fiber size, and dynamic electromyogram in individuals with late polio
Author: Grimby G, Stålberg E, Sandberg A, Sunnerhagen KS
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg University, Sweden
Journal: Muscle & Nerve
Citation: Muscle Nerve. 1998 Nov; 21(11):1428-37
Publication Year and Month: 1998 11

Abstract: Twenty-one subjects with polio 24 to 51 years prior to the first examination were studied on three occasions, each 4 years apart with measurements of muscle strength and endurance for knee extension, macro EMG, and muscle biopsy from vastus lateralis. On average the muscle strength decreased during the 8-year follow-up by 9-15%. Endurance decreased during the observation period. The muscle fiber area was markedly increased in most subjects. There was a decrease in the capillarization during the follow-up. Macro EMG was increased in all subjects (range 3-42 times control) and increased in 20 legs during the 8-year follow-up, but showed a decrease in 8 of 9 legs with an approximative breakpoint when macro MUPs were around 20 times the normal size. Thus, evidence of on-going denervation/reinnervation as well as of failing capacity to maintain large motor units was demonstrated. SFEMG showed a moderate degree of disturbed neuromuscular transmission.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: An algorithm for automatic detection of repeater F-waves and MUNE studies
Author: N. TuğrulArtuğ, N. Görkem Şirin, Emel Oğuz Akarsu, M. Baris Baslo, A. EmreÖge
Affiliation: Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Istanbul Arel University, Tepekent, Buyukcekmece, Istanbul, Turkey

Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Fatih, Capa, Istanbul, Turkey
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Biomedical Signal Processing and Control
Volume 51, May 2019, Pages 264-276
Publication Year and Month: 2019 05

Abstract: The present study aims to develop an algorithm and software that automatically detects repeater F-waves which are very difficult to analyze when elicited as high number of recordings in motor unit number estimation studies. The main strategy of the study was to take the repeater F waves discriminated by the neurologist, from limited number of recordings, as the gold standard and to test the conformity of the results of the new automated method.

Ten patients with ALS and ten healthy controls were evaluated. 90 F-waves with supramaximal stimuli and 300 F-waves with submaximal stimuli were recorded. Supramaximal recordings were evaluated both manually by an expert neurologist and automatically by the developed software to test the performance of the algorithm. The results both acquired from the neurologist and from the software were found compatible. Therefore, the main expected impact of the present study is to make the analysis of repeater F waves easier primarily in motor unit number estimation studies, since there is currently a continuing need for such automated programs in clinical neurophysiology.

Submaximal recordings were examined only by the developed software. The extracted features were: maximum M response amplitude, mean power of M response, mean of sMUP values, MUNE value, number of baskets, persistence of F-waves, persistence of repeater F-waves, mean of F-waves’ powers, median of F-waves’ powers. Feature selection methods were also applied to determine the most valuable features. Various classifiers such as multi-layer perceptron (MLP), radial basis function network (RBF), support vector machines (SVM) and k nearest neighbors (k-NN) were tested to differentiate two classes. Initially all features, then decreased numbers of features after feature selection process were applied to the aforementioned classifiers. The classification performance usually increased when decreased features were applied to intelligent systems. Ulnar recordings under submaximal stimulation showed better performance when compared with supramaximal equivalents or median nerve equivalents. The highest performance was obtained as 90% with k-NN algorithm which was a committee decision based classifier. This result was achieved with only two features, namely mean of sMUP amplitude and MUNE value.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

Comments (if any):

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Category: Muscular Atrophy, Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: An autopsy case of progressive generalized muscle atrophy over 14 years due to post-polio syndrome
Author: Oki R (1), Uchino A, Izumi Y, Ogawa H, Murayama S, Kaji R
Affiliation: (1) Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Institute of Health Bioscience, University of Tokushima Graduate School
Journal: Rinsho Shinkeigaku (Clinical Neurology)
Citation: Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2015 Nov 30
Publication Year and Month: 2015 11

Abstract: We report the case of a 72-year-old man who had contracted acute paralytic poliomyelitis in his childhood. Thereafter, he had suffered from paresis involving the left lower limb, with no relapse or progression of the disease. He began noticing slowly progressive muscle weakness and atrophy in the upper and lower extremities in his 60s. At the age of 72, muscle weakness developed rapidly, and he demonstrated dyspnea on exertion and dysphagia. He died after about 14 years from the onset of muscle weakness symptoms. Autopsy findings demonstrated motoneuron loss and glial scars not only in the plaque-like lesions in the anterior horns, which were sequelae of old poliomyelitis, but also throughout the spine. No Bunina bodies, TDP-43, and ubiquitin inclusions were found. Post-polio syndrome is rarely fatal due to rapid progressive dyspnea and dysphagia. Thus, the pathological findings in the patient are considered to be related to the development of muscle weakness.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Quality of Life

Title: An explanatory model of health promotion and quality of life for persons with post-polio syndrome.
Author: Stuifbergen AK, Seraphine A, Harrison T, Adachi E.
Affiliation: School of Nursing, The University of Texas at Austin, 1700 Red River, Austin, TX 78701, USA. [email protected]
Journal: Social Science & Medicine
Citation: 2005 Jan;60(2):383-93.
Publication Year and Month: 2005 01

Abstract: Although previous studies have examined selected factors influencing health promoting behaviors or quality of life, the complex interplay of these variables in persons with different chronic disabling conditions has not been investigated. This study tested an explanatory model of variables influencing health promotion and quality of life originally developed with a sample of persons with multiple sclerosis in a new sample of persons living with post-polio syndrome (PPS) in the USA. The sample of 1603 persons with PPS (1123 females, 478 males and 2 unknown) completed a battery of instruments including measures of severity of polio-related impairment, barriers to health promoting behaviors, resources, self-efficacy, acceptance, health promoting behaviors and perceived quality of life. A model originally developed in a sample of 786 persons with multiple sclerosis was assessed and modified using the weighted least squares procedure (WLS) which is implemented by LISREL8. The structural equation analyses resulted in a proper solution that exhibited adequate fit: chi2 (8, N = 1549)=84.22, p<0.05; GFI=0.96, IFI=0.90, CFI=0.90. The antecedent variables accounted for 65% of the variance in the frequency of health promoting behaviors and 53% of the variance in perceived quality of life. The model test supports the hypothesis that quality of life is the outcome of a complex interplay between contextual factors (severity of impairment), antecedent variables, and health promoting behaviors. It also suggests that the relationships among these variables are similar in samples of persons with two different chronic conditions. Further research using a qualitative approach is needed to clarify other contributors to quality of life in persons with post-polio syndrome.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Drugs

Title: An Open Trial of Pyridostigmine in Post-poliomyelitis Syndrome


Author: Daria A. Trojan and Neil R. Cashman


Affiliation: From the Department of Neurology, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal.
Journal:
Citation: The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences Volume 22, No. 3 August 1995 223-227
Publication Year and Month: 1995 08

Abstract: Background: One of the major symptoms of postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) is disabling generalized fatigue. Subjects with PPS also report muscle fatiguability and display electrophysiologic evidence of anticholinesterase-responsive neuromuscular junction transmission defects, suggesting that anticholinesterase therapy may be useful in the management of disabling fatigue. Methods: We initiated an open trial of the oral anticholinesterase pyridostigmine, up to 180 mg per day, in 27 PPS patients with generalized fatigue and muscle fatiguability. Response to Pyridostigmine was assessed with the Hare fatigue scale, the modified Barthel index for activities of daily living, and a modified Klingman mobility index. Results: Two patients could not tolerate the medication. After one month of therapy, 16 patients (64%) reported a reduction in fatigue on the Hare fatigue scale; three of 16 showed improvement on the modified Barthel index for activities of daily living, and two of 16 experienced improvement on a modified Klingman mobility index. Pyridostigmine responders were significantly more fatigued than non-responders on the pre-treatment Hare score, but were not significantly different with regard to age, sex, age at acute poliomyelitis, or severity of acute poliomyelitis. Conclusions: Pyridostigmine may be useful in the management of fatigue in selected patients with PPS. Response to pyridostigmine may be predicted by severity of pre-treatment fatigue.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Surgery

Title: Anaesthetists need to be wary of postpolio syndrome
Author: Tobin A

Affiliation: Deputy Director, Intensive Care Unit, St Vincent’s Hospital, Victoria, Australia
Journal: ANZCA Bulletin
Citation: ANZCA Bulletin September 2015, pp 42-43
Publication Year and Month: 2015 09

Abstract: This is a brief Safety and Quality news item which does not have an abstract. This is an extract:

Postpolio syndrome (PPS) occurs in a significant proportion of polio survivors years after recovering from the original illness. Anaesthetists need to be aware of the syndrome as polio survivors are relatively numerous (40,000 cases of paralytic polio in Australia from the 1930s to the 1960s), they are of an age where they will be increasingly presenting for elective and emergency procedures and the syndrome has important. Postpolio syndrome patients present a number of potential problems for the anaesthetist. However for those who are aware depressant effects of analgesics of the syndrome, careful assessment and planning should minimise the risk of perioperative complications and provide optimal patient outcomes.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Comments (if any): Other - see Comments.

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Category: Pain

Title: Analysis of long-standing nociceptive and neuropathic pain in patients with post-polio syndrome
Author: Werhagen L, Borg K
Affiliation: Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet Danderyds Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. [email protected]
Journal: Journal of Neurology
Citation: J Neurol. 2010 Jun;257(6):1027-31. doi: 10.1007/s00415-010-5456-0
Publication Year and Month: 2010 06

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyze pain, both nociceptive and neuropathic, in patients with post-polio syndrome (PPS) and relate the pain to age at the initial polio infection, age at examination, to gender and disability. The study was conducted in a university hospital department. Patients with PPS were interviewed at their regular visits about pain, its character, intensity and localization. A clinical examination, including a thorough neurological examination, was performed. Data included age at time of polio infection, age at time of examination and gender. Pain intensity was measured with the VAS-scale and walking capability by the WISCI-scale. One hundred sixty-three (88 women, 75 men) patients were included in the study. Pain was present in 109 (67%). Pain was more frequently reported by women (82%) than by men (49%). 96 patients experienced nociceptive pain, 10 patients both neuropathic and nociceptive pain and three experienced pure neuropathic pain. Half of the patients with pain experienced pain in more than one body region. When neuropathic pain was present, another additional neurological disorder was diagnosed. Pain was more often found in younger patients (around 70%) than in older patients (around 50%). In summary pain is common in patients with PPS and most patients experienced nociceptive pain. Women have pain more often than men. Older patients experience pain more seldom than younger patients. Age at time of primary polio infection is important for the development of pain. When neuropathic pain is present, it is important to proceed with neurological examination to find an adequate diagnosis.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

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Category: Sleep Analysis

Title: Analysis of sleep characteristics in post-polio syndrome patients
Author: Silva TM (1), Moreira GA, Quadros AA, Pradella-Hallinan M, Tufik S, Oliveira AS
Affiliation: (1) Department of Neurology, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. [email protected]
Journal: Arquivos de Neuropsiquiatria
Citation: Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2010 Aug;68(4):535-40
Publication Year and Month: 2010 08

Abstract: The main post-polio syndrome (PPS) symptoms are new weakness, new atrophy, fatigue, pain and sleep disturbances. Polysomnography is the gold standard for sleep analysis.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze sleep patterns in PPS patients.

METHOD: Sixty patients (mean age 46.8+/-11.3 years) at the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM) complaining of sleep disturbances were evaluated by means of polysomnography, performed at the Sleep Institute.

RESULTS: Sleep efficiency was lower due to high sleep latency and arousal index. The apnea and hypopnea index (AHI) and the periodic limb movements (PLM) index were higher. Sleep architecture was also impaired. There were no abnormalities of oxygen saturation, carbon dioxide levels, respiratory rate or heart rate.

Conclusions: New post-polio sleep disturbances were isolated symptoms. It appears that these symptoms were not due to post-polio features, but rather, that they were due to dysfunction of the surviving motor neurons in the brainstem. Abnormal dopamine production, which is responsible for many sleep-related breathing disorders and abnormal movements, may also have been implicated in the present findings.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Anaesthesia

Title: Anesthetic considerations for patients with postpolio syndrome: a case report.
Author: Wheeler D
Affiliation: Little Rock Anesthesia Services, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: AANA J. 2011 Oct;79(5):408-10.
Publication Year and Month: 2011 10

Abstract: Postpolio syndrome is a disorder related to the recurrence of neuromuscular symptoms in survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis. A comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology is necessary for the anesthesia provider to develop a safe anesthetic plan. This case report discusses the anesthetic challenges and considerations in patients with postpolio syndrome, focusing on the importance of careful pharmacologic dosing of opioids, and neuromuscular agents as well as perioperative and postoperative issues related to aspiration risks, cold intolerance, and positioning.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Surgery

Title: Anesthetic implications of postpolio syndrome: new concerns for an old disease
Author: Schwartz A (1), Bosch LM
Affiliation: (1) Saint Louis University Hospital, St Louis, Missouri, USA
Journal: American Association of Nurse Anesthetists
Citation: AANA J. 2012 Oct;80(5):356-61
Publication Year and Month: 2012 10

Abstract: Poliomyelitis was pandemic in the United States and much of the world in the first half of the 20th century. The uses of polio vaccines have essentially eradicated the disease in the United States today. But poliovirus infection survivors who had experienced a paralytic attack can see a return of some symptoms, which is a syndrome called postpolio syndrome (PPS). The anesthetist must preoperatively assess reported amounts of patient physical activity and patient age, which can indicate the amount of muscle degeneration that may have already occurred. Patients with PPS demonstrate altered respiratory function, cold intolerance, a risk for aspiration, and experience chronic pain in muscles and joints. Patients with PPS display an increased sensitivity to some anesthetic agents such as long-acting narcotics and potent inhaled anesthetic gases with a high blood-gas partition coefficient, along with report of increased fatigue, weakness, and somnolence after anesthesia. Anesthesia care must center on the preservation of muscle function postoperatively. The anesthetist should consider the use of short-acting anesthetic agents, increased doses of analgesics, the use of warming devices, and careful attention to patient positioning. Prolonged postoperative care and hospital admission after surgery are possible.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Orthoses

Title: Ankle-foot orthoses for rehabilitation and reducing metabolic cost of walking: Possibilities and challenges
Author: Bing Chen, Bin Zi, Yishan Zeng, Ling Qin, Wei-Hsin Liao
Affiliation: School of Mechanical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Mechatronics Volume 53, August 2018, Pages 241-250
Publication Year and Month: 2018 08

Abstract: People with diseases such as stroke, spinal cord injury, and trauma usually have paretic ankle involvement because of the plantar flexor and dorsiflexor muscle weakness. Individuals with paretic ankle normally have the drop-foot gait, which has the complications of foot-slap after heel contact and toe-drag during the swing phase of a gait cycle. This could cause slow walking speed, short step-length, high metabolic cost, and high risk of tripping. Ankle-foot orthotic intervention is mostly prescribed to treat paretic ankle impairments. In addition, ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) have been developed to assist human walking, which can reduce the wearer's metabolic cost of walking. To date, three kinds of AFOs have been developed, including the passive AFOs, semi-active AFOs, and active AFOs. This paper provides a systematic review on these three types of AFOs, where the biomechanics of normal and pathological gaits of human, the design concepts of the AFOs, and motion data collection of the human-machine system in human trials are described. The limitations of the currently developed AFOs and future research and development directions of AFOs are discussed, which would provide useful information for researchers to develop suitable AFOs.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Drugs

Title: Anticholinesterase-responsive neuromuscular junction transmission defects in post-poliomyelitis fatigue
Author: Daria A. Trojan, Daniel Gendron and Neil R. Cashman
Affiliation: Department of Neurology, McGill University, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 114 (1993) 170-177
Publication Year and Month: 1992 08

Abstract: Disabling generalized fatigue and muscle fatiguability are common features of post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS). In 17 fatigued PPS patients, we measured jitter on stimulation single-fiber electromyography (S-SFEMG) for at least 3.5 min before and after i.v. injection of 10 mg edrophonium. We observed reduction in jitter (defined as a significant difference in jitter means before and after edrophonium, unpaired t-test P < 0.05) in 7 patients, no change in 8, and a significant increase in 2 patients. Blinded to their edrophonium results, the 17 patients were treated with pyridostigmine 180 mg/day for 1 month, with a subjective improvement of fatigue in 9 patients, and with a significant reduction in mean Hare fatigue scores in the entire group of 17 patients (pre = 2.71, and post = 1.71; Wilcoxan signed rank sum test, P < 0.05). Edrophonium-induced reduction of jitter on S-SFEMG was significantly associated with pyridostigmine-induced subjective improvement of fatigue (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.04). A significant reduction in fatigue with pyridostigmine was observed only in the 7 patients who experienced a significant reduction in jitter with edrophonium (Wilcoxan signed rank sum test, P = 0.03). In addition, the 9 pyridostigmine responders experienced a significant reduction in jitter means pre- and post-edrophonium (100% vs. 88%, Bonferroni corrected, P < 0.01). We conclude that neuromuscular transmission as measured by jitter on S-SFEMG can improve with edrophonium in a proportion of PPS patients, and that generalized fatigue and muscle fatiguability in some patients with PPS may be due to anticholinesterase-responsive NMJ transmission defects.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Drugs

Title: Anticholinesterases in Post-Poliomyelitis Syndrome
Author: Daria A. Trojan and Neil R. Cashman
Affiliation: Department of Neurology, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University
Journal: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Citation: Reprinted from The Post-Polio Syndrome: Advances in the Pathogenesis and Treatment, Volume 753 of the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, May 25, 1995
Publication Year and Month: 1995 05

Abstract: New weakness, fatigue, and pain after decades of functional stability in those who have recovered from acute paralytic poliomyelitis constitutes post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS).[1-7] The cause of PPS is unknown, but it is thought to be due to a distal degeneration of enlarged post-polio motor units produced by terminal axonal sprouting during the recovery process after acute polio.[8,9] The symptoms of weakness and fatigue may be a direct result of this distal motor unit degeneration;[2,7-13] however, it is presently unclear how pain relates to disease of the motor unit. PPS is a slowly progressive motor neuron disease for which there is currently no specific treatment.[4]

Conclusions: Our studies indicate that a proportion of fatigued post-poliomyelitis patients can experience an amelioration of defects in neuromuscular junction transmission and of clinical fatigue with anticholinesterases. Because S-SFEMG response was significantly associated with clinical response to anticholinesterases, fatigue in PPS may be caused by defects in neuromuscular junction transmission in a proportion of patients. Preliminary studies in a small group of patients indicate that anticholinesterases may produce their clinical neuromuscular response by producing an increase in isokinetic strength in a proportion of patients. Our studies provide a physiological rationale for the use of anticholinesterases in PPS for the symptom of fatigue. However, further randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trials are needed to establish definitively the benefits and risks of these agents.

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Polio Immunisation

Title: Applying the concept of peptide uniqueness to anti-polio vaccination
Author: Kanduc D (1), Fasano C (1), Capone G (1), Pesce Delfino A (2), Calabrò M (2), Polimeno L (2)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Biosciences, Biotechnologies, and Biopharmaceutics, University of Bari, 70126 Bari, Italy; (2) Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation (DETO), University of Bari, 70124 Bari, Italy
Journal: Journal of Immunology Research
Citation: J Immunol Res. 2015;2015:541282. Epub 2015 Oct 19
Publication Year and Month: 2015 10

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Although rare, adverse events may associate with anti-poliovirus vaccination thus possibly hampering global polio eradication worldwide.

OBJECTIVE: To design peptide-based anti-polio vaccines exempt from potential cross-reactivity risks and possibly able to reduce rare potential adverse events such as the postvaccine paralytic poliomyelitis due to the tendency of the poliovirus genome to mutate.

METHODS: Proteins from poliovirus type 1, strain Mahoney, were analyzed for amino acid sequence identity to the human proteome at the pentapeptide level, searching for sequences that (1) have zero percent of identity to human proteins, (2) are potentially endowed with an immunologic potential, and (3) are highly conserved among poliovirus strains.

RESULTS: Sequence analyses produced a set of consensus epitopic peptides potentially able to generate specific anti-polio immune responses exempt from cross-reactivity with the human host.

Conclusions: Peptide sequences unique to poliovirus proteins and conserved among polio strains might help formulate a specific and universal anti-polio vaccine able to react with multiple viral strains and exempt from the burden of possible cross-reactions with human proteins. As an additional advantage, using a peptide-based vaccine instead of current anti-polio DNA vaccines would eliminate the rare post-polio poliomyelitis cases and other disabling symptoms that may appear following vaccination.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: Are the nonparalytic muscles of polio survivors free from the risk of post-polio syndrome?
Author: K.Sawada, M.Horii, D.Imoto, Y.Mikami, T.Kubo
Affiliation: Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Kyoto, Japan
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Volume 61, Supplement, July 2018, Page e263
Publication Year and Month: 2018 07

Abstract: Introduction/Background
The aim of this study was to reveal the relation between the neurogenetic change in the nonparalytic muscles in upper and lower limbs of Polio survivors and the later muscle strength decline.

Material and method
Retrospective study. We looked back the data of electromyography (EMG) of Polio survivors in our Polio clinic (average age: 58.9). Muscles whose strength at EMG had been normal were extracted. We looked up the muscle strength at EMG time and two years later from medical record.

Results
The subjects were 23 deltoid (middle strand), 40 biceps branchii, 36 triceps branchii, 24 vastus lateralis, 19 tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius (medial head). The ratio of neurogenic change subject (giant spike or interference pattern reduction) was, 30.4%, 25.0%, 36.1%, 62.5%, 47.4%, and 73.7%, respectively. In neurogenic change group of Biceps, 50.0% showed decline in their muscle strength. In non-neurogenic change group of Deltoid, 25.0% showed decline in their muscle strength.

Conclusions: Conclusion
Present study suggested that some muscle strength decline may be caused by Post-polio syndrome (PPS), and that EMG might be the most useful tool for the risk detection of PPS, especially for Biceps branchii. On the other hand, the fact that 25% of Deltoid non-neurogenic change group showed muscle strength decline was not understood in this study. Pain or disuse from disorder in shoulder joint might possibly be as a cause.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Exercise

Title: Assessment of subjective and motor fatigue in Polio survivors, attending a Postpolio clinic, comparison with healthy controls and an exploration of clinical correlates.
Author: Murray D, Hardiman O, Meldrum D.
Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, Beaumont Hospital , Beaumont, Dublin , Ireland .
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 2014 May;30(4):229-35.
Publication Year and Month: 2014 05

Abstract: PURPOSE:
Polio survivors experience declining mobility, pain and fatigue. The extent of motor fatigue and its impact on mobility and quality of life, in addition to other commonly reported impairments requires evaluation.

METHODS:
An observational, case-control, cross-sectional design was used to assess 30 Polio survivors and 30 age- and sex-matched controls. Muscle strength and motor fatigue were assessed using fixed dynamometry. Fatigue, pain and quality of life were assessed using the Piper Fatigue Scale, the Fatigue Severity Scale, visual analogue scales and the RAND Short Form-36, respectively. An 8-min walking test, including physiological cost index (PCI), evaluated mobility.

RESULTS:
A significant difference in motor fatigue was identified only in hand grip (p = 0.03). Polio survivors were significantly weaker (p < 0.001) and more fatigued (p < 0.001) than controls. Motor fatigue was not related to subjective fatigue, mobility or quality of life. Muscle strength predicted mobility. Pain and fatigue were associated with lower mental quality of life, while PCI was associated with physical quality of life.

Conclusions: Motor fatigue has been identified in Polio survivors but was only significantly different in hand grip, using this approach. Pain, fatigue and elevated energy cost of walking negatively influenced quality of life. Motor fatigue was unrelated to subjective fatigue, mobility or quality of life.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Assistive Technology, Quality of Life

Title: Assistive technology and prediction of happiness in people with post-polio syndrome
Author: Spiliotopoulou G, Fowkes C, Atwal A
Affiliation: Brunel University, School of Health Sciences and Social Care , Uxbridge, UB8 3PH , UK
Journal: Disability and Rehabilitation
Citation: Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2012 May;7(3):199-204. doi: 10.3109/17483107.2011.616921. Epub 2011 Oct 6
Publication Year and Month: 2012 05

Abstract: PURPOSE: To explore the relationship between level of happiness in people with post-polio syndrome (PPS) and assistive technology (AT) by taking into account confounding factors such as age, gender and house composition.

METHOD: Existing data from 218 adults with PPS, who had completed a cross-sectional survey conducted by the British Polio Fellowship in 2007, were used for a secondary quantitative analysis. Ordinal logistic regression was applied to determine whether ownership of or the need for AT predicted happiness in people with PPS.

RESULTS: Ownership of AT did not predict happiness, whereas the perceived need for AT was a significant predictor of feeling less happy (p = 0.028). Among the different types of AT needed, only need of home adaptations combined with major equipment was close to being significantly associated with less happiness (p = 0.078). Being older (p < 0.001) and living with a partner (p < 0.001) significantly increased the likelihood of feeling happier.

Conclusions: The findings indicate the importance of the contribution of need for AT in explaining happiness in people with PPS. The fact that users reported unmet equipment needs urge for increased user decision making and better understanding of why perceived needs are not resolved.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Drugs

Title: Beneficial Effect of Medical Cannabis in the Treatment of a Pharmacoresistant Nausea Associated with a Somatoform Disorder in a Patient with Post-Polio Syndrome
Author: Markus Bleckwenn, Klaus Weckbecker, Sebastian Voss
Affiliation: Markus Bleckwenn  Institut für Hausarztmedizin der Medizinischen Fakultät der Universität Bonn
Klaus Weckbecker  Institut für Hausarztmedizin der Medizinischen Fakultät der Universität Bonn
Sebastian Voss  Institut für Hausarztmedizin der Medizinischen Fakultät der Universität Bonn
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2018 Mar;143(5):344-348
Publication Year and Month: 2018 03

Abstract: HISTORY AND CLINICAL FINDINGS:
We report a 79-year-old patient with post-polio syndrome (PPS). In the course of this disease, recurrent upper abdominal pain and a therapy-resistant nausea developed without vomiting. In addition, the patient was limited by the combination of muscular weakness, obesity, dietary-treated diabetes and a degenerative spinal cord injury significantly in its mobility and physical capacity.

INVESTIGATIONS AND DIAGNOSIS:
Despite extensive diagnostics, no somatic cause could be found neither for the nausea nor for the upper abdominal pain. Due to the psychological stress within the scope of the PPS, the development of a somatoform autonomic function disorder of the upper gastrointestinal tract may have occurred.

TREATMENT AND COURSE:
Even under combination therapy of antiemetic and pain-modulating drugs, no adequate symptom control could be achieved. In the absence of therapy alternatives and increasing psychological strain the patient was prescribed medical cannabis. Under the therapy there was a relief of the nausea symptoms and decreased pain.

Conclusions: CONCLUSION:
Cannabis is a treatment option for treatment-resistant symptoms as part of a PPS.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Respiratory Complications and Management

Title: Bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation maintains adequate ventilation in post-polio patients with respiratory failure.
Author: Gillis-Haegerstrand C, Markström A, Barle H.
Affiliation: Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. [email protected]
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 2006 May;50(5):580-5
Publication Year and Month: 2006 05

Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Patients suffering from post-polio syndrome still contribute significantly to the number of patients with chronic respiratory failure requiring home mechanical ventilation (HMV). Many of these patients are treated either with invasive (tracheostomy) or non-invasive (nasal mask) controlled mechanical ventilation i.e. volume-controlled ventilation (VCV). In this group of patients, we have previously shown that bi-level pressure support ventilation (bi-level PSV) decreases the oxygen cost of breathing. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of bi-level PSV, with special regard to the adequacy of ventilation and the oxygen cost of breathing, during the patients' ordinary VCV and spontaneous breathing.

METHODS:
Eight post-polio patients on nocturnal VCV were investigated. Five of them were tracheostomized and three of them used a nasal mask. Work of breathing was analysed by assessing differences in oxygen consumption (VO2) using indirect calorimetry. Blood gases were obtained regularly to assess adequacy of ventilation.

RESULTS:
Bi-level PSV decreases the oxygen cost of breathing in post-polio patients with respiratory failure without decreasing ventilation efficiency. Furthermore, PaCO2 decreased significantly using this mode of ventilation (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: In this study, it was shown that bi-level PSV reduces the oxygen cost of breathing and gave a significant decrease in PaCO2 in PPS patients. These data suggest that bi-level PSV ventilation maintains adequate ventilation in patients who suffer from post-polio syndrome with respiratory failure.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Orthoses

Title: Biomechanical abnormalities of post-polio patients and the implications for orthotic management.
Author: Perry J, Clark D
Affiliation: Rancho Los Amigos Medical Center, 7601 East Imperial Highway, Bldg. 304, Downey, CA 90242, USA.
Journal: NeuroRehabilitation
Citation: 1997;8(2):119-38
Publication Year and Month: 1997

Abstract: Muscle weakness resulting from the combined effects of acute and late motor neuron pathology is the basic cause of post-polio dysfunction. Through their normal sensation and moter control, post-polio patients minimize their disability by useful substitutions. Orthoses are needed only when these substitutions either are inadequate or result in muscle or joint overuse. The areas most commonly showing late disability are the lower extremities, shoulders and low-back. In the lower extremities, the major muscle groups are the hip extensors and abductors, the knee extensors (quadriceps), ankle plantar flexors and dorsi flexors. Each group has a specific function which relates to one of the basic tasks of walking, weight acceptance, single limb support and swing. To determine orthotic needs, polio gait deviations representing useful substitutions must be differentiated from symptomatic dysfunction. Weight acceptance utilizes the quadriceps, hip extensors and hip abductors to establish a stable limb and provide shock absorbing mechanics. Substitutions to preserve weight bearing stability include sacrifice of normal shock absorbing knee flexion for quadriceps weakness, backward or lateral trunk lean for hip extensor and abductor weakness. Knee pain, excessive hyperextension and flexion contractures are indications for orthotic assistance with a KAFO. Orthotic designs relate to the type of knee joint (off-set, free, locked) and completeness of the AFO component. Low-back pain from hip substitutions or over use of the hip muscles requires a walking aid. Single limb support is the period when the limb and body advance over the supporting foot. The key muscle group is the soleus-gastrocnemius complex. Swing involves lifting and advancing the unloaded limb. While all three joints flex simultaneously, the hip flexors and ankle dorsi flexors are the critical muscles. A drop foot from ankle dorsiflexor weakness is the common disability. Excessive hip flexion is the usual substitution.

Conclusions: An orthosis which assists dorsiflexion without obstructing loading response plantar flexion is the most functional design.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Continence

Title: Bladder symptoms among polio survivors
Author: Kay L, Bertelsen M
Affiliation: Danish Society of Polio and Accident Victims, Rødovre, Denmark
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med 2013; 45: 560–564
Publication Year and Month: 2013 05

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To describe bladder symptoms among polio survivors and the inconvenience they cause.

DESIGN: A survey using the validated Danish Prostatic Symptom Score questionnaire concerning bladder symptoms.

SUBJECTS: A random age- and gender-stratified sample of polio survivors drawn from members of the Danish Society of Polio and Accident Victims.

METHODS: Eligible subjects were sent the questionnaire by post.

RESULTS: Of 453 eligible subjects 272 responded. Within 2 weeks 87.5% of respondents had experienced at least one bladder symptom, and 76.5% reported that they had been bothered by a bladder symptom. Out of the 12 symptoms in the questionnaire we found a significant gender difference, with straining and weak stream reported more often among men, and urge incontinence reported more often among women. Incontinence occurred significantly more often among women (73.3%) than among men (40.9%). Compared with a similar study of the background population, bladder symptoms overall occurred approximately twice as often among polio survivors.

Conclusions: The majority of polio survivors experience bladder symptoms, prevalences being approximately twice as high as in the background population. Furthermore, polio survivors to a much larger extent find their bladder symptoms bothersome. A successful rehabilitation programme should therefore also focus on these symptoms.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Bone Mineral Density Among Individuals With Residual Lower Limb Weakness After Polio
Author: Beth Grill PT, DPT, NCSa, Pamela K. Levangie PT, DSc, DPT, FAPTA, Maria ColeOTR/L, Darren Rosenberg DO, Leah Jensen PT, DPT
Affiliation: Spaulding Outpatient Center Framingham, MA

MGH Institute of Health Professions, Boston, MA; and 500 Lexington Street, Unit 3, Woburn, MA 01801

Spaulding Outpatient Center Framingham, MA

Spaulding Outpatient Center Framingham, MA

Spaulding Outpatient Center Framingham, MA
Journal: PM&R: The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Citation: Available online 7 September 2018
Publication Year and Month: 2018 09

Abstract: Background
Literature indicates that individuals with long-term residual lower extremity (LE) weakness after polio have decreased bone mineral density (BMD) deficiencies related to muscle weakness. Where weakness is asymmetrical, bone densitometry (BDt) measured only on the stronger LE may misclassify BMD.

Objective
To determine (1) whether femoral neck BMD differed from side to side in individuals with asymmetrical LE muscle weakness, and (2) the proportion of individuals at risk for underdiagnosis of low bone density or osteoporosis given unilateral assessment of the femoral neck.

Design
Retrospective study.

Setting
Outpatient postpolio center.

Participants
Patients >18 years old with complete relevant data.

Main Outcome Measures
BDt T scores, BMD categories based on standard T-score ranges, and side of LE weakness determined by a strength score.

Results
Forty-three subjects had at least 1 femoral neck T score and bilateral LE strength scores. Fourteen (32.5%) had BDt only on their weaker LE and 14 (32.5%) had BDt only on their stronger LE. Of the 15 subjects with BDt done on both femoral necks, T scores (mean [standard deviation]) were lower in the weaker LE (–1.73 [1.09]) than the stronger LE (–0.88 [1.0]) (P = .001). Classification of low bone density or osteoporosis was more frequent based on T scores taken on a weaker LE (48.3% and 24.1%, respectively) than from T scores from a stronger LE (41.4% and 6.9%, respectively).

Conclusions: In this small sample, using strong-limb T scores resulted in fewer individuals categorized as having low bone density or osteoporosis than when weak-limb T scores were used. Underestimating BMD loss may lead to undertreatment and increased risk of morbidity, mortality, and costs associated with femoral neck fractures in this high-fall-risk group.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Fatigue

Title: Brain volume and fatigue in patients with postpoliomyelitis syndrome
Author: Trojan DA (1), Narayanan S (2), Francis SJ (3), Caramanos Z (4), Robinson A (5), Cardoso M (6), Arnold DL (7)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, 3801 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B4; (2) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Unit, McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Unit, McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (4) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Unit, McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (5) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (6) Clinical Research Unit, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (7) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Journal: PM&R: The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Citation: PM R. 2014 Mar;6(3):215-20. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2013.09.009
Publication Year and Month: 2014 03

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Acute paralytic poliomyelitis is associated with encephalitis. Early brain inflammation may produce permanent neuronal injury with brain atrophy, which may result in symptoms such as fatigue. Brain volume has not been assessed in postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS).

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether brain volume is decreased compared with that in normal controls, and whether brain volume is associated with fatigue in patients with PPS.

DESIGN: A cross-sectional study.

SETTING: Tertiary university-affiliated hospital postpolio and multiple sclerosis (MS) clinics.

PARTICIPANTS: Forty-nine ambulatory patients with PPS, 28 normal controls, and 53 ambulatory patients with MS.

METHODS: We studied the brains of all study subjects with magnetic resonance imaging by using a 1.5 T Siemens Sonata machine. The subjects completed the Fatigue Severity Scale. Multivariable linear regression models were computed to evaluate the contribution of PPS and MS compared with controls to explain brain volume.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Normalized brain volume (NBV) was assessed with the automated program Structured Image Evaluation, using Normalization, of Atrophy method from the acquired magnetic resonance images. This method may miss brainstem atrophy.

RESULTS: Technically adequate NBV measurements were available for 42 patients with PPS, 27 controls, and 49 patients with MS. The mean (standard deviation) age was 60.9 ± 7.6 years for patients with PPS, 47.0 ± 14.6 years for controls, and 46.2 ± 9.4 years for patients with MS. In a multivariable model adjusted for age and gender, NBV was not significantly different in patients with PPS compared with that in controls (P = .28). As expected, when using a similar model for patients with MS, NBV was significantly decreased compared with that in controls (P = .006). There was no significant association between NBV and fatigue in subjects with PPS (Spearman ρ = 0.23; P = .19).

Conclusions: No significant whole-brain atrophy was found, and no association of brain volume with fatigue in PPS. Brain atrophy was confirmed in MS. It is possible that brainstem atrophy was not recognized by this study.

Outcome of Research: Not effective

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Category: Drugs

Title: Bromocriptine In The Treatment Of Post-Polio Fatigue: A pilot study with implications for the pathophysiology of fatigue
Author: Richard L. Bruno, Ph.D., Jerald R. Zimmerman, M.D., Susan Creange, M.A., Todd Lewis, Ph.D., Terry Molzen, M.A., and Nancy M. Frick, M.Div, Lh.D.
Affiliation: Post-Polio Rehabilitation and Research Service; Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation; UMDNJ/New Jersey Medical School, Harvest Center; Hackensack, New Jersey
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 1997 (in press)
Publication Year and Month: 1997

Abstract: Objective: Determine the effectiveness of bromocriptine in the treatment of severe and disabling post-polio fatigue.
Design: Placebo-controlled drug trial in a pilot series of patients.
Setting: Outpatient rehabilitation hospital.
Patients: Of 83 patients without comorbidities who completed treatment with the Post-Polio Service, 5 of 8 patients who had paralytic polio and continued to report moderate to severe daily fatigue after complying with conservative treatments for post-polio fatigue agreed to be studied.
Intervention: Placebo was given for four weeks followed by increasing doses of bromocriptine mesylate (Parlodel®) administered at noon for 28 days reaching a total dose of 12.5 mg/day.
Main Outcome Measures: Daily logs of subjective fatigue and cognitive difficulties.
Results: Three of the subjects reported symptom improvement on bromocriptine but not on placebo. However, all subjects experienced nausea on bromocriptine, likely eliminating blinding. Drug responders had clinically impaired performance on neuropsychological tests of attention and information processing speed. Logged daily difficulty with attention, cognition, word finding memory, staying awake and fatigue on awakening were significantly negatively correlated with days on bromocriptine, but not with days on placebo, in drug responders.
Conclusions: A double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study will be needed to confirm bromocriptine's effectiveness in treating attentionally-impaired polio survivors whose severe and disabling fatigue does not responded to conservative treatment.

Conclusions: This pilot study of severely fatigued polio survivors suggests that bromocriptine may be of use in the treatment of post-polio fatigue that has not responded to conservative therapies. However, the small sample size and methodological limitations make this suggestion merely tentative. Since nausea was universally experienced, all subjects may have realized that they were receiving active drug and were thereby biased toward reporting reductions in symptoms. The percentage of days on which side effects were experienced on bromocriptine was higher in the responders (48%) than non-responders (34%). Although the placebo phase was not compromised, the bromocriptine phase of the study may have been as unblinded as an open-label drug trial. Reductions in morning fatigue and fatigue-related cognitive symptoms as the dose of bromocriptine increased were not paralleled by drug-related improvements in neuropsychologic test scores, most likely since the same form of the tests was administered on placebo and on bromocriptine. Subjects repeatedly taking the same test would be expected to demonstrate a learning effect and have their test scores improve. This has been seen even in polio survivors with severe fatigue who were repeatedly administered the same neuropsychologic tests over the course of several hours [4] It was also surprising that drug responders noticed no reduction in fatigue during the afternoon, since bromocriptine was administered at noon so that a peak blood level would be reached at 3:00 PM when many polio survivors report hitting an afternoon "wall" of fatigue. Since the pharmacokinetics of bromocriptine could differ from the time course of its pharmacological effect, as is seen with D2 receptor antagonists, moving the dose of drug to before sleep or upon awakening may prolong any beneficial effect of the drug into the afternoon. [18]

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Women's Health

Title: Caesarean Section in Post-polio Patient
Author: de Oliveira AR, Schutz Martinelli E, Lisiane L.
Affiliation: Roth and Roth Anesthesia Clinic, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Hospital Moinhos de Vento, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Hospital Nossa Senhora Conceicao, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Journal of Clinical Research in Anesthesiology
J Clin Res Anaesthesiol 2018; 1(1):1-2
Publication Year and Month: 2018 01

Abstract: A 26-year-old primigravida patient, ASA I, 39-week gestation, presented with 24 h premature rupture of membranes, without active labor. She had been in anesthetic pre-operative clinic 2 weeks before and had described poliomyelitis with 1 year old and complete recovering in childhood. With 16-year-old, she was submitted to appendicectomy through spinal anesthesia presenting weakness in entire body for approximately 24 h. At physical examination, the only sign was shorter tibial tendon of both legs.
For the cesarean, after volume expansion with cristaloids, the choice was an epidural anesthesia with 15mg of bupivacaine 0.3% (without epinephrine) and morphine 2 mg. “The surgery was initiated after 4min of blockade with T4 sensitive level reached. Hypotension and tachycardia were corrected with metaraminol 1 mg.” After 50 min, the procedure was finished with the same metameric level of anesthesia, but with cardiovascular stability. The entire recovering from anesthesia has occurred after 11h. An elevated consume of analgesics (nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs and opioids) and antiemetics was observed.

Conclusions: Ultimately, the decision to use general or regional anesthesia should be made on an individual patient basis weighing the risks and benefits. This case report describes some of the fewest practical guidelines available about regional anesthesia in post-polio patients with minimal sequelae. The importance of communications about these cases and the anesthetic conduct in this setting needs more debate to
optimize the facilities in another similar case.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category:

Title: Cancer risk in a cohort of polio survivors
Author: Neilsen NM, Wohlfahrt J, Aaby P, et al.
Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, National University, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Infectious Diseases, National University, Copenhagen, Denmark
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: International Journal of Cancer (2001). 92, pp.605–608
Publication Year and Month: 2000 11

Abstract: Poliomyelitis has hypothetically been associated with an increased risk of central nervous system (CNS) tumors. The present study was performed to examine not only the risk of CNS tumors but also the overall risk of cancer among a cohort of 5,883 polio patients. Patients diagnosed with acute poliomyelitis in the Danish capital, Copenhagen, between 1919 and 1954 were identified and followed with respect to cancer.

Information on vital status and cancer diagnoses was obtained through linkage with the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish Cancer Registry, respectively. The ratio of observed number of cancers to the number expected from population-based incidence rates, i.e., the standardized incidence ratio (SIR), served as measure of the relative cancer risk.

Overall, 717 cases of cancer were observed among 5,883 polio patients during 249,084 person-years of follow-up vs. an expected number of 645 (SIR 5 1.11 [95% confidence
interval 1.03 to 1.20])). The increased risk was restricted to female polio patients (SIR 5 1.18 [1.07 to 1.30]), among whom the risk was particularly high for breast cancer (SIR 5 1.35 [1.12 to 1.61]) and for skin cancer (SIR 5 1.66 [1.32 to 2.07]). The risk of breast cancer was highest among women with a history of paralytic polio (SIR 5 1.62 [1.24 to 2.10]). The observed number of CNS tumors did not exceed the expected (SIR 5 1.09 [0.72 to 1.60]).

Women diagnosed with poliomyelitis, in particular paralytic polio, may be at increased risk of breast cancer. There was no association between malignancies of the CNS and poliomyelitis.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Cardiac risk factors in polio survivors
Author: Gawne AC, Wells KR, Wilson KS.
Affiliation: Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehabilitation, Warm Springs, GA 31830, USA - [email protected]
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003 May;84(5):694-6
Publication Year and Month: 2003 05

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of dyslipidemia and other risk factors for coronary heart disease in a sample of polio survivors with and without postpoliomyelitis syndrome.

DESIGN: Retrospective chart review.

SETTING: A multidisciplinary outpatient postpolio clinic.

PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-eight consecutive symptomatic postpolio patients, 50 women (mean age, 59.0y; range, 36-81y) and 38 men (mean age, 61.2y; range, 44-83y).

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence of risk factors for coronary heart disease: clinical atherosclerotic disease, male age >or=45 years or female age >or=55 years, history of hypertension (blood pressure >or=140/90mmHg or on antihypertensive medication), diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) less than 35mg/dL. Obesity (body mass index [BMI], >25kg/m(2)) was assessed as an intervention target. Laboratory values included fasting total cholesterol, HDL, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and glucose.

RESULTS: Of the total sample, 61.3% had dyslipidemia. Average HDL cholesterol ratio was 4.01 (women, 3.68; men, 4.55). Forty-four patients (50%) had a history of hypertension or had elevated blood pressure. Seven patients (8%) had a history of diabetes or had elevated fasting blood glucose (>110). Eighteen patients (20.4%) were smokers or had a history of smoking; 9 continued to smoke and 9 had quit smoking. Twenty-five patients (28.4%) were overweight (BMI, >25kg/m(2)). Forty-one patients (46.5%) had more than 1 risk factor for coronary heart disease. Nine of the total sample (10.2%) had a history of heart disease ranging from atrial fibrillation to angina. Only 19 patients had a previous diagnosis of dyslipidemia and only 12 were on a lipid-lowering medication.

Conclusions: Polio patients have a high prevalence of dyslipidemia. The study sample supports the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III statements that hypercholesterolemia is underdiagnosed and undertreated. The postpolio population carries a high prevalence of 2 or more coronary heart disease risk factors. Evaluation and rehabilitation of polio patients should include screening for dyslipidemia and education about elimination of controllable risk factors.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Cardiorespiratory responses to aerobic training by patients with postpoliomyelitis sequelae
Author: Jones DR, Speier J, Canine K, Owen R, Stull GA
Affiliation: Sister Kenny Institute, Minneapolis, Minn (Mr Jones and Drs Speier, Canine, and Owen)
School of Health Related Professions, State University of New York at Buffalo (Dr Stull)
Journal: The Journal of the American Medical Association
Citation: JAMA. 1989 Jun 9;261(22):3255-58
Publication Year and Month: 1989 06

Abstract: We examined the cardiorespiratory responses of 16 patients with postpoliomyelitis sequelae to a 16-week aerobic exercise program. The patients exercised at 70% of maximal heart rate. Dependent variables were resting and maximal heart rates, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, maximum oxygen consumption, maximum carbon dioxide consumption, respiratory quotient, and maximum expired volume per unit time. The exercise group was superior to the control group in watts, exercise time, maximum expired volume per unit time, and maximum oxygen consumption. No untoward events or loss of leg strength occurred as a result of the exercise regimen. We conclude that the aerobic training program employed in this study is a safe, short-term procedure and that patients with postpolio sequelae respond to training in a manner similar to healthy adults.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Exercise

Title: Cardiorespiratory responses to upper extremity aerobic training by postpolio subjects
Author: Kriz, J.L., Jones, D.R., Speier, J.L., Canine, J.K., Owen, R.R., Serfass, R.C.
Affiliation: Sister Kenny Institute
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Kriz, J.L., Jones, D.R., Speier, J.L., Canine, J.K., Owen, R.R., Serfass, R.C. (1992) Cardiorespiratory responses to upper extremity aerobic training by postpolio subjects. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 73(1): 49-54
Publication Year and Month: 1992 01

Abstract: The cardiorespiratory responses of ten postpolio subjects participating in a 16-week upper extremity aerobic exercise program were compared to ten non-exercised controls. The subjects trained three times a week for 20 minutes per session. Exercise intensity was prescribed at 70% to 75% of heart rate reserve plus resting heart rate. Dependent variables were resting heart rate, maximal heart rate, resting and immediate-post-exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressures, maximal oxygen consumption, maximal carbon dioxide production, minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, power, and exercise time. After training, the exercise group was superior to the control group in oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, minute ventilation, power, and exercise time. There was no reported loss of muscle strength. It was concluded that postpolio subjects can safely achieve an increase in aerobic capacity with a properly modified upper extremity exercise program. This improvement is comparable to that demonstrated by able-bodied adults.

Conclusions: Postpolio subjects can safely achieve an increase in aerobic capacity with a properly modified upper extremity exercise program. This improvement is comparable to that demonstrated by able-bodied adults.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Respiratory Complications and Management

Title: Central Sleep Apnea: a Brief Review
Author: M. Safwan Badr and Shahrokh Javaheri
Affiliation: 1.Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical; Care and Sleep MedicineWayne State University School of MedicineDetroitUSA
2.John D. Dingell VA Medical CenterWayne State University School of MedicineDetroitUSA
3.Sleep LaboratoryBethesda North HospitalCincinnatiUSA
4.Division of Pulmonary Sleep and Critical Medicine, College of MedicineUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA
5.Division of CardiologyThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Current Pulmonology Reports pp 1–8
Publication Year and Month: 2019 03

Abstract: Purpose of Review
The purpose of this review is to discuss the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment, including areas of controversy and uncertainty.

Recent Findings
Central apnea may be due to hypoventilation or to hypocapnia following hyperventilation. The occurrence of central apnea initiates a cascade of events that perpetuates breathing instability, recurrent central apnea, and upper airway narrowing. In fact, breathing instability and upper airway narrowing are key elements of central and obstructive apnea. Clinically, central apnea is noted in association with obstructive sleep apnea, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, cerebrovascular accident tetraplegia, and chronic opioid use. Management strategies for central apnea aim to eliminate abnormal respiratory events, stabilize sleep, and alleviate the underlying clinical condition. Positive pressure therapy (PAP) remains a standard therapy for central as well as obstructive apnea. Other treatment options include adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV), supplemental oxygen, phrenic nerve stimulation, and pharmacologic therapy. However, ASV is contraindicated in patients with central sleep apnea who had heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, owing to increased mortality in this population.

Conclusions: There are several therapeutic options for central apnea. Randomized controlled studies are needed to ascertain the long-term effectiveness of individual, or combination, treatment modalities in different types of central apnea.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Women's Health

Title: Cesarean delivery under ultrasound-guided spinal anesthesia [corrected] in a parturient with poliomyelitis and Harrington instrumentation.
Author: Costello, JF, Balki, M.
Affiliation: Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, Mount Sinai Hospital, Ontario, Canada
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Canadian Journal of Anesthesia
Can J Anaesth. 2008 Dec;55(12):889
Publication Year and Month: 2008 12

Abstract: PURPOSE:
To describe the anesthetic implications, and management of a medically complex parturient, who presented for Cesarean delivery (CD). The patient had poliomyelitis complicated with severe kyphoscoliosis, which had been treated with extensive spinal surgery. We used ultrasound guidance to facilitate successful spinal analgesia and anesthesia.

CLINICAL FEATURES:
A 27-yr-old woman, with a history of poliomyelitis and moderate restrictive lung disease secondary to kyphoscoliosis, presented at 38 weeks gestation for elective CD because of cephalopelvic disproportion. The woman had Harrington rods in situ from the level of the second thoracic vertebra, to the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra. Ultrasound guidance enabled one intervertebral space to be visualized (L5-S1), 3 cm from the expected spinal midline, and spinal anesthesia was performed at this interspace without any complications. A healthy infant was delivered, and the mother recovered uneventfully.

CONCLUSIONS:
Spinal anesthesia can be effectively performed in patients with poliomyelitis and severe kyphoscoliosis, that has been treated with extensive Harrington instrumentation. To facilitate regional techniques in such patients, bedside ultrasound may be greatly beneficial in identifying the correct spinal interspace.

Conclusions: This case illustrates several points: first, the benefit of ultrasound in the placement of a spinal block in a patient with abnormal spinal anatomy; second, the choice of anesthetic technique in pregnant patients with poliomyelitits; and third, the management of a pregnant patient with severe kyphoscoliosis, spinal surgery, and restrictive lung disease.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Activity Levels

Title: Change in physical mobility over 10 years in post-polio syndrome
Author: Bickerstaffe A (1), Beelen A (2), Nollet F (2)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center (AMC), PO Box 22660, 1100 DD, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; (2) Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center (AMC), PO Box 22660, 1100 DD, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Journal: Neuromuscular Disorders
Citation: Neuromuscul Disord. 2015 Mar;25(3):225-30. doi: 10.1016/j.nmd.2014.11.015
Publication Year and Month: 2015 03

Abstract: Post-polio syndrome is characterised by progressive muscle weakness and other symptoms which can limit physical mobility. We assessed the rate of decline in mobility over 10 years in relation to strength decline; and investigated potential predictors for the rate of decline of walking capacity, a measure of mobility, in 48 patients with post-polio syndrome and proven quadriceps dysfunction at baseline. Average walking capacity and self-reported physical mobility declined over 10 years, by 6 and 14%, respectively. Concomitantly people lost an average of 15% of isometric quadriceps strength. Significantly more people used walking aids offering greater support at follow-up. Notably, there was much individual variation, with 18% of participants losing a substantial amount of walking capacity (27% decline) and concomitant self-reported physical mobility (38% decline). Loss of quadriceps strength only explained a small proportion of the variance of the decline in walking capacity (R = 11%) and the rate of decline could not be predicted from baseline values for strength, walking capacity, self-reported physical mobility or basic demographics. The individual variability, yet lack of predictive factors, underscores the need for personally tailored care based on actual functional decline in patients with post-polio syndrome.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Activity Levels

Title: Change in physical mobility over 10 years in post-polio syndrome.
Author: Bickerstaffe, A., Beelen, A., Nollet, F.
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Centre, The Netherlands
Journal: Neuromuscular Disorders
Citation: Bickerstaffe, A., Beelen, A., Nollet, F. (2015) Change in physical mobility over 10 years in post-polio syndrome. Neuromuscular Disorders. 25(3):225-30
Publication Year and Month: 2015 03

Abstract: Post-polio syndrome is characterised by progressive muscle weakness and other symptoms which can limit physical mobility. We assessed the rate of decline in mobility over 10 years in relation to strength decline; and investigated potential predictors for the rate of decline of walking capacity, a measure of mobility, in 48 patients with post-polio syndrome and proven quadriceps dysfunction at baseline. Average walking capacity and self-reported physical mobility declined over 10 years, by 6 and 14%, respectively. Concomitantly people lost an average of 15% of isometric quadriceps strength. Significantly more people used walking aids offering greater support at follow-up. Notably, there was much individual variation, with 18% of participants losing a substantial amount of walking capacity (27% decline) and concomitant self-reported physical mobility (38% decline). Loss of quadriceps strength only explained a small proportion of the variance of the decline in walking capacity (R = 11%) and the rate of decline could not be predicted from baseline values for strength, walking capacity, self-reported physical mobility or basic demographics. The individual variability, yet lack of predictive factors, underscores the need for personally tailored care based on actual functional decline in patients with post-polio syndrome.

Conclusions: • The majority of post-polio patients experienced modest declines in physical mobility in 10 years.
• One-fifth of patients experienced substantial declines in walking capacity.
• The rate of decline in walking capacity could not be predicted from baseline quadriceps strength.
• These findings underscore the need for personally tailored care based on actual functional
decline.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: Changes in macro electromyography over time in patients with a history of polio: a comparison of 2 muscles.
Author: Sandberg A, Stalberg E
Affiliation: Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Uppsala University Hospital, ing 85, 3 tr., S-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: 2004 Jul;85(7):1174-82.
Publication Year and Month: 2004 07

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To investigate whether changes over time are different in a weight-bearing leg muscle than in a less heavily used arm muscle.

DESIGN:
Prospective study.

SETTING:
University hospital laboratory.

PARTICIPANTS:
Twenty-three patients with a history of poliomyelitis.

INTERVENTION:
Two investigations were performed 5 years apart, using macro electromyography and the patients' own assessments of symptoms in the tibial anterior and the biceps brachii muscles. Test-retest of macro electromyography was performed in controls and in patients with old polio.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Macro motor unit potential (MUP) and symptoms in the tibial anterior and biceps brachii over time.

RESULTS:
The macro MUP amplitude increased by 24% (P<.05) in the tibial anterior but was unchanged in the biceps brachii muscle.

Conclusions: CONCLUSIONS:
An increase in the macro MUP amplitude of the tibial anterior muscle, but not of the biceps brachii, most likely indicates a more pronounced ongoing denervation-reinnervation process over time in the tibial anterior. This difference could be activity dependent, but other factors cannot be excluded.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Ageing

Title: Changes in Post-Polio Survivors Over Five Years: Symptoms and Reactions to Treatments.
Author: Mary T. Westbrook, PhD.
Affiliation: Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney.
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Proceedings of the 12th World Congress, International Federation of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sydney, March 1995.
Publication Year and Month: 1995 03

Abstract: A group of 176 people with post-polio syndrome, identified using Ramlow et al's (1992) criteria, took part in a 5 year follow-up survey. Most reported increased muscle weakness (91%), fatigue (91%), muscle pain (80%), joint pain (64%) and changes in walking (60%). Increases in other symptoms occurred in less than half the group. Cramps, sensitivity to cold, muscle atrophy and muscle twitching were the symptoms most likely to have stabilised. The average respondent reported greater difficulty in carrying out 4 of the 8 activities of daily living investigated. Respondents were significantly less anxious and depressed about their condition at follow-up. Degree of post-polio changes reported at the time of the first survey was a better predictor of decline during the five years than were initial polio histories or psycho-social variables. Health practitioners most likely to have been consulted were general practitioners and physiotherapists. Specialists in rehabilitation medicine were rated as providing more beneficial treatment than other medical practitioners. Treatments reported to provide good symptom relief included massage and water activities but not exercise. Life style modifications associated with pacing, reduced activity and rest were particularly effective. Overall 68% of respondents considered there was much they could do to control post-polio symptoms.

Conclusions: The results confirm and elaborate the findings of previous lengthier longitudinal studies of post-polio syndrome (Dalakas et al., 1986; Grimby et al., 1994; Mulder et al., 1972) The syndrome typically appears to he progressive with the symptoms increasingly interfering with activities of living. However over time most people in the sample studied coped by trying a range of remedies, particularly treatments prescribed by health practitioners and life style modifications. Many of these helped to alleviate symptoms and although respondents were physically less well at the time of follow-up, the group was significantly less anxious and depressed. However, respondents who had declined most over the five year period described their present lives less positively than did survivors whose symptoms had progressed more slowly.

Polio survivors who exhibited most symptoms of post-polio in the initial survey were those reporting greater progression over the next five years. The reason why may become more apparent when the etiology of post-polio syndrome, which is still not fully understood (Jubelt & Druker, 1993), is elucidated.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Characteristics and management of postpolio syndrome
Author: Jubelt B, Agre JC
Affiliation: State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, 750 E Adams St, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA – [email protected]
Journal: The Journal of the American Medical Association
Citation: JAMA. 2000 Jul 26;284(4):412-4
Publication Year and Month: 2000 07

Abstract: Postpolio syndrome (PPS) refers to new, late manifestations occurring many years after acute poliomyelitis infection. Over the last 25 years, PPS has become a relatively common problem encountered by primary care physicians. A 1987 National Health Interview Survey estimated that about half of the 640,000 survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis in the United States had new late manifestations of PPS. Subsequent studies in the 1990s have found the occurrence of PPS among patients with previous poliomyelitis to range from 28.5% to 64%. The average time in various reports from the acute poliomyelitis until the onset of PPS is about 35 years, with a range from 8 to 71 years. However, it is unclear if the occurrence of PPS increases with aging, which may be the case based on the most accepted etiologic hypothesis.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Characteristics of Patients at First Visit to a Polio Clinic in Sweden
Author: Skough Vreede, K. and Sunnerhagen, K.S.
Affiliation: Goteborg University
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: PLoS One
Skough Vreede, K. and Sunnerhagen, K.S. (2016) Characteristics of Patients at First Visit to a Polio Clinic in Sweden. PLoS One. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150286

Publication Year and Month: 2016 03

Abstract: Aim
Describe polio patients visiting a polio clinic in Sweden, a country where vaccination was introduced in 1957.

Design
A consecutive cohort study.

Patients
Prior polio patients.

Methods
All patients (n = 865) visiting the polio clinic at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg Sweden, between 1994 and 2012 were included in this study. Data at first visit regarding patient characteristics, polio classification, data of electromyography, origin, assistive devices and gait speed as well as muscle strength were collected for these patients. Twenty-three patients were excluded because no polio diagnosis could be established. A total of 842 patients with confirmed polio remained in the study.

Results
More than twenty percent of the patients were from countries outside the Nordic region and considerably younger than those from the Nordic region. The majority of the emigrants were from Asia and Africa followed by Europe (outside the Nordic region). Of all patients included ninety-seven percent (n = 817) had polio in the lower extremity and almost 53% (n = 444) had polio in the upper extremity while 28% (n = 238) had polio in the trunk, according to clinical classification of polio. Compared with a sample of the normal population, the polio patients walked 61–71% slower, and were 53–77% weaker in muscle strength of the knee and foot as well as grip strength.

Conclusion
The younger patients with polio emigrating from countries with different cultures may lead to a challenge for the multi professional teams working with post-polio rehabilitation and are of importance when planning for the care of polio patients the coming years.

Conclusions: Polio in lower extremities was more common than polio in upper extremities, verified both
by EMG and clinical classification. This is in accordance with earlier studies. Polio in lower
extremities was also classified as clinically unstable or severely atrophic to a higher extent than
polio in upper extremities (as shown in Fig 1). This is in accordance with an earlier study by
Sandberg et al [20] indicating a more pronounced ongoing denervation-reinnervation process
over time in a lower extremity muscle compared to upper extremity muscle (tibialis anterior
and biceps brachii respectively). The same pattern was also seen in patients studied in Minnesota where patients with leg weakness were twice as likely to complain of new problems compared to those with arm weakness [10].

The ongoing denervation-reinnervation process in patients with PPS results in larger motor
units.When motor-unit size has reached an upper limit, further losses of neurons can no longer
be compensated for and this results in increased muscle weakness [21]. The patients
showed to be stronger in isometric endurance compared to normal population. This may be
explained by the fact that the patients were weaker than the normal population in isometric
peak torque, which the measure of isometric endurance was based on. An increase in type I
(slow) muscle fibres has also been described in prior polio patients [22–23] and may be due to
a transition of type II (fast) to type I (slow).

An important study limitation were seen in the classification of polio as polio were classified
for left and right arm and leg, respectively, and not per muscle group. This can explain why a
polio affected leg in some cases was stronger compared to normal values as the muscles
involved in the strength measured i.e. knee flexion and knee extension muscles may not be
affected of polio. And the same is applicable regarding muscle strength of the foot as well as
grip strength. Data of muscle strength from some of the subjects were missing for different reasons i.e. they may have just not had time to participate, or refused to participate and some were too weak to perform the strength test. Some of the patients with muscle strength data missing, tried to perform the test, but were too weak to get a result. In the future, the use of ultrasound may be used to assess muscle function [24]. This would give the possibility to have more information of muscle function since this does not require that the patient has muscle strength to overcome gravity, which is a requirement for isokinetic testing.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Psychology

Title: Childhood Health Shocks, Comparative Advantage, and Long-Term Outcomes: Evidence from the Last Danish Polio Epidemic
Author: Miriam Gensowski, Torben Heien Nielsen, Nete Munk Nielsen, Maya Rossin-Slater, Miriam Wüst
Affiliation:
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: The National Bureau of Economic Research
Publication Year and Month: 2018 05

Abstract: A large literature documents that childhood health shocks have lasting negative consequences for adult outcomes. This paper demonstrates that the adversity of childhood physical disability can be mediated by individuals' educational and occupational choices, which reflect their comparative advantage. We merge records on children hospitalized with poliomyelitis during the 1952 Danish epidemic to census and administrative data, and exploit quasi-random variation in paralysis incidence. While childhood disability increases the likelihood of early retirement and disability pension receipt at age 50, paralytic polio survivors obtain higher education and are more likely to work in white-collar and computer-demanding jobs than their non-paralytic counterparts.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Fatigue

Title: Circadian fatigue or unrecognized restless legs syndrome? The post-polio syndrome model
Author: Romigi A, Maestri M
Affiliation: Neurophysiopathology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, Sleep Medicine Centre, Tor Vergata University and Hospital , Rome , Italy ; IRCCS Neuromed , Pozzilli , Italy; Neurology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa , Pisa , Italy.
Journal: Frontiers in Neurology
Citation: Front Neurol. 2014 Jul 7;5:115. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2014.00115
Publication Year and Month: 2014 07

Abstract: This paper does not have an abstract.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required.

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Circumstances and consequences of falls in polio survivors
Author: Bickerstaffe A, Beelen A, Nollet F
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2010 Nov;42(10):908-15. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0620
Publication Year and Month: 2010 11

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Many polio survivors have symptoms that are known risk factors for falls in elderly people. This study aims to determine the: (i) frequency; (ii) consequences; (iii) circumstances; and (iv) factors associated with falls in polio survivors.

METHODS: A survey was conducted among 376 polio survivors. Participants completed a falls history questionnaire and additional information was obtained from their medical files.

RESULTS: Of the 305 respondents, 74% reported at least one fall in the past year and 60% two or more. Sixteen percent of fallers described a major injury after a fall in the last year and 69% reported fear of falling. One-third of fallers had reduced the amount they walked because of their fear of falling. Most reported falls in a familiar environment (86%), during ambulation (72%) and in the afternoon (50%). Quadriceps weakness of the weakest leg (Medical Research Council (MRC) ≤ 3), fear of falling and complaints of problems maintaining balance were independently associated with both falls and recurrent falls, while increasing age and medication use were not.

Conclusions: The high rate of falls and consequences thereof, merit the implementation of fall intervention strategies. To maximize effect, they should be tailor-made and target the fall mechanisms specific to polio survivors.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Comments (if any): The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

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Category: Complementary Therapies

Title: Clinical neurological and tongue inspection according to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) – evaluation of post polio syndrome patients
Author: Abe, G.C., Ramos, P.E., da Silva, B.L., Quadros, A.J., Oliveira, A.S.B.
Affiliation: Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Neurologia e Neurocirurgia, São Paulo - SP, Brazil
Journal: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Citation: Volume 381, Supplement, 15 October 2017, Pages 199-200

Publication Year and Month: 2017 10

Abstract: Objective: To describe tongue characteristics of PPS patients relating to neurology.

RESULTS
89 individuals were evaluated within a 12 month period, 61 (68,5%) females, 28(31,5%)males, aged from 32–57 years old (mean = 46). The most frequent characteristics were: decreased moisture (52.5%); thick whitish coating (60.7%); red color (46,1%), and normal movement (49.4%). The enlarged size (40.4%) prevailed over the small/thin size (15.7%). The presence of “other findings” (OF) was over 70%.

Conclusions: Conclusion: The frequency of enlarged size associated to minor normal characteristics in OF and in tongue coating suggests that the group has a less marked impairment within the natural history of PPS.

Outcome of Research: More research required

Comments (if any): The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

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Category: Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: CMAP scan and scanning EMG in the same muscle: Two cases with post-polio muscular atrophy
Author: Mehmet Baris Baslo, Nermin G.Sirin, EmelOguz-Akarsu, ElifKocasoy-Orhan, BaharErbas, ImranGoker, TugrulArtugAli EmreOge
Affiliation:
Journal: Clinical Neurophysiology
Citation: Volume 129, Supplement 1, May 2018, Page e32

Publication Year and Month: 2018 05

Abstract: Post-polio muscular atrophy (PPMA) is characterized by new onset or increased weakness in patients with prior poliomyelitis after a stable period of time. Loss of highly reinnervated motor units during ageing has been accused for the development of this syndrome which is also known as “unstable-polio”. These patients have less number of motor units that can be estimated by conventional electrophysiological methods. By showing the large steps, CMAP scan provides information about the amount of collateral reinnervation in the construction of total muscle response (CMAP). As well as the number of motor units, their territory is also an object of curiosity. It is possible to record bioelectrical activity of motor unit lengthwise by scanning EMG and depict the temporal and spatial features of motor unit action potential (MUAP). This presentation aims to combine the findings in CMAP scan with scanning EMG and draw attention to reinnervation status of 2 PPMA patients whose tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were affected in different degrees.

Methods
Two patients aged 39and 41 years were included. Patient 1 had PPMA for 8 years and his TA muscle strength was 3-/5, whereas Patient 2 showed PPMA findings for 1 year and his TA strength was 4/5. CMAP scan of TA muscle on recently affected side was performed with a commercially available software. In scanning EMG, MU territories were scanned with a concentric needle electrode (CNE) which is attached to a stepper motor. Another CNE is used for sweep triggering with the rate of selected motor units’ firing frequency. Acquired signals were processed by the dedicated software designed by the authors.

Results
CMAP scan of Patient 1 revealed a 1.65 mV CMAP constituting of 4 very large steps and Patient 2 revealed a 5.5 mV CMAP containing a few smaller steps. In scanning EMG, both patients’ motor units showed increased voltage in different parts corresponding to dense areas arisen from collateral reinnervation. Interestingly, the patient with more pronounced weakness for a longer period revealed both huge steps in his CMAP scan and also showed electrically silent areas in his scanned motor units. On the other hand, the patient with stronger TA muscle did not show very large steps or silent areas in his CMAP scan and MU scan, respectively.

Conclusions: Loss of dense motor units leads to PPMA. However, in PPMA patients with severe weakness which is depicted by less number of motor units and presence of huge steps in CMAP scan, loss of fractions in motor unit territory might be a principal contributing factor which can only be demonstrated by scanning EMG.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Ageing

Title: Cognitive Behavior Therapy combined with Exercise for Adults with Chronic Diseases: Systematic
Review and Meta-Analysis

Author: Bernard P, Romain AJ, Caudroit J, Chevance G, Carayol M, Gourlan M, Dancause KN, Moullec G
Affiliation: Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, Quebec , Canada.
Research Center, University Institute of Mental Health at Montreal, Montréal, Quebec, Canada.
Laboratory Epsylon, Dynamics of Human Abilities and Health Behavior, University of Montpellier,
Montpellier, France.

Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, May 2018, Vol.37(5), pp.433-450
Publication Year and Month: 2018 05

Abstract: Objective. The present meta-analysis aimed to determine the overall effect of cognitive behavior therapy combined with physical exercise (CBTEx) interventions on depression, anxiety, fatigue, and pain in adults with chronic illness; to identify the potential moderators of efficacy; and to compare the efficacy of CBTEx versus each condition alone (CBT and physical exercise).
Methods. Relevant randomized clinical trials, published before July 2017, were identified through database searches in Pubmed, PsycArticles, CINAHL, SportDiscus and the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials.
Results. A total of 30 studies were identified. CBTEx interventions yielded small-to-large effect sizes for depression (SMC = -0.34, 95% CI [-0.53; -0.14]), anxiety (SMC = -0.18, 95% CI [-0.34; -0.03]) and fatigue (SMC = -0.96, 95% CI [-1.43; -0.49]). Moderation analyses revealed that longer intervention was associated with greater effect sizes for depression and anxiety outcomes. Low methodological quality was also associated with increased CBTEx efficacy for depression. When compared directly, CBTEx interventions did not show greater efficacy than CBT alone or physical exercise alone for any of the outcomes.

Conclusions: Conclusion. The current literature suggests that CBTEx interventions are effective for decreasing
depression, anxiety, and fatigue symptoms, but not pain. However, the findings do not support an additive effect of CBT and exercise on any of the four outcomes compared to each condition alone.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Cognitive behavioural therapy for reducing fatigue in post-polio syndrome and in facioscapulohumeral dystrophy: A comparison
Author: Koopman, Fieke S., Merel A. Brehm, Anita Beelen, Nicole Voet, Gijs Bleijenberg, Alexander Geurts, Frans Nollet
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation , Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, PO 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam, The Netherlands. E-mail: [email protected]

Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: 2017; 49: 585–590
Publication Year and Month: 2017

Abstract: Post-polio syndrome (PPS) and facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) are two different neuromuscular disorders. Fatigue is a frequent complaint in both disorders. A recent study showed that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), which is a type of psychotherapy that helps patients to identify and reshape thoughts and behavior patterns that contribute to the fatigue was effective in alleviating fatigue in FSHD but not in PPS. In this study we investigated whether this difference in effectiveness might be explained by dissimilar fatigue-related thoughts (for example focusing on fatigue) in both conditions. We used questionnaires to measure the fatigue-related thoughts in 21 patients with PPS and 24 patients with FSHD . It appeared that fatigue-related thoughts in PPS were similar to those in FSHD and thus do not explain the difference in effectiveness of CBT.

Conclusions: Fatigue-related thoughts in PPS were similar to those in FSHD and thus do not explain the difference in effectiveness of CBT.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Fatigue

Title: Cognitive functioning in post‐polio patients with and without general fatigue
Author: Ostlund G, Borg K, Wahlin A.
Affiliation: Department of Public Health Science, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2005 May;37(3):147-51
Publication Year and Month: 2005 03

Abstract: OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: This study examined 2 main hypotheses. First, whether patients with post-polio suffering from general fatigue (n=10) demonstrate cognitive deficits compared with patients with post-polio without general fatigue (n=10). Secondly, by systematically varied test order administration we examined whether such differences varied as a function of increasing cognitive load during cognitive testing.

SUBJECTS: Twenty patients diagnosed with post-polio syndrome, 10 with general fatigue and 10 without fatigue.

RESULTS: Neither of the 2 hypotheses were confirmed. The group with general fatigue reported elevated levels of depression. However, no systematic association between level of depression and cognitive performance could be detected.

Conclusions: The results of this study provide no evidence that general fatigue or cognitive load affects cognitive functioning in post-polio.

Outcome of Research: Not effective.

Comments (if any): The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

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Category: Respiratory Complications and Management

Title: Comparison of activity and fatigue of the respiratory muscles and pulmonary characteristics between post-polio patients and controls: A pilot study
Author: David Shoseyov, Tali Cohen-Kaufman, Isabella Schwartz, Sigal Portnoy,
Affiliation: Pediatric department, Hadassah Mount Scopus, Jerusalem, Israel
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation department, Hadassah Mount Scopus, Jerusalem, Israel
Department of Physiotherapy, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
Department of Occupational Therapy, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
National Yang-Ming University, TAIWAN
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: PLoS One. 2017; 12(7): e0182036.
Publication Year and Month: 2017 07

Abstract: Objectives
To compare pulmonary function measures, maximal respiratory pressure and fatigue of respiratory muscles between patients with Post-Polio Syndrome (PPS) and controls.

Design
Cross-sectional study.

Patients
Patients with PPS (N = 12; age 62.1±11.6 years) able to walk for 6 minutes without human assistance; age-matched controls with no history of polio or pulmonary dysfunction (N = 12; age 62.2±6.5 years).

Measurements
A body plethysmograph was used to quantify Residual Volume (RV), Total Lung Capacity (TLC), and Thoracic Gas Volume (TGV) etc. A manometer was used to measure Maximal Inspiratory Pressure (MIP) and Maximal Expiratory Pressure. A spirometer was used to measure Maximal Voluntary Ventilation (MVV). Surface electromyography (sEMG) recorded diaphragmatic muscle activity while performing MVV.

Results
The control group had significantly higher TGV and showed improvement in MIP following the effort (difference of 5.5±4.0cmH2O) while the PPS group showed deterioration in MIP (difference of -2.5±5.0cmH2O). Subjects with scoliosis had significantly higher RV/TLC values compared with subjects without scoliosis. The 25th frequency percentile of the sEMG signal acquired during MVV was reduced in the PPS group.

Conclusions: Maximal respiratory pressure test and sEMG measurements may identify fatigue of respiratory muscles in patients with PPS. Early diagnosis of respiratory impairment may delay respiratory decline and future need of invasive respiratory aids.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Exercise

Title: Comparison of two 6-minute walk tests to assess walking capacity in polio survivors
Author: Merel-Anne Brehm, PhD, Suzan Verduijn, MSc, Jurgen Bon, MD, Nicoline Bredt, MSc and Frans Nollet, MD, PhD
Affiliation: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: Merel-Anne Brehm, PhD, Suzan Verduijn, MSc, Jurgen Bon, MD, Nicoline Bredt, MSc and Frans Nollet, MD, PhD. Comparison of two 6-minute walk tests to assess walking capacity in polio survivors. J Rehabil Med 2017; 49: 00–00
Publication Year and Month: 2017 09

Abstract: Objective: To compare walking dynamics and test-retest reliability for 2 frequently applied walk tests in polio survivors: the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) to walk as far as possible; and the 6-minute walking energy cost test (WECT) at comfortable speed.

Design: Observational study.

Participants: Thirty-three polio survivors, able to walk ≥ 150 m.

Methods: On the same day participants performed a 6MWT and a WECT, which were repeated 1–3 weeks later. For each test, distance walked, heart rate and reduction in speed were assessed.

Results: The mean distance walked and mean heart rate were significantly higher in the 6MWT (441 m (standard deviation) (SD 79.7); 118 bpm (SD 19.2)) compared with the WECT (366 m (SD 67.3); 103 bpm (SD 14.3)); p < 0.001. Furthermore, during the 6MWT, patients continuously slowed down (–6%), while during the WECT speed dropped only slightly during the first 2 min, by –1.8% in total. Test-retest reliability of both tests was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) ≥ 0.95; lower bound 95% confidence interval (95% CI) ≥ 0.87). The smallest detectable change for the walked distance was 42 m (9.7% change from the mean) and 50 m (13.7%) on the 6MWT and WECT, respectively.

Conclusion: Both the 6MWT and the WECT are reliable to assess walking capacity in polio survivors, with slightly superior sensitivity to detect change for the 6MWT. Differences in walking dynamics confirm that the tests cannot be used interchangeably. The 6MWT is recommended for measuring maximal walking capacity and the WECT for measuring submaximal walking capacity.

Conclusions: In conclusion, this study of polio survivors with a minimum self-reported walking distance of 150 m shows that both the 6MWT and the WECT are reliable and can be used to evaluate changes in walking capacity, with the 6MWT showing slightly superior sensitivity to detect change. The study also shows a significantly higher heart rate (57%HRR on average) at the expense of a reduction in walking speed at this heart rate during the 6MWT compared with the WECT. These findings indicate distinct patterns of walking dynamics between the 6MWT and WECT, where the 6MWT is more likely a measure of maximal walking capacity (i.e. what a person can do) and the WECT of submaximal walking capacity (i.e. what a person does do). The difference in walking dynamics confirms that these tests cannot be used interchangeably, and that the choice to use either test should be tailored to the construct to be measured. Responsiveness to change in this patient population should be further investigated for both tests.

Outcome of Research: Effective

Comments (if any): The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

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Category: Orthoses

Title: Compensations in lower limb joint work during walking in response to unilateral calf muscle weakness
Author: Niels F.J.Waterval, Merel-AnneBrehm, Hilde E.Ploegera, Frans Nollet, Jaap Harlaar
Affiliation: Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Department of Rehabilitation, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, de Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Gait & Posture, Volume 66, October 2018, Pages 38-44

Publication Year and Month: 2018 10

Abstract: Background
Patients with calf muscle weakness due to neuromuscular disorders have a reduced ankle push-off work, which leads to increased energy dissipation at contralateral heel-strike. Consequently, compensatory positive work needs to be generated, which is mechanically less efficient. It is unknown whether neuromuscular disorder patients compensate with their ipsilateral hip and/or contralateral leg; and if such compensatory joint work is related to walking energy cost.

Research question
Do patients with calf muscle weakness compensate for the increase in negative joint work by increasing positive ipsilateral hip work and/or positive contralateral leg work? And is the total mechanical work related with walking energy cost?

Methods
Seventeen patients with unilateral flaccid calf muscle weakness and 10 healthy individuals performed the following two tests: i) a barefoot 3D gait analysis at comfortable speed and matched control speed (i.e. 0.4 non-dimensional) to assess lower limb joint work and ii) a 6-minute walk test at comfortable speed to assess walking energy cost.

Results
Patients had a lower comfortable walking speed compared to healthy individuals (1.05 vs 1.36 m/s, p < 0.001) and did not increase positive lower limb joint work at comfortable speed. At matched speed (1.25 m/s), patients showed increased positive work at their ipsilateral hip (0.38 ± 0.08 vs 0.27 ± 0.07, p = 0.001) and/or contralateral leg (0.99 ± 0.14 vs 0.69 ± 0.14, p < 0.001). Patients with weakest plantar flexors used both strategies. No relation between total positive work and walking energy cost was found (r = 0.43, p = 0.122).

Conclusions: Significance
Patients with unilateral calf muscle weakness compensated for reduced ankle push-off work by lowering their comfortable walking speed or, at matched speed, by generating additional positive joint work at the ipsilateral hip and/or contralateral leg. The additional positive joint work at matched speed did not explain the elevated walking energy cost at comfortable speed, which needs further exploration.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Assistive Technology, Late Effects of Polio

Title: Coping with a Second Disability: Implications of the Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Occupational Therapists
Author: Mary Westbrook, Lynette McDowell
Affiliation: Macquarie University, Sydney. Australia
Journal: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
Citation: 38(2):83 - 91
Publication Year and Month: 2010 08

Abstract: The long term effects of many physical disabilities have only recently begun to be appreciated. For people who have lived for years with what they thought to be stable conditions, the onset of secondary disabilities may be associated with considerable problems and distress. A questionnaire survey of 324 people with poliomyelitis revealed the occurrence of late effects in 94% of respondents. The majority reported increased weakness, pain and fatigue, problems in carrying out daily living activities and difficulties in obtaining appropriate health care. Although occupational therapists were less likely to be consulted than other professionals, they received one of the highest satisfaction ratings from clients.

Conclusions: Discussion of case studies indicates ways in which occupational therapists can provide symptom relief and enable clients to maintain valued roles. As the survival rates of people with disabilities increase there is a need for greater awareness of, and research into, the late effects of disability.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Psychology

Title: Coping with the late effects: differences between depressed and nondepressed polio survivors
Author: Tate D, Kirsch N, Maynard F, Peterson C, Forchheimer M, Roller A, Hansen N
Affiliation: Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1994 Feb;73(1):27-35
Publication Year and Month: 1994 02

Abstract: This study examined differences between depressed and nondepressed individuals with a history of paralytic poliomyelitis in terms of demographics, health status and coping strategies. The prevalence of distress and depression in this group of 116 polio survivors was determined. Subjects completed the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Coping with Disability Inventory and a questionnaire concerning their polio histories and self-perceptions of health. Medical assessments were performed by physicians. Only 15.8% of the sample had scores indicating depression and elevated distress. Depressed/distressed polio survivors were more likely to: be living alone, be experiencing further health status deterioration, seek professional help, view their health as poor, report greater pain, be less satisfied with their occupational status and their lives in general and exhibit poorer coping outcome behaviors in relation to their disability. Three factors in coping with the late effects of polio were identified through a factor analysis of the Coping with Disability Inventory: positive self-acceptance, information seeking/sharing about the disability and social activism. Differences between depressed/distressed and other polio survivors were found across these three factors, with depressed/distressed subjects having significantly lower coping scores. These and other results are discussed.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

Comments (if any): The full paper is available from Polio Australia for private study purposes.

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Category: Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: Correlation of Electrophysiology with Pathology, Pathogenesis, and Anticholinesterase Therapy in Post-Polio Syndrome
Author: Neil R. Cashman and Daria A. Trojan
Affiliation: Department of Neurology, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University
Journal: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Citation: Reprinted from The Post-Polio Syndrome: Advances in the Pathogenesis and Treatment
Volume 753 [pp 138-150] of the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
May 25, 1995
Publication Year and Month: 1995 05

Abstract:

Conclusions: A great deal of data has been generated on PPS, and a great deal more will be generated before we understand the pathophysiology of this common and disabling disorder. Perhaps now, to guide future work and direct therapeutic approaches, it is best to think of the symptoms of PPS as due to two lesions of the motor unit: a "progressive lesion" and a "fluctuating lesion." The progressive lesion gives rise to the symptom of slowly progressive weakness, and is due to the degeneration of terminal axons (and perhaps motor neurons) over the course of years. This lesion, best articulated by Wiechers and Hubble,[18] has been difficult to objectify because of its indolent nature. However, significant clinical weakening has indeed been quantified by several groups, including Munsat and colleagues,[7] and Sonies and Dalakas.[53] The best objective "proof" of the progressive lesion at present is the appearance of muscle fiber atrophy in biopsies, isolated and in groups, suggesting ongoing "permanent" denervation.[22] Diminution of motor unit size over time, as suggested by the macro-EMG studies of Lange et al.,[32] are also consistent with this hypothesis, albeit more controversial.

The other lesion of the PPS motor unit, hypothesized as a "fluctuating lesion," may be due to dysfunction of terminal axons, which gives rise to symptoms (muscle fatigability, generalized fatigue, and a component of weakness) that can change over the course of minutes to days. The underlying pathophysiology of these symptoms may be due to critical enlargement of motor units with limitations of distal components subserving axonal conduction and NMJ transmission, and/or the constant remodeling of the motor unit which appears to occur in virtually every individual after recovery from paralytic poliomyelitis. The best objective evidence for this ongoing lesion is provided by innumerable electrophysiologic studies demonstrating unstable motor unit action potentials and decrement on repetitive stimulation with conventional EMG, increased SFEMG jitter, and a host ofother studies.[54] In addition, the widespread expression of N-CAM in muscle biopsies of post-polio subjects (sometimes exceeding 10% of fibers)[22] strongly suggests that axono-myofiber interactions are distinctly unstable and/or immature. Clearly, agents that support the integrity or function of motor axonal sprouts may improve or delay patient symptoms in PPS.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Comments (if any): The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

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Category: Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: Correlation of motor units with strength and spectral characteristics in polio survivors and controls
Author: Rodriguez AA, Agre JC
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison Medical School
Journal: Muscle & Nerve
Citation: 1991 May;14(5):429-34.
Publication Year and Month: 1991 05

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether quantitative motor unit analysis in postpolio individuals correlates with muscle strength, endurance, work capacity, or power spectral characteristics of surface EMG and to determine whether power spectrum differentiates postpolio from control subjects. This study was designed to compare these variables in 34 symptomatic postpolio, 16 asymptomatic postpolio, and 41 control subjects. Quantitative motor unit analysis of the quadriceps femoris muscle was performed using a concentric needle electrode. Isometric knee extension peak torque, endurance (time to exhaustion) at 40% of maximal torque, work capacity (tension time index), and recovery of force through 10 minutes post-exhaustion were determined. Median frequency of the surface power spectrum was determined during the above testing. Power spectrum histograms were compared at the onset and termination of endurance exercise. Motor unit action potential variables did not correlate with isometric peak torque, tension time index, endurance time, recovery of strength, or with median frequency. Surface power spectrum did not differentiate postpolio from control subjects.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Ageing

Title: Currents issues in cardiorespiratory care of patients with post-polio syndrome
Author: Marco Orsini, Agnaldo J. Lopes, Fernando S. Guimarães, Marcos R. G. Freitas, Osvaldo J. M.
Nascimento, Mauricio de Sant’ Anna Junior, Pedro Moreira Filho, Stenio Fiorelli, Ana Carolina A. F.
Ferreira, Camila Pupe, Victor H. V. Bastos, Bruno Pessoa, Carlos B. Nogueira, Beny Schmidt,
Olivia G. Souza, Eduardo R Davidovich, Acary S. B. Oliveira, Pedro Ribeiro
Affiliation: Centro Universitário Augusto Motta, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Reabilitação, Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brasil
Journal: Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria
Citation: Arq. Neuro-Psiquiatr. vol.74 no.7 São Paulo July 2016
Publication Year and Month: 2016 07

Abstract: Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a condition that affects polio survivors years after recovery from an initial acute attack of the poliomyelitis virus. Most often, polio survivors experience a gradual new weakening in muscles that were previously affected by the polio infection. The actual incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in individuals suffering from PPS is not known. However, there is a reason to suspect that individuals with PPS might be at increased risk.

Method

A search for papers was made in the databases Bireme, Scielo and Pubmed with the following keywords: post polio syndrome, cardiorespiratory and rehabilitation in English, French and Spanish languages. Although we targeted only seek current studies on the topic in question, only the relevant (double-blind, randomized-controlled and consensus articles) were considered.

Results and Discussion

Certain features of PPS such as generalized fatigue, generalized and specific muscle weakness, joint and/or muscle pain may result in physical inactivity deconditioning obesity and dyslipidemia. Respiratory difficulties are common and may result in hypoxemia.

Conclusions: Conclusion

Only when evaluated and treated promptly, somE patients can obtain the full benefits of the use of respiratory muscles aids as far as quality of life is concerned.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Exercise

Title: Daily Well-Being Benefits of Physical Activity in Older Adults: Does Time or Type Matter?
Author: Whitehead BR, Blaxton JM
Affiliation: 1 Behavioral Sciences Department, University of Michigan-Dearborn.
2 Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame, Indiana.
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Gerontologist. 2017 Nov 10;57(6):1062-1071
Publication Year and Month: 2017 11

Abstract: PURPOSE OF THE STUDY:
There is little debate that maintaining some level of physical activity in later life conveys positive benefits both physically and psychologically. What is less understood is the extent to which the type of activity or the length of time spent doing it matters when it comes to these benefits on the daily level. Here, we investigated (a) whether the presence of daily purposeful exercise (Exercise) or non-exercise physical activity (Activity) is sufficient for experiencing day-level benefits, or if time spent matters, and (b) whether there are differential well-being benefits of Exercise and Activity on the daily level.

DESIGN AND METHODS:
Older adults (N = 127; aged 60-95, Mage = 79.4) filled out surveys for 14 days, reporting daily Exercise and Activity behaviors as well as Positive and Negative Affect (PA/NA), Perceived Stress (PS), Perceived Health (PH), and Sleep Quality (SQ).

RESULTS:
Multilevel regression models showed that for purposeful exercise, more time spent was beneficial for PA, NA, and PH, but for PS, only the presence of exercise was important (time did not matter). For non-exercise activity, time did not have as great an influence as presence-doing any form of activity was beneficial for both PA and SQ. Exercise and Activity had largely independent (additive) effects.

Conclusions: Results reveal that both purposeful exercise and non-exercise activity convey independent daily well-being benefits, and that for some aspects of daily well-being, duration does matter. Findings can be applied in the development of physical activity education or engagement programs for older adults.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Quality of Life

Title: Depression and life satisfaction among people ageing with post-polio and spinal cord injury.
Author: Kemp BJ, Krause JS.
Affiliation: Rehabilitaion Research and Training Center On Aging With Spinal Cord Injury, Rancho Los Amigos Medical Center, Downey, CA 90242, USA.
Journal: Disability and Rehabilitation
Citation: 1999 May-Jun;21(5-6):241-9.
Publication Year and Month: 1999 05

Abstract: PURPOSE AND BACKGROUND:
Attention has recently begun to focus on the ageing of individuals with disability, not only as a long-term follow-up issue but as a unique developmental issue itself. The majority of individuals with an onset of disability before age 30 can now expect to live into their 60s, 70s and beyond. Most of the secondary medical conditions that foreshortened life expectancy have been controlled and improved rehabilitation techniques have evolved over the last 50 years. The average age of persons with post-polio in the United States is over 50 and the average age of persons with spinal cord injury is in the late 40s. New medical, functional and psychosocial problems have been discovered among persons ageing with these and other disabilities. Most of these problems lack sufficient scientific explanation, and therefore, clinical interventions. Quality of life (QOL) issues become involved as these changes occur. From a psychological perspective, QOL can be either positive, as reflected in high life satisfaction, or negative, as reflected in distress and depression.

METHODS:
This study reports on life satisfaction and depression in 360 persons, 121 with post-polio, 177 with SCI and 62 non-disabled age-matched comparisons. The Geriatric Depression Scale and the Older Adult Health and Mood Questionnaire assess depressive symptomatology and a 10-item life satisfaction scale with four-point ratings on each item used.

RESULTS:
Life satisfaction varied by the group, with the non-disabled group higher than one or both of the other two groups on all scales and the post-polio group higher than the SCI group on six scales. Satisfaction with health, finances, work and overall life were most different. 22% of the post-polio group, 41% of the SCI group and 15% of the non-disabled group had at least significant repressive symptomatology.

Conclusions: The results for each group are discussed in terms of their relation to other coping variables that were assessed, particularly social support and coping methods.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Exercise

Title: Determining the anaerobic threshold in postpolio syndrome: comparison with current guidelines for training intensity prescription
Author: Voorn EL (1), Gerrits KH (2), Koopman FS (3), Nollet F (3), Beelen A (3)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: [email protected]; (2) MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; (3) Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 May;95(5):935-40. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2014.01.015
Publication Year and Month: 2014 05

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the anaerobic threshold (AT) can be identified in individuals with postpolio syndrome (PPS) using submaximal incremental exercise testing, and to compare current guidelines for intensity prescription in PPS with the AT.

DESIGN: Cohort study.

SETTING: Research laboratory.

PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with PPS (N=82).

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Power output, gas exchange variables, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured in an incremental submaximal cycle ergometry test. Two independent observers identified the AT. Comparison of current guidelines for training intensity prescription in PPS (40%-60% heart rate reserve [HRR] or RPE of 12) with the AT was based on correlations between recommended heart rate and the heart rate at the AT. In addition, we determined the proportion of individuals that would have been recommended to train at an intensity corresponding to their AT.

RESULTS: The AT was identified in 63 (77%) of the participants. Pearson correlation coefficients between the recommended heart rate and the heart rate at the AT were lower in cases of 40% HRR (r=.56) and 60% HRR (r=.50) than in cases of prescription based on the RPE (r=.86). Based on the RPE, 55% of the individuals would have been recommended to train at an intensity corresponding to their AT. This proportion was higher compared with 40% HRR (41%) or 60% HRR (18%) as criterion.

Conclusions: The AT can be identified in most individuals with PPS offering an individualized target for aerobic training. If the AT cannot be identified (eg, because gas analysis equipment is not available), intensity prescription can best be based on the RPE.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Vocational Implications

Title: Developing vocational rehabilitation services for people with long-term neurological conditions: Identifying facilitators and barriers to service provision
Author: Kate Hayward, Bilal A Mateen, E Diane Playford, Gail Eva
Affiliation: Therapy and Rehabilitation Services, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, UK
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: British Journal of Occupational Therapy
Publication Year and Month: 2019 03

Abstract: Introduction
This study aimed to understand existing vocational rehabilitation service provision in one locality in London (population 3.74 million), identify any gaps and explore reasons for this, to support service development.

Method
Using soft systems methodology to guide the research process, semi-structured interviews were completed with nine participants, who were clinicians and managers providing vocational rehabilitation within a National Health Service context. Data were analysed thematically to build a ‘rich picture’ and develop a conceptual model of vocational rehabilitation service delivery. Findings were then ratified with participants at an engagement event.

Results
The findings indicate a spectrum of vocational rehabilitation service provision for long-term neurological conditions with differing levels of funding in place. Vocational rehabilitation often takes place ‘under the radar’ and therefore the true vocational rehabilitation needs of this population, and the extent of service provision, is not known. There is inconsistency of understanding across the services as to what constitutes vocational rehabilitation and outcomes are not routinely measured.

Conclusions: For vocational rehabilitation services to develop they require appropriate funding, driven by government policy to commissioners. Clear definitions of vocational rehabilitation, collecting and sharing outcome data and effective communication across services are needed at a local level. This is expressed in a conceptual model of vocational rehabilitation service delivery.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Differential Diagnosis

Title: Diagnosing Post-Polio Syndrome in the Elderly, a Case Report
Author: Amole, M. & Khouzam-Skelton, N.
Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Geriatrics. 2017, 2(2), 14; doi:10.3390/geriatrics2020014
Publication Year and Month: 2017 02

Abstract: Poliomyelitis is a disorder of the nervous system caused by an enterovirus. There are many survivors who, years later, develop a little-understood condition called Post-polio syndrome. Post-polio syndrome is a group of delayed sequalae of polio infection that can cause paralysis and bulbar symptoms in patients with a history of polio infection who have had a prolonged symptom-free period, often greater than two decades. Diagnosis of post-polio syndrome is difficult in the geriatric population because many of the symptoms overlap with other disease processes affecting older individuals. An extensive workup is necessary to exclude more concerning etiologies. Furthermore, several symptoms can be attributed to normal ageing. We present the case of an elderly patient with a history of poliomyelitis and multiple comorbidities who presented with complaints of weakness and fatigue.

Conclusions: Post-polio syndrome is an interesting disorder characterized by new neuromuscular deficits that present years after the resolution of a polio infection. There are several diagnostic criteria, but one of the most important is the exclusion of other possible diagnoses. Post-polio syndrome diagnosis is even more difficult in the elderly population due to the presence of multiple comorbid conditions. Extensive testing may be necessary for an appropriate diagnosis in this population.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Respiratory Complications and Management

Title: Diaphragmatic dysfunction
Author: J.Ricoy, N.Rodríguez-Núñez, J.M.Álvarez-Dobaño, M.E.Toubes, V.Riveiro, L.Valdés
Affiliation: Pneumology Service, University Hospital Complex of Santiago, Santiago de Compostela, Spain

Interdisciplinary Research Group in Pulmonology, Institute of Sanitary Research of Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Journal of Pulmonology, PULMOE-1323;No. of Pages 13
Publication Year and Month: 2018

Abstract: The diaphragm is the main breathing muscle and contraction of the diaphragm is vital for ventilation so any disease that interferes with diaphragmatic innervation, contractile muscle function, or mechanical coupling to the chest wall can cause diaphragm dysfunction. Diaphragm dysfunction is associated with dyspnoea, intolerance to exercise, sleep disturbances, hypersomnia, with a potential impact on survival.

Diagnosis of diaphragm dysfunction is based on static and dynamic imaging tests (especially ultrasound) and pulmonary function and phrenic nerve stimulation tests. Treatment will depend on the symptoms and causes of the disease. The management of diaphragm dysfunction may include observation in asymptomatic patients with unilateral dysfunction, surgery (i.e., plication of the diaphragm), placement of a diaphragmatic pacemaker or invasive and/or non-invasive mechanical ventilation in symptomatic patients with bilateral paralysis of the diaphragm. This type of patient should be treated in experienced centres.

This review aims to provide an overview of the problem, with special emphasis on the diseases that cause diaphragmatic dysfunction and the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures most commonly employed in clinical practice. The ultimate goal is to establish a standard of care for diaphragmatic dysfunction.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Fatigue

Title: Disability and functional assessment in former polio patients with and without postpolio syndrome
Author: Nollet F, Beelen A, Prins MH, de Visser M, Sargeant AJ, Lankhorst GJ, de Jong BA
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999 Feb;80(2):136-43
Publication Year and Month: 1999 02

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To compare perceived health problems and disability in former polio subjects with postpolio syndrome (PPS) and those without postpolio syndrome (non-PPS), and to evaluate perceived health problems, disability, physical performance, and muscle strength.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey; partially blinded data collection.

SUBJECTS: One hundred three former polio subjects, aged 32 to 60yrs. This volunteer sample came from referrals and patient contacts. Criterion for PPS: new muscle weakness among symptoms.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), adapted D-code of the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps, performance test, and muscle strength assessment.

RESULTS: PPS subjects (n = 76) showed higher scores (p < .001) than non-PPS subjects (n = 27) within the NHP categories of physical mobility, energy, and pain. On a 16-item Polio Problems List, 78% of PPS subjects selected fatigue as their major problem, followed by walking outdoors (46%) and climbing stairs (41%). The disabilities of PPS subjects were mainly seen in physical and social functioning. No differences in manually tested strength were found between patient groups. PPS subjects needed significantly more time for the performance test than non-PPS subjects and their perceived exertion was higher. Perceived health problems (NHP-PhysMobility) correlated significantly with physical disability (r = .66), performance-time (r = .54), and muscle strength (r = .38). With linear regression analysis, 54% of the NHP-PhysMobility score could be explained by the performance test (time and exertion), presence of PPS, and muscle strength, whereas strength itself explained only 14% of the NHP-PhysMobility score.

Conclusions: PPS subjects are more prone to fatigue and have more physical mobility problems than non-PPS subjects. In former polio patients, measurements of perceived health problems and performance tests are the most appropriate instruments for functional evaluation.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Quality of Life

Title: Disability and quality of life in individuals with postpolio syndrome.
Author: Ahlström G, Karlsson U.
Affiliation: Research and Development Unit, Psychiatry and Habilitation, Orebro Medical Centre Hospital, Sweden. [email protected]
Journal: Disability and Rehabilitation
Citation: 2000 Jun 15;22(9):416-22.
Publication Year and Month: 2000 06

Abstract: PURPOSE:
The purpose of the study is to investigate disability and quality of life in individuals with the characteristic symptoms of postpolio syndrome.

METHOD:
Disability is assessed by means of the self-report activities of daily living instrument, and quality of life by means of Kaasa's questionnaire and the quality of life profile.

RESULTS:
The 39 subjects have on average lived with polio sequelae for 52 years. Their main difficulties are with moving, lifting and carrying. This means restricted mobility, sedentary activities and a need to prioritize. Half of them feel that polio has lessened their possibilities in life, and a quarter have still not accepted the limitations polio has involved. Nevertheless the majority report a high level of psychosocial well-being, and almost a quarter say that living with polio has meant personal development and strength. We found a significant correlation between on the one hand disability with regard to ambulation, arm strength and finger strength on the self-report ADL, and on the other hand the number of negative problems on the quality of life profile (0.33-0.45).

Conclusions: The latter instrument needs further testing before its validity can be determined with certainty.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Muscle Strength

Title: Disability in a 4-year follow-up study of people with post-polio syndrome
Author: Willén C, Thoren-Jönsson AL, Grimby G, Sunnerhagen KS
Affiliation: Institute of Neurosciences and Physiology-Rehabilitation Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg, Sweden
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2007 Mar;39(2):175-80.
Publication Year and Month: 2007 03

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes over time in a clinically based cohort of individuals with post-polio syndrome.

DESIGN: A prospective longitudinal study.

SUBJECTS: A total of 106 individuals with poliomyelitis sequelae were included in the study. They were self-referred or had been referred to the post-polio clinic. After 4 years subjects were called for a follow-up and underwent the same measurements as at the initial assessment.

METHODS: The following measurements were conducted at both the initial assessment, and the follow-up: questionnaires including Nottingham Health Profile, muscle strength and walking speed.

RESULTS: Minor changes in disability during a 4-year period were shown. A significant reduction in muscle strength was only seen for 60° flexion in the left leg and for right and left dorsal flexion. No change could be seen in the total Nottingham Health Profile score.

Conclusions: The minor changes in disability found in this study are an indication that we still do not know which subjects are at risk for deterioration. It is difficult to say whether the small changes over time shown in this study are associated with support from the polio clinic or are an expression of the natural history of the syndrome. However, it is hoped that support from the polio clinic may result in self-selected lifestyle changes, which may positively influence the development of symptoms and functional capacity.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

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Category: Restless Legs Syndrome

Title: Do you have restless leg syndrome? I understood from your eyes
Author: Hatice Kose Ozlece, Volkan Solmaz, Sadık Altan Özal, Yahya Çelik
Affiliation: Department of Neurology Acıbadem Private Hospital Kayseri Turkey
Department of Neurology Private Konak Hospital Sakarya Turkey
Department of Eye Disease Trakya University Medical Faculty Edirne Turkey
Department of Neurology Adatıp Private Hospital Sakarya Turkey
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Sleep and Breathing, pp 1–7
Publication Year and Month: 2018 10

Abstract: Purpose
According to many studies in the literature, there is a strong association between restless leg syndrome and dopaminergic dysfunction. Dopamine is also the major catecholamine in the retina and is also a possible transmitter of the amacrine and interplexiform cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible association between RLS and retinal thickness.

Methods
In this study, we included 33 patients who were diagnosed with idiopathic RLS according to the “International RLS Study Group” criteria and 31 healthy subjects. All the patients and controls underwent routine ophthalmologic examination and had spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) performed. We compared the retinal thickness of the patients and control subjects.

Results
In the RLS group, foveal thickness was thinner then controls. Also, only inferior, superior, and temporal quadrant retina nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness were significantly thinner in the RLS group. The parafoveal ganglion cell complex (GCC) in the superior temporal, inferior temporal, inferior nasal quadrant, and perifoveal superior nasal thickness was also significantly thinner in the patient group. Pearson correlation analyses showed that there were statistically significant negative correlations between disease duration and macular GCC and RNFL thickness. Negative correlations were also detected between parafoveal superior, temporal, inferior and nasal macular thickness, parafoveal superior nasal, inferior temporal GCC thickness, and perifoveal superior nasal GCC thickness and disease duration.

Conclusions: According to our results; most retinal layers are thinner in RLS patients, so it can be considered that OCT has a predictive value for progression of RLS.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: Dynamic electromyography and muscle biopsy changes in a 4-year follow-up: study of patients with a history of polio
Author: Stålberg E, Grimby G
Affiliation: Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden
Journal: Muscle & Nerve
Citation: Muscle Nerve. 1995 Jul;18(7):699-707
Publication Year and Month: 1995 07

Abstract: Eighteen patients who had had polio 29-56 years prior to the first investigation were studied on two occasions, 4 years apart. Isokinetic and isometric strength measurements and Macro EMG were performed in 28 legs. Muscle biopsy specimens were obtained on both occasions from 11 legs. On average the muscle strength was 56% of control values at the first examination, and decreased by another 8% during the observation period. The muscle fiber area was increased compared to that of controls and did not change significantly. Macro EMG, comprising muscle fiber area and number of muscle fibers, and/or single fiber EMG showed clear signs of reinnervation in all legs. The motor units at the first examination were increased 11-fold, on average, compared with age-matched control values. During the observation period, reinnervation continued and the size of motor units increased by another 56% as a result of ongoing denervation, that is, loss of neurons. This compensation was particularly pronounced in patients with stable conditions. The parameters studied did not reveal any definite pattern predicting future development of new muscle weakness in individual subjects.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Exercise

Title: Dynamic water exercise in individuals with late poliomyelitis
Author: Willén C, Sunnerhagen KS, Grimby G
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden - [email protected]
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001 Jan;82(1):66-72
Publication Year and Month: 2001 01

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the specific effects of general dynamic water exercise in individuals with late effects of poliomyelitis.

DESIGN: Before-after tests.

SETTING: A university hospital department.

PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-eight individuals with late effects of polio, 15 assigned to the training group (TG) and 13 to the control group (CG).

INTERVENTION: The TG completed a 40-minute general fitness training session in warm water twice weekly. Assessment instruments included the bicycle ergometer test, isokinetic muscle strength, a 30-meter walk indoors, Berg balance scale, a pain drawing, a visual analog scale, the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, and the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Peak load, peak work load, peak oxygen uptake, peak heart rate (HR), muscle function in knee extensors and flexors, and pain dimension of the NHP.

RESULTS: The average training period was 5 months; compliance was 75% (range, 55-98). No negative effects were seen. The exercise did not influence the peak work load, peak oxygen uptake, or muscle function in knee extensors compared with the controls. However, a decreased HR at the same individual work load was seen, as well as a significantly lower distress in the dimension pain of the NHP. Qualitative aspects such as increased well-being, pain relief, and increased physical fitness were reported.

Conclusions: A program of nonswimming dynamic exercises in heated water has a positive impact on individuals with late effects of polio, with a decreased HR at exercise, less pain, and a subjective positive experience. The program was well tolerated (no adverse effects were reported) and can be recommended for this group of individuals.

Outcome of Research: Effective.

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Category: Speech Pathology

Title: Dysphagia and dysphonia among persons with post-polio syndrome – a challenge in neurorehabilitation
Author: Söderholm S, Lehtinen A, Valtonen K, Ylinen A
Affiliation: Käpylä Rehabilitation Centre, Finnish Association of People with Mobility Disabilities, Helsinki, Finland
Journal: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Citation: Acta Neurol Scand. 2010 Nov; 122(5):343–349. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2009.01315.x
Publication Year and Month: 2010 11

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To study the occurrence of dysphagia and dysphonia in persons with post-polio syndrome admitted into the centre for neurological rehabilitation in Finland.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:  Fifty-one persons with post-polio syndrome who were rehabilitated at Käpylä Rehabilitation Centre, Helsinki, Finland, in 2003–2004 were interviewed on problems with swallowing and voice production. Pulmonary function testing and grip strength measurement were performed. A clinical assessment of oral motor and laryngeal functions was carried out for those who reported daily problems with voice production or swallowing.

RESULTS: Fifteen persons (29.4%) reported daily problems with swallowing or voice production. In the clinical assessment, the most commonly observed deficits in swallowing included decreased pharyngeal transit (n = 13) and the food catching in the throat (n = 4). The disturbance of co-ordination of breathing and voice production was seen in 12 persons. There were no significant differences in any of the potential predictors between the groups.

Conclusions: Professionals need to be aware of the routine evaluation of dysphagia and dysphonia in patients with post-polio syndrome.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Speech Pathology

Title: Dysphonia as the initial presenting symptom in post-polio syndrome: a case report
Author: Ference, T. & Cutler, J.
Affiliation: Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, USA
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Ference, T. & Cutler, J. (2017) Dysphonia as the initial presenting symptom in post-polio syndrome: a case report. Research on Chronic Diseases. Accessed at: https://www.openaccessjournals.com/articles/dysphonia-as-the-initial-presenting-symptom-in-postpolio-syndrome-a-case-report.pdf
Publication Year and Month: 2017 01

Abstract: Otolaryngology examination revealed normal range of motion of vocal cords. Gastric causes of hoarseness were excluded. CT of the chest was negative. The speech pathologist concluded the hoarseness was due to fatigued abdominal muscles weakened from post-polio syndrome. Physical therapy for abdominal and core strengthening and speech therapy for energy conservation techniques were implemented with discemable improvement of voice function. An abdominal binder was prescribed to be worn throughout the day to support the abdominal and diaphragmatic musculature.

Conclusions: In treating post-polio syndrome patients with hoarse voice a multidisciplinary team can help maximize and preserve function. Weakness of the abdominal muscles, diaphragm, and laryngeal muscles should be considered in persons with history of polio.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Speech Pathology

Title: Dysphonia as the initial presenting symptom in postpolio syndrome: a case report
Author: Ference, T. & Cutler, J.
Affiliation: University of Miami
Journal:
Citation: Research on Chronic Diseases.
Ference, T. & Cutler, J. (2017) Dysphonia as the initial presenting symptom in postpolio syndrome: a case report. Research on Chronic Diseases. 1(1):4-5
Publication Year and Month: 2017 01

Abstract: Post-polio syndrome is a slowly progressive condition that affects polio survivor’s years after their initial infection with polio virus. Individuals with post-polio syndrome suffer from a variety of symptoms that negatively impact their independence and overall happiness, including daily general fatigue (48- 93%), pain (72-91%), respiratory issues (11- 41%), depression (13.45%), and sleep disorders (13-48%). Here, we present a patient with post-polio syndrome who presents with an unusual symptom manifestation of hoarseness.

Conclusions: In treating post-polio syndrome patients with hoarse voice a multidisciplinary team can help maximize and preserve function. Weakness of the abdominal muscles, diaphragm, and laryngeal muscles should be considered in persons with history of polio.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Vocational Implications

Title: Education, occupation, and perception of health amongst previous polio patients compared to their siblings.
Author: Farbu E, Gilhus NE.
Affiliation: Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway. [email protected]
Journal: European Journal of Neurology
Citation: 2002 May;9(3):233-41.
Publication Year and Month: 2002 05

Abstract: Patients with previous polio represent a challenge for neurological rehabilitation. We examined 168 previous polio patients and 239 of their siblings, the patients either from the 1950-1954 epidemic cohort, or from a cohort of hospital-admitted rehabilitation patients. Ninety-four paralytic patients and 74 non-paralytic patients were included. All patients and siblings answered the same questionnaires for socioeconomic and health factors and chi-square comparisons were performed. Previous polio did not affect the level of education. Both patients and siblings rated their educational options to have been good. Significantly less patients were full-time employed at the age of 40 years compared to their siblings (P=0.015). This was the result of a lower full-time employment rate amongst the paralytic patients, only 52% of this group being employed full-time. Male patients and paralytic patients reported to have experienced reduced professional options. More patients were living alone compared to their siblings (P=0.035). The perception of general health was lower amongst patients than siblings, as was assessment of total life situation and patients reported more frequently symptoms like pain and tiredness. In conclusion, previous polio had not lowered the polio patients' educational status, but fewer patients were employed full-time at the age of 40 years.

Conclusions: Previous polio had not lowered the polio patients' educational status, but fewer patients were employed full-time at the age of 40 years.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Exercise

Title: Effect of aquatic exercise training in persons with poliomyelitis disability
Author: Prins, J.H., Hartung, H.G., Merritt, D.J., Blancq, R.J., Goebert, D.A.
Affiliation:
Journal:
Citation: Prins, J.H., Hartung, H.G., Merritt, D.J., Blancq, R.J., Goebert, D.A. (1994) Effect of aquatic exercise training in persons with poliomyelitis disability. Sports Medicine, Training and Rehabilitation. 5(1):29-39
Publication Year and Month: 1994 01

Abstract: Aquatic exercise, including swimming, reduces the effect of body weight on limbs and joints. A combination of swimming and specific activities involving resistive devices was used in an attempt to improve strength in persons who had symptomatic weakness related to poliomyelitis. Dynamic muscular force application in selected limb movements and range of motion were measured before and after an 8‐week aquatic exercise intervention. Peak (PF) and average force (AF) were determined in the water using a differential pressure transducer attached to either the hand, foot, or a resistive device. Arm flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and horizontal adduction and abduction along with combined hip flexion and knee extension were tested for both PF and AF Subjects were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups; complete data were available on nine experimental and four control subjects. PF and AF changes were greater (p ≤ 0.05) for experimental compared with control for right arm flexion (PF, 96 versus 6%) and extension (PR 105 versus ‐15%; AF, 76 versus ‐30%), respectively. Changes were greater (p ≤0.05) in experimental than control for left arm extension (PF, 88% versus 19%) and horizontal abduction (PF, 127% versus ‐21%; AF, 122% versus ‐17%). Aquatic exercise training in subjects with poliomyelitis disability resulted in significant dynamic strength changes of the upper body while appearing not to exacerbate symptomatic fatigue or pain.

Conclusions: Aquatic exercise training in subjects with poliomyelitis disability resulted in significant dynamic strength changes of the upper body while appearing not to exacerbate symptomatic fatigue or pain.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Drugs

Title: Effect of intravenous immunoglobulin in patients with post-polio syndrome - an uncontrolled pilot study
Author: Kaponides G, Gonzalez H, Olsson T, Borg K
Affiliation: Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden - [email protected]

Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2006 Mar;38(2):138-40
Publication Year and Month: 2006 03

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To analyse changes in muscle strength, physical performance and quality of life during intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment in patients with post-polio syndrome.

DESIGN: Open clinical trial.

PATIENTS: A total of 14 patients (6 women, 8 men; mean age 57 years, range 43-67 years) were included in the study.

INTERVENTION: Treatment with 90 g IVIg (30 g daily for 3 days).

MAIN OUTCOME: Muscle strength, measured with dynamic dynamometry, muscle function, by means of performing the 6-minute walk test, and quality of life, analysed by means of the SF-36 questionnaire, were performed before and after treatment.

RESULTS: For quality of life there was a statistically significant improvement for all but one of the 8 multi-item scales of SF-36 when comparing data before and after treatment with IVIg. The multi-item scale most improved was Vitality. There was no significant increase in muscle strength and physical performance.

Conclusions: Data indicate that IVIg may have a clinically relevant effect, with an improvement in quality of life. The effect may be due to a decrease in an inflammatory process in the central nervous system, which earlier has been reported in patients with past-polio syndrome after IVIg treatment. Since a possible placebo effect cannot be ruled out, a randomized controlled study is needed.

Outcome of Research: More research required.

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Category: Drugs

Title: Effect of intravenous immunoglobulin on pain in patients with post-polio syndrome
Author: Werhagen L, Borg K
Affiliation: Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Karolinska Institutet Danderyds Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2011 Nov;43(11):1038-40. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0884.
Publication Year and Month: 2011 11

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Pain is a common symptom that affects quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome. An increase in cytokine in the cerebrospinal fluid suggests that inflammation is pathophysiologically important in post-polio syndrome. Intravenous immunoglobulin might therefore be a therapeutic option. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of intravenous immunoglobulin treatment on pain in post-polio syndrome.

METHODS: An uncontrolled clinical study. Patients with post-polio syndrome and pain (n = 45) underwent a neurological examination and were interviewed about pain before and 6 months after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. Pain intensity was measured on a visual analogue scale. The pain was classified according to the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria as neuropathic when it occurred in an area with decreased sensibility, or nociceptive when signs of inflammation and/or painful joints movements were present.

RESULTS: After treatment 31/45 (69%) patients were improved, with a mean visual analogue scale decrease from 53 to 42 (p = 0.001). Eighteen patients (40%) had a decrease of 20 or more points on the visual analogue scale. The effect of treatment did not differ regarding age, gender and severity of disability.

Conclusions: Two-thirds of 45 patients with post-polio syndrome and pain reported a decrease on the visual analogue scale for pain after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, and 40% reported a decrease of 20 or more points on the visual analogue scale.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Effect of modified aerobic training on movement energetics in polio survivors
Author: Dean E, Ross J
Affiliation: School of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1243-6
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Given that individuals with disabilities may be unable to achieve maximal oxygen uptake in an exercise test and that maximal exercise testing may cause increased fatigue, pain, and muscle weakness, we examined the role of submaximal exercise testing and training based on objective as well as subjective parameters in polio survivors. Experimental (N = 7) and control subjects (N = 13) were tested before and after a 6-week period. The experimental subjects participated in a 6-week exercise training program for 30 to 40 minutes, three times a week. The program consisted of treadmill walking at 55% to 70% of age-predicted maximum heart rates; however, exercise intensity was modified to minimize discomfort/pain and fatigue. Neither objective nor subjective exercise responses were significantly different in the control group over the 6 weeks. No change was observed in cardiorespiratory conditioning in the experimental group. However, movement economy, which is related to the energy cost of walking, was significantly improved; and walking duration was significantly increased at the end of training. Modified aerobic training may have a role in enhancing endurance and reducing fatigue during activities of daily living in polio survivors.

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Category: Polio Immunisation

Title: Effect of substituting IPV for tOPV on immunity to poliovirus in Bangladeshi infants: An open-label randomized controlled trial
Author: Mychaleckyj JC (1), Haque R (2), Carmolli M (3), Zhang D (4), Colgate ER (3), Nayak U (4), Taniuchi M (5), Dickson D (3), Weldon WC (6), Oberste MS (6), Zaman K (2), Houpt ER (5), Alam M (2), Kirkpatrick BD (7), Petri WA Jr (8)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Public Health Sciences and Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA; (2) Center for Vaccine Sciences, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Mohakhali 1212, Dhaka, Bangladesh; (3) Vaccine Testing Center, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT 05405, USA; (4) Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA; (5) Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA; (6) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA; (7) Department of Medicine, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT 05405, USA; (8) Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908-1340, USA
Journal: Vaccine
Citation: Vaccine. 2015 Nov 28. pii: S0264-410X(15)01695-3. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.11.046. [Epub ahead of print]
Publication Year and Month: 2015 11

Abstract: BACKGROUND: The Polio Endgame strategy includes phased withdrawal of oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV) coordinated with introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) to ensure population immunity. The impact of IPV introduction into a primary OPV series of immunizations in a developing country is uncertain.

METHODS: Between May 2011 and November 2012, we enrolled 700 Bangladeshi infant-mother dyads from Dhaka slums into an open-label randomized controlled trial to test whether substituting an injected IPV dose for the standard Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) fourth tOPV dose at infant age 39 weeks would reduce fecal shedding and enhance systemic immunity. The primary endpoint was mucosal immunity to poliovirus at age one year, measured by fecal excretion of any Sabin virus at five time points up to 25 days post-52 week tOPV challenge, analyzed by the intention to treat principle.

FINDINGS: We randomized 350 families to the tOPV and IPV vaccination arms. Neither study arm resulted in superior intestinal protection at 52 weeks measured by the prevalence of infants shedding any of three poliovirus serotypes, but the IPV dose induced significantly higher seroprevalence and seroconversion rates. This result was identical for poliovirus detection by cell culture or RT-qPCR. The non-significant estimated culture-based shedding risk difference was -3% favoring IPV, and the two vaccination schedules were inferred to be equivalent within a 95% confidence margin of -10% to +4%. Results for shedding analyses stratified by poliovirus type were similar.

Conclusions: Neither of the vaccination regimens is superior to the other in enhancing intestinal immunity as measured by poliovirus shedding at 52 weeks of age and the IPV regimen provides similar intestinal immunity to the four tOPV series, although the IPV regimen strongly enhances humoral immunity. The IPV-modified regimen may be considered for vaccination programs without loss of intestinal protection.

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Effect of treatment and noncompliance on post-polio sequelae
Author: Peach PE, Olejnik S
Affiliation: Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehabilitation, Georgia 31830
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1199-203
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: In this study of 77 patients with post-polio sequelae (PPS), symptoms and manual test scores on initial evaluation were compared with those at subsequent follow-up evaluations. Patients were divided into three groups based on the degree to which they had complied with clinically recommended interventions: compliers, partial compliers, and noncompliers. At the end of the follow-up period (2.2 +/- 1.2 years), the mean muscle function scores of the entire study group had declined -1.5%, which represented a decline of -0.7% annually. On follow-up evaluations, the complier group had realized an improvement or resolution of post-polio symptoms, and also an improvement in muscle function of +0.6% annually. The partial complier group had realized either no improvement, or improvement in post-polio symptoms, but showed a further decline in muscle function of -3.0%, or an annual decline of -1.3%. The noncomplier group showed either no change, or a worsening of post-polio symptoms, and also showed a further decline in muscle function of -4.1%, which represented an annual decline of -2.0%.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Effect of Treatment and Noncompliance on Post-Polio Sequelae
Author: Paul E. Peach, MD, Stephen Olejnik, PhD
Affiliation:
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics November 1991 Vol 14 No. 11 1199-1203
Publication Year and Month: 1991

Abstract: In this study of 77 patients with post-polio sequelae (PPS), symptoms and manual test scores on initial evaluation were compared with those at subsequent follow-up evaluations. Patients were divided into three groups based on the degree to which they had complied with clinically recommended interventions: compliers, partial compliers, and noncompliers. At the end of the followup period (2.2 ± 1.2 years), the mean muscle function scores of the entire study group had declined - l.5%, which represented a decline of -0.7% annually. On follow-up evaluations, the complier group had realized an improvement or resolution of post-polio symptoms, and also an improvement in muscle function of +0.6% annually. The partial complier group had realized either no improvement, or improvement in post-polio symptoms, but showed a further decline in muscle function of -3.0%, or an annual decline of -1.3%. The noncomplier group showed either no change, or a worsening of post-polio symptoms, and also showed a further decline in muscle function of - 4.1% which represented an annual decline of - 2.0%.

Conclusions: The disparate outcomes among our post-polio patients underscore the need to develop more effective intervention strategies to achieve improved patient compliance, given the favorable outcomes experienced by patients who complied with clinical recommendations.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Exercise

Title: Effects of resistance training in combination with coenzyme Q10 supplementation in patients with post-polio: a pilot study.
Author: Skough K, Krossén C, Heiwe S, Theorell H, Borg K.
Affiliation: Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Danderyds Hospital, Stockolm, Sweden.
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: 2008 Oct;40(9):773-5.
Publication Year and Month: 2008 10

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
Coenzyme Q10 supplementation leads to increased muscle metabolism in patients with post-polio syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training in combination with oral supplementation with coenzyme Q10 in patients with post-polio syndrome regarding muscle strength and endurance as well as functional capacity and health-related quality of life.

DESIGN:
Parallel randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:
A total of 14 patients (8 women and 6 men) with post-polio syndrome participated in a 12-week muscular resistance training, 3 days/week. The patients were randomized for oral supplementation with coenzyme Q10, 200 mg/day, or placebo. Measurements used were: sit-stand-sit test, timed up & go test, 6-minute walk test, muscle strength measurement by means of dynamic dynamometer and short-form (SF)-36 questionnaire.

RESULTS:
Muscle strength, muscle endurance and quality of life regarding mental health increased statistically significantly in all 14 patients. There was no significant difference between the coenzyme Q10 and placebo groups regarding muscle strength, muscle endurance and quality of life.

Conclusions: There was no effect of coenzyme Q10 supplementation during resistance training on post-polio syndrome symptoms. Thus, supplementation with coenzyme Q10 has no beneficial effect on muscle function in patients with post-polio syndrome.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Drugs

Title: Efficacy of Modafinil on fatigue and excessive daytime sleepiness associated with neurological disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Author: Sheng P, Hou L, Wang X, Wang X, Huang C, Yu M, Han X, Dong Y.
Affiliation: Department of Neurosurgery, Shanghai Institute of Neurosurgery, Military Institute of Neurosurgery, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China
Journal: Public Library of Science
Citation: PLoS One. 2013 Dec 3;8(12):e81802. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081802
Publication Year and Month: 2013 03

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Modafinil is a novel wake-promoting agent approved by the FDA ameliorating excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in three disorders: narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder and obstructive sleep apnea. Existing trials of modafinil for fatigue and EDS associated with neurological disorders provided inconsistent results. This meta-analysis was aimed to assess drug safety and effects of modafinil on fatigue and EDS associated with neurological disorders.

METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was conducted in order to identify published studies assessing the effects of modafinil on fatigue and EDS associated with neurological disorders. Primary outcomes included fatigue and EDS. Secondary outcomes included depression and adverse effects.

FINDINGS: Ten randomized controlled trials were identified including 4 studies of Parkinson's disease (PD), 3 of multiple sclerosis (MS), 2 of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 1 of post-polio syndrome (PPS). A total of 535 patients were enrolled. Our results suggested a therapeutic effect of modafinil on fatigue in TBI (MD -0.82 95% CI -1.54 - -0.11 p=0.02, I(2)=0%), while a beneficial effect of modafinil on fatigue was not confirmed in the pooled studies of PD or MS. Treatment results demonstrated a clear beneficial effect of modafinil on EDS in patients with PD (MD -2.45 95% CI -4.00 - -0.91 p=0.002 I(2)=14%), but not with MS and TBI. No difference was seen between modafinil and placebo treatments in patients with PPS. Modafinil seemed to have no therapeutic effect on depression. Adverse events were similar between modafinil and placebo groups except that more patients were found with insomnia and nausea in modafinil group.

Conclusions: Existing trials of modafinil for fatigue and EDS associated with PD, MS, TBI and PPS provided inconsistent results. The majority of the studies had small sample sizes. Modafinil is not yet sufficient to be recommended for these medical conditions until solid data are available.

Outcome of Research: More research required.

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Category: Complementary Therapies

Title: Efficacy of Oral Care Provided by Interprofessional Collaboration for a Patient with Esophageal Cancer Associated with Post-polio Syndrome during Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.
Author: Takahashi-Arimasa K, Kohno-Yamanaka R, Soga Y, Miura R, Morita M.
Affiliation: Dental Hygienist Team, Division of Medical Technology, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama 700-8558, Japan.
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Acta Medica Okayama, Volume73 Issue1, 2019-02
Publication Year and Month: 2019 02

Abstract: Preoperative oral care is helpful to prevent postoperative complications in patients who are undergoing esophagectomy. Here, we report the case of an 81-year-old Japanese man with an upper limb disability caused by post-polio syndrome who was receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy for esophageal cancer. He had poor oral health status and developed oral complications as a side effect of chemotherapy. He could not brush his teeth by himself. However, infection control by oral care provided by an interprofessional collaboration successfully improved his oral hygiene, and his follow-up involved no severe complications. Interprofessional collaboration is useful especially for patients with upper limb disability.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Exercise

Title: Effort-limited treadmill walk test: reliability and validity in subjects with postpolio syndrome.
Author: Finch LE, Venturini A, Mayo NE, Trojan DA.
Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, McGill University Health Center, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: 2004 Aug;83(8):613-23.
Publication Year and Month: 2004 08

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To determine the reliability and construct validity of an effort-limited treadmill walk test to measure functional ability in subjects with postpolio syndrome in an outpatient postpolio clinic.

DESIGN:
Functioning and distance walked on a treadmill to a Borg "hard" effort level were measured three times, a week apart, by two blinded raters in 15 subjects with postpolio syndrome, aged 37-67 yrs, with new weakness, fatigue, and pain but with no other cause of symptomatology or condition-limiting walking. One rater tested them twice. Fatigue activity level, mobility, and health-related quality of life (Medical Outcome Study Short Form Health Survey [SF-36]) defined functioning. Generalizability correlation coefficients determined intrarater, test-retest and interrater reliability. The correlations relating the distance walked and functioning determined construct validity.

RESULTS:
Reliability for generalizability correlation coefficients were: intrarater, 0.91; test-retest, 0.85; and interrater, 0.58. Interrater reliability improved to 0.91 with adherence to a standardized protocol. Validity was established with correlations between the distance walked and SF-36 physical component score (0.66), physical role (0.60), bodily pain (0.60), and vitality (0.55).

Conclusions: The treadmill walk test provides a reproducible and valid measure of ability in persons with postpolio syndrome with a single rater, but a standardized protocol is essential for reliability.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: EFNS guideline on diagnosis and management of post-polio syndrome - report of an EFNS task force
Author: Farbu E, Gilhus NE, Barnes MP, Borg K, de Visser M, Driessen A, Howard R, Nollet F, Opara J, Stalberg E
Affiliation: Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway – [email protected] – European Federation of Neurological Society
Journal: European Journal of Neurology
Citation: Eur J Neurol. 2006 Aug; 13(8):795-801
Publication Year and Month: 2006 08

Abstract: Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is characterized by new or increased muscular weakness, atrophy, muscle pain and fatigue several years after acute polio. The aim of the article is to prepare diagnostic criteria for PPS, and to evaluate the existing evidence for therapeutic interventions. The Medline, EMBASE and ISI databases were searched. Consensus in the group was reached after discussion by e-mail. We recommend Halstead's definition of PPS from 1991 as diagnostic criteria. Supervised, aerobic muscular training, both isokinetic and isometric, is a safe and effective way to prevent further decline for patients with moderate weakness (Level B). Muscular training can also improve muscular fatigue, muscle weakness and pain. Training in a warm climate and non-swimming water exercises are particularly useful (Level B). Respiratory muscle training can improve pulmonary function. Recognition of respiratory impairment and early introduction of non-invasive ventilatory aids prevent or delay further respiratory decline and the need for invasive respiratory aid (Level C). Group training, regular follow-up and patient education are useful for the patients' mental status and well-being. Weight loss, adjustment and introduction of properly fitted assistive devices should be considered (good practice points). A small number of controlled studies of potential-specific treatments for PPS have been completed, but no definitive therapeutic effect has been reported for the agents evaluated (pyridostigmine, corticosteroids, amantadine). Future randomized trials should particularly address the treatment of pain, which is commonly reported by PPS patients. There is also a need for studies evaluating the long-term effects of muscular training.

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Category: Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: Electrodiagnostic Findings in 108 Consecutive Patients Referred to a Post-Polio Clinic – The Value of Routine Electrodiagnostic Studies
Author: Anne C. Gawne, Bao T. Pham, and Lauro S. Halstead

Affiliation:
Journal: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Citation: The Post-Polio Syndrome: Advances in the Pathogenesis and Treatment Volume 753 pp 383-385 of the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences May 25, 1995.
Publication Year and Month: 1995 05

Abstract: Many patients with a history of polio develop new symptoms including weakness, pain, fatigue, and changes in function, or post-polio syndrome (PPS).[1] Before a diagnosis of PPS is made, other diagnoses must first be ruled out. Assessment must be done in a comprehensive and coordinated manner.[2] Therefore, as part of our routine evaluation, we do an electromyogram/nerve conduction study (EMG/NCS) on every patient. During examinations on our clinic patients we began to notice (1) electrodiagnostic evidence of polio in limbs not previously felt to be involved; (2) a normal EMG, or evidence of another disease; and (3) EMG evidence consistent with additional neurological lesions, including compression neuropathies, peripheral neuropathies, and radiculopathies. A prospective study using a routine, standardized four-extremity electrodiagnostic protocol was done to quantify the frequency of these occurrences.

Conclusions: Our findings strongly support the value of a standardized four-extremity EMG/NCS as an adjuvant to a comprehensive history and physical examination. It helps to differentiate between old polio and other neurological diagnoses. There is a high prevalence of subclinical polio, which is important to know about in order to give proper recommendations regarding rest and activity. Given the frequency of risk factors for development of potentially treatable neurological lesions like CTS, early detection is valuable. We believe routine electrodiagnostic testing is essential for proper evaluation and management of the post-polio patient.

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: Electromyographic and morphological functional compensation in late poliomyelitis
Author: Einarsson G, Grimby G, Stålberg E
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Gothenburg University, Sweden
Journal: Muscle & Nerve
Citation: Muscle Nerve. 1990 Feb; 13(2):165-71
Publication Year and Month: 1990 02

Abstract: Patients with prior poliomyelitis may experience muscle function deterioration decades after onset of disease. The present study is aimed at describing electromyographic and morphometric evidence of muscular compensation and of on-going muscular instability. Ten subjects 42-62 years of age with onset of polio 25-52 years earlier were studied with macro EMG, single-fiber EMG (SFEMG), muscle strength measurement, and morphometrical analysis of muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle. SFEMG revealed increased fiber density (FD) and large macro-MUP potentials indicating pronounced reinnervation as compensation to loss of motor neurons. From electrophysiological data of motor unit size, morphometric measures of fiber size, and muscle strength data, the minimal degree of motor neuron loss was estimated to be greater than 70%.

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Category: Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: Electrophysiology and Electrodiagnosis of the Post-Polio Motor Unit
Author: Daria A. Trojan, MD, Daniel Gendron, MD, Neil R. Cashman, MD
Affiliation:
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics December 1991 Vol 14 No 12 1353-1361
Publication Year and Month: 1991 12

Abstract: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome refers to new symptoms that may occur years after recovery from poliomyelitis. The most common of these symptoms are new weakness, fatigue, and pain. This article describes electrodiagnostic studies -- conventional electromyography (EMG), single fiber electromyography (SFEMG), and macroelectromyography (macro-EMG) -- that have provided information on the post-polio motor unit and on the possible etiology of some post-polio syndrome symptoms. Muscular fatigue, and indirectly, general fatigue, may be due to neuromuscular junction transmission defects in some post-polio individuals, as suggested by reduction of the compound motor action potentials on repetitive stimulation, and increased jitter and blocking on SFEMG. Progressive weakness and atrophy in post-polio syndrome is probably due to a distal degeneration of post-polio motor units with resultant irreversible muscle fiber denervation. Electrodiagnostic evidence of ongoing denervation includes fibrillation and fasciculation potentials on conventional EMG, increased jitter and blocking on SFEMG, and smaller macro-EMG amplitudes in newly weakened postpolio muscles. However, even though electrodiagnostic studies have provided insight into the possible causes of some postpolio syndrome symptoms, no specific electrodiagnostic test for the syndrome is currently available.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Inflammation

Title: Elevated blood lipids are uncommon in patients with post-polio syndrome - a cross sectional study.
Author: Melin E, Kahan T, Borg K
Affiliation: Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden - [email protected]; Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden - [email protected]; Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden - [email protected]
Journal: BioMed Central Neurology
Citation: BMC Neurol. 2015 Apr 29;15:67. doi: 10.1186/s12883-015-0319-z
Publication Year and Month: 2015 04

Abstract: BACKGROUND: The post-polio syndrome occurs in people who previously have had poliomyelitis. After the initial recovery, new or increasing neurologic symptoms occur. Inflammation and dyslipidaemia may play an important role in the development of atherosclerotic complications, for example myocardial infarction and angina pectoris. Previous studies on cardiovascular risk factors in the post-polio syndrome have found a higher prevalence of hypertension, ischemic heart disease, hyperlipidaemia, and stroke in these patients. The present study was undertaken in order to evaluate whether post-polio patients have elevated lipid values, and if blood lipid abnormalities could be correlated to signs of inflammation.

METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 89 consecutive post-polio patients, (53 women, mean age 65 years) from the Post-Polio Outpatient Clinic, Danderyd University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. The lipid profiles of post-polio patients were compared to age and sex matched reference values from two earlier studies. Statistical analyses were performed by the Student's t-test, and linear regression analyses were assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient.

RESULTS: Mean total cholesterol levels (5.7 mmol/L) were low or normal in post-polio patients, whereas low density lipoprotein levels (3.6 mmol/L) were normal, and high density lipoprotein (1.5 mmol/L) and triglycerides (1.4 mmol/L) lower than reference values. The prevalence of diabetes (7%), hypertension (38%), concomitant cardiovascular disease, (including angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, heart failure, atrial fibrillation and stroke) (7%), and calculated 10 year risk of coronary heart disease according to Framingham risk score algorithm (8%) was not increased in post-polio patients.

Conclusions: Compared to reference populations, post-polio patients in Sweden appear to have low or normal total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels, whereas high density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels are low. Hence, a possible persisting inflammatory process in post-polio syndrome does not seem to be associated with increased lipids and an increased risk for coronary heart disease events.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

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Category: Inflammation

Title: Elevated expression of prostaglandin E2 synthetic pathway in skeletal muscle of prior polio patients
Author: Melin E (1), Lindroos E, Lundberg IE, Borg K, Korotkova M
Affiliation: (1) Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet Danderyds Hospital, 18288 Stockholm, Sweden. [email protected]
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2014 Jan;46(1):67-72. doi: 10.2340/16501977-1230
Publication Year and Month: 2014 01

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate signs of inflammation in muscle of patients with prior polio, since the main symptoms in these patients are muscle pain, weakness and fatigue. In the context of pain and inflammation, the prostaglandin E2 pathway is of interest. Prostaglandin E2 has many biological actions and is a mediator of inflammation and pain.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Skeletal muscle biopsies from 8 patients with prior polio and post-polio symptoms, presenting with pain and muscular weakness, and from 6 healthy controls were studied. Immunohistochemistry, conventional microscopy, and computerized image analysis were performed.

RESULTS: There was statistically significant higher expression of enzymes of the prostaglandin E2 synthetic pathway, in muscle from patients, compared with controls. Expression of prostaglandin enzymes was mainly in scattered cells and blood vessels, and may indicate an inflammatory process of the muscle, which could be secondary to systemic inflammation.

Conclusions: This data may indicate an inflammatory process in muscle of prior polio patients. Up-regulation of the prostaglandin E2 pathway reveals a potential background to the pain experienced by these patients, and may provide opportunities for directed pharmacological and physical therapies, which could lead to better outcomes of rehabilitation interventions.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Inflammation

Title: Elevated plasma inflammatory mediators in post-polio syndrome: No association with long-term functional decline
Author: Bickerstaffe A, Beelen A, Lutter R, Nollet F
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation, AMC, Meibergdreef 9, 1105AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Journal: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Citation: J Neuroimmunol. 2015 Dec 15;289:162-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2015.10.019. Epub 2015 Nov 11
Publication Year and Month: 2015 12

Abstract: A key feature of post-polio syndrome (PPS) is progressive loss of muscle strength. In other chronic diseases systemic inflammation has been linked to muscle wasting. In this study plasma TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and leptin levels were significantly increased in PPS-patients compared to healthy controls. There was however no association between these raised systemic levels of inflammatory mediators and long-term decline in quadriceps strength or other clinical parameters. In conclusion, there is evidence for systemic inflammation in PPS, yet the relationship with clinical deterioration remains tenuous.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Exercise

Title: Endurance Training Effect on Individuals With Postpoliomyelitis
Author: Brian Ernstoff, MD, Hakon Wetterqvist, MD, PhD, Henry Kvist, MD, PhD, Gunnar Grimby, MD, PhD
Affiliation:
Journal:
Citation: Ernstoff B, Wetterqvist H, Kvist H, Grimby G. Endurance training effect on individuals with postpoliomyelitis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1996;77:843-8.
Publication Year and Month: 1996

Abstract: Objective: To determine the effects of an endurance training program on the exercise capacity and muscle structure and function in individuals with postpolio syndrome.

Design: Preexercise and postexercise testing was performed with muscle strength evaluations using isokinetic testing as well as hand-held Myometer. Muscle fatigue was determined by use of isokinetic testing, and endurance was determined by exercise testing. Enzymatic evaluation was performed with muscle biopsies taken at the same site; preexercise and postexercise muscle cross-sectional area was measured by computed tomography. Disability and psychosocial evaluation was performed by a Functional Status Questionnaire.

Setting: A university.

Subjects: Seventeen postpolio subjects ranging in age from 39 to 49 years volunteered for a 6-month combined endurance and strength training program. They had a history of acute poliomyelitis at least 25 years earlier and were able to walk with or without aid.

Intervention: Twelve of the subjects (mean age 42 years) completed the program, attending an average of 29 sessions, which were offered for 60 minutes twice a week.

Main Outcome Measures: Strength, endurance, enzymatic activity, and cross-sectional area were measured 3 months before the beginning of training, just before training, and at the completion of the exercise program.

Conclusions: Results: Knee extension was reduced to an average of 60% of control values and did not change with training. Strength measured with a hand-held Myometer increased significantly for elbow flexion, wrist extension, and hip abduction. Exercise test on a bicycle-ergometer showed significant reduction (6 beats/min) in heart rate at 70W and increase (12 beats/min) in maximal heart rate with training. The training program could be performed without major complications and resulted in an increase in muscle strength in some muscle groups and in work performance with respect to heart rate at submaximal work load.

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Activity Levels

Title: Energy conservation, occupational therapy, and the treatment of post-polio sequelae
Author: Young GR
Affiliation: Department of Occupational Therapy, Kaiser-Permanente Medical Center, Downey, California 90242
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1233-9
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Individuals experiencing post-polio sequelae (PPS) are usually advised to make significant lifestyle changes to lessen symptoms and prevent further decline in function. These individuals have spent most of their lives equating success with over-achievement and find it difficult to implement such recommendations. As specialists in energy conservation and work simplification, occupational therapists increasingly are being called on to evaluate and treat these patients. Over the past 2 years, an occupational therapy educational program has been developed to educate patients about their condition and about ways to implement lifestyle changes while preserving the ability to do valued activities. This article describes the components of a thorough occupational therapy evaluation and the design and functional outcomes of a successful occupational therapy educational program to treat PPS.

Conclusions:

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Epidemiology of the post-polio syndrome
Author: Ramlow J, Alexander M, LaPorte R, Kaufmann C, Kuller L
Affiliation: Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA
Journal: American Journal of Epidemiology
Citation: Am J Epidemiol. 1992 Oct 1;136(7):769-86
Publication Year and Month: 1992 10

Abstract: A late-onset syndrome, consisting of muscle weakness, muscle pain, and unaccustomed fatigue, has been reported with increasing frequency among former poliomyelitis patients. A population-based cohort of poliomyelitis patients from Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, was traced and surveyed to estimate the prevalence and incidence and to identify determinants of the post-polio syndrome. A questionnaire validated in clinical examinations of 40 cohort members was used in the survey. The prevalence of the post-polio syndrome was 28.5% of all paralytic cases (95% confidence interval 24.4-32.6). The risk of post-polio syndrome was significantly higher among patients who sustained substantial permanent impairment after polio and among females. The incidence did not vary with age at acute onset, acute severity, or level of physical activity after recovery. The strongest determinant of post-polio syndrome onset was the length of the interval following the acute illness, with incidence peaking at 30-34 years. Of all cases of post-polio syndrome, 79% reported no major change in impairment status since onset. This study demonstrates that poliomyelitis patients are not equally susceptible to post-polio syndrome within the interval of 30-40 years after the original illness. For syndrome cases, the onset was associated with new neuromuscular symptoms and functional changes but not with major new impairment.

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Category: Polio Immunisation

Title: Epidemiology of the silent polio outbreak in Rahat, Israel, based on modeling of environmental surveillance data
Author: Andrew F. Brouwer, Joseph N. S. Eisenberg, Connor D. Pomeroy, Lester M. Shulman, Musa Hindiyeh, Yossi Manor, Itamar Grotto, James S. Koopman, and Marisa C. Eisenberg
Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Nov 2018, 115 (45) E10625-E10633
Publication Year and Month: 2018 11

Abstract: Israel experienced an outbreak of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) in 2013–2014, detected through environmental surveillance of the sewage system. No cases of acute flaccid paralysis were reported, and the epidemic subsided after a bivalent oral polio vaccination (bOPV) campaign. As we approach global eradication, polio will increasingly be detected only through environmental surveillance. We developed a framework to convert quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) cycle threshold data into scaled WPV1 and OPV1 concentrations for inference within a deterministic, compartmental infectious disease transmission model. We used this approach to estimate the epidemic curve and transmission dynamics, as well as assess alternate vaccination scenarios. Our analysis estimates the outbreak peaked in late June, much earlier than previous estimates derived from analysis of stool samples, although the exact epidemic trajectory remains uncertain. We estimate the basic reproduction number was 1.62 (95% CI 1.04–2.02). Model estimates indicate that 59% (95% CI 9–77%) of susceptible individuals (primarily children under 10 years old) were infected with WPV1 over a little more than six months, mostly before the vaccination campaign onset, and that the vaccination campaign averted 10% (95% CI 1–24%) of WPV1 infections. As we approach global polio eradication, environmental monitoring with qPCR can be used as a highly sensitive method to enhance disease surveillance.

Conclusions: Our analytic approach brings public health relevance to environmental data that, if systematically collected, can guide eradication efforts.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Estimation of the Direct Cost of Poliomyelitis Rehabilitation Treatment to Pakistani Patients: A 53-Year Retrospective Study
Author: Atta Abbas Naqvi, Syed Baqir Shyum Naqvi, Fatima Zehra, Ashutosh Kumar Verma, Saman Usmani, Sehrish Badar, Rizwan Ahmad, Niyaz Ahmad
Affiliation: 1.Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Clinical PharmacyImam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal UniversityDammamSaudi Arabia
2.Faculty of PharmacyHamdard UniversityKarachiPakistan
3.Applied Economics Research CentreUniversity of KarachiKarachiPakistan
4.Discipline of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaMindenMalaysia
5.Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jinnah Sindh Medical UniversityKarachiPakistan
6.Natural Products and Alternative Medicines, College of Clinical PharmacyImam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal UniversityDammamSaudi Arabia
7.Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Clinical PharmacyImam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal UniversityDammamSaudi Arabia
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, December 2018, Volume 16, Issue 6, pp 871–888
Publication Year and Month: 2018 12

Abstract: Background
Pakistan is one of the last few countries in which poliomyelitis is endemic. Evidence indicates that out-of-pocket expenditures are a barrier to polio rehabilitation treatment, yet there are no reported figures related to the financial burden of this disease on patients in a recently polio-endemic country.

Objective
This study investigated direct costs attributed to rehabilitation treatment of poliomyelitis among Pakistani patients and reported its duration along with the socioeconomic status of poliomyelitis survivors.

Conclusions: Conclusion
The cost of poliomyelitis rehabilitation in Pakistan is high; it has an economic effect on the lives of patients and their families. Despite good education, polio survivors in Pakistan appear to have low socioeconomic status, lower chances of employment and marriage, as well as fewer children. Further research is recommended to explore the burden of disease on society, i.e., indirect costs and suffering.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Assistive Technology, Orthoses

Title: Evaluation of gait symmetry in poliomyelitis subjects: Comparison of a conventional knee-ankle-foot orthosis and a new powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis
Author: Arazpour M (1), Ahmadi F (2), Bahramizadeh M (2), Samadian M (3), Mousavi ME (2), Bani MA (4), Hutchins SW (5)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Orthotics and Prosthetics, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran Pediatric Neurorehabilitation Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran; (2) Department of Orthotics and Prosthetics, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran; (3) Loghman Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran; (4) Department of Orthotics and Prosthetics, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran; (5) Institute of Health & Social Care Research (IHSCR), Faculty of Health & Social Care, University of Salford, Manchester, Salford, UK
Journal: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
Citation: Prosthet Orthot Int. 2015 Aug 12. pii: 0309364615596063
Publication Year and Month: 2015 08

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Compared to able-bodied subjects, subjects with post-polio syndrome and poliomyelitis demonstrate a preference for weight-bearing on the non-paretic limb, causing gait asymmetry.

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gait symmetry of the poliomyelitis subjects when ambulating with either a drop-locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis or a newly developed powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis.

STUDY DESIGN: Quasi experimental study.

METHODS: Seven subjects with poliomyelitis who routinely wore conventional knee-ankle-foot orthoses participated in this study and received training to enable them to ambulate with the powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis on level ground, prior to gait analysis.

RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the gait symmetry index of step length (p = 0.085), stance time (p = 0.082), double-limb support time (p = 0.929), or speed of walking (p = 0.325) between the two test conditions. However, using the new powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis improved the symmetry index in step width (p = 0.037), swing time (p = 0.014), stance phase percentage (p = 0.008), and knee flexion during swing phase (p ⩽ 0.001) compared to wearing the drop-locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis.

Conclusions: The use of a powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis for ambulation by poliomyelitis subjects affects gait symmetry in the base of support, swing time, stance phase percentage, and knee flexion during swing phase.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A new powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis can improve gait symmetry for poliomyelitis subjects by influencing step width, swing time, stance time percentage, and knee flexion during swing phase when compared to ambulating with a drop-locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Assistive Technology

Title: Evaluation of Motor-Assisted Gloves (SEM Glove) for Patients with Functional Finger Disorders: a clinical pilot study
Author: RYUKI HASHIDA, HIROO MATSUSE, MASAFUMI BEKKI, MASAYUKI OMOTO, SHIMPEI MORIMOTO, TOMOKO HINO, YUUJI HARANO, CHIKAHIRO IWASA, KAZUKI MIYAMOTO, MASAKUNI HARAGUCHI, TAKESHI NAGO, NAOTO SHIBA
Affiliation: Division of Rehabilitation, Kurume University Hospital, Kurume 830-0011, Japan,
Department of Orthopedics, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume 830-0011, Japan,

Innovation Platform & Office for Precision Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences,
Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8501 Japan
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Kurume Medical Journal, 65, 00-00, 2018
Publication Year and Month: 2018

Abstract: Summary: The SEM Glove developed by Bioservo Technologies AB is a new device that increases grip and
pinch force. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the device on the grip and pinch
strength of patients with functional disorders of the fingers.
Materials and Method: 30 hospitalized patients with upper limb functional disorder were enrolled. The assistance
of the device for the grip and pinch strength of each subject were assessed by the difference between the measured values with and without the SEM Glove. The 95% confidence interval of the difference was calculated
across the subjects, and statistical significance was defined as when the lower limit was a positive value (corresponding with a paired t-test at a significance level of 0.05). The odds ratio was calculated in the study of subject
adaptation, with statistical significance set using Fisher’s exact test at a significance level of 0.05.
Results: Grip strength significantly decreased (worn-not worn difference (kg): mean = –3.7, CI95 (–5.4, –2.1)).
Pinch strength (thumb - middle finger) significantly increased (worn-not worn difference (N): mean = -4.1, CI95
(1.6, 6.6)). Analysis of factors related to improvement in hand function when wearing the SEM Glove extracted
manual muscle tests (MMTs) of the upper extremity 4 or higher. The odds ratio was 6.11.

Conclusions: Conclusions: Use of the SEM Glove improved the pinch strength of patients with functional disorders of the hands.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Speech Pathology

Title: Evaluation, treatment, and follow-up results of post polio patients with dysphagia
Author: Silbergleit AK, Waring WP, Sullivan MJ, Maynard FM
Affiliation: Department of Physical Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Journal: Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
Citation: Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1991 Mar;104(3):333-8
Publication Year and Month: 1991 03

Abstract: Twenty consecutive patients were evaluated for reports of dysphagia from post-polio clinics. Only half the patients reported a history of swallowing problems at the time of their acute poliomyelitis. Each patient received a videofluorographic evaluation of the oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing, and then was provided with recommendations to improve swallowing skills. A follow-up questionnaire was sent to all patients. The respondents had an average interval of 12 months since the initial evaluation. Of the 18 patients responding to the questionnaire, 14 (77%) reported regular use of the swallowing suggestions. Comparison of pre-evaluation results to followup of the 18 respondents yielded a statistically significant decline in the frequency of choking (p = 0.0156) and food sticking in the throat (p = 0.0195). We conclude that a dysphagia program can result in significant improvement of the swallowing symptoms reported with the post-polio population.

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Category: Activity Levels, Psychology

Title: Exercise therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy to improve fatigue, daily activity performance and quality of life in postpoliomyelitis syndrome: the protocol of the FACTS-2-PPS trial
Author: Koopman FS (1), Beelen A (1), Gerrits KH (2), Bleijenberg G (3), Abma TA (4), de Visser M (5), Nollet F (1)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; (2) Research Institute MOVE, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; (3) Expert Centre Chronic Fatigue Nijmegen, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands;(4) Department of Medical Humanities, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; (5) Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands - S.K[email protected]
Journal: BioMed Central Neurology
Citation: BMC Neurol. 2010 Jan 18;10:8. doi: 10.1186/1471-2377-10-8
Publication Year and Month: 2010 01

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome (PPS) is a complex of late onset neuromuscular symptoms with new or increased muscle weakness and muscle fatigability as key symptoms. Main clinical complaints are severe fatigue, deterioration in functional abilities and health related quality of life. Rehabilitation management is the mainstay of treatment. Two different therapeutic interventions may be prescribed (1) exercise therapy or (2) cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). However, the evidence on the effectiveness of both interventions is limited. The primary aim of the FACTS-2-PPS trial is to study the efficacy of exercise therapy and CBT for reducing fatigue and improving activities and quality of life in patients with PPS. Additionally, the working mechanisms, patients' and therapists' expectations of and experiences with both interventions and cost-effectiveness will be evaluated.

METHODS/DESIGN: A multi-centre, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial will be conducted. A sample of 81 severely fatigued patients with PPS will be recruited from 3 different university hospitals and their affiliate rehabilitation centres. Patients will be randomized to one of three groups i.e. (1) exercise therapy + usual care, (2) CBT + usual care, (3) usual care. At baseline, immediately post-intervention and at 3- and 6-months follow-up, fatigue, activities, quality of life and secondary outcomes will be assessed. Costs will be based on a cost questionnaire, and statistical analyses on GEE (generalized estimated equations). Analysis will also consider mechanisms of change during therapy. A responsive evaluation will be conducted to monitor the implementation process and to investigate the perspectives of patients and therapists on both interventions.

DISCUSSION: A major strength of the FACTS-2-PPS study is the use of a mixed methods design in which a responsive and economic evaluation runs parallel to the trial. The results of this study will generate new evidence for the rehabilitation treatment of persons with PPS.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: Dutch Trial Register NTR1371.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

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Category: Late Effects of Polio

Title: Experiences and perspectives of patients with post-polio syndrome and therapists with exercise and cognitive behavioural therapy
Author: Minne Bakker, Karen Schipper, Fieke S. Koopman, Frans Nollet and Tineke A. Abma
Affiliation: Department of Medical Humanities, EMGO+ Institute, VU Medical Center
(VUmc), Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Journal: BioMed Central Neurology
Citation: BMC Neurology (2016) 16:23
Publication Year and Month: 2016

Abstract: Background: Many persons affected with poliomyelitis develop post-polio syndrome (PPS) later in their life.
Recently, the effectiveness of Exercise Therapy (ET) and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for PPS has been evaluated in a randomized controlled trial, but did not show a decrease in fatigue or improvement in secondary endpoints like Quality of Life and self-perceived activity limitations. The aim of this explorative study was to gain insight in the perceived effects and experiences of the interventions from the perspectives of the patients and
therapists.
Methods: Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 17 patients and 7 therapists. All participants were involved in the trial. A thematic analysis of the data was performed.
Results: Some patients experienced a short term enhanced endurance and a better use of energy during the day. However, in general patients did not experience a long lasting reduction of fatigue from the CBT or ET. Mainly patients of the CBT, but also some patients of the ET described an increase of self-esteem and self-acceptance. As a result, patients were sometimes better able to perform physical activities during the day. In contrast to the CBT, the
ET was in general perceived by the patients as an intensive therapy, which was difficult to fit into their daily routine. Therapists of both the CBT and the ET struggled with a low intrinsic motivation of the patients in the study.
This made it sometimes difficult for the therapists to follow the protocol.

Conclusions: Conclusion: Confirming the negative quantitative study outcome, the qualitative results did not demonstrate lasting effects on fatigue. Patients did, however, experience some benefits on self-esteem and acceptance of the disease. This study showed that it is of great importance to work with feasible interventions; they should fit the patients’ needs on a practical (fit into their daily routine) and mental (fit their need for support) level.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Polio Immunisation

Title: Expert Review on Poliovirus Immunity and Transmission
Author: Radboud J. Duintjer Tebbens Mark A. Pallansch Konstantin M. Chumakov Neal A. Halsey Tapani Hovi Philip D. Minor John F. Modlin Peter A. Patriarca Roland W. Sutter Peter F. Wright Steven G. F. Wassilak Stephen L. Cochi Jong‐Hoon Kim Kimberly M. Thompson
Affiliation: Kid Risk, Inc., P.O. Box 590129 Newton, MA, USA
Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD, USA
Global Immunization Division, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Risk Analysis, Volume33, Issue4 April 2013 Pages 544-605
Publication Year and Month: 2013 04

Abstract: Successfully managing risks to achieve wild polioviruses (WPVs) eradication and address the complexities of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation to stop all cases of paralytic poliomyelitis depends strongly on our collective understanding of poliovirus immunity and transmission. With increased shifting from OPV to inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), numerous risk management choices motivate the need to understand the tradeoffs and uncertainties and to develop models to help inform decisions. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention hosted a meeting of international experts in April 2010 to review the available literature relevant to poliovirus immunity and transmission. This expert review evaluates 66 OPV challenge studies and other evidence to support the development of quantitative models of poliovirus transmission and potential outbreaks. This review focuses on characterization of immunity as a function of exposure history in terms of susceptibility to excretion, duration of excretion, and concentration of excreted virus. We also discuss the evidence of waning of host immunity to poliovirus transmission, the relationship between the concentration of poliovirus excreted and infectiousness, the importance of different transmission routes, and the differences in transmissibility between OPV and WPV. We discuss the limitations of the available evidence for use in polio risk models, and conclude that despite the relatively large number of studies on immunity, very limited data exist to directly support quantification of model inputs related to transmission. Given the limitations in the evidence, we identify the need for expert input to derive quantitative model inputs from the existing data.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Quality of Life

Title: FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH QOL OF POLIO SURVIVORS IN JAPAN
Author: Satoru SAEKI and Kenji HACHISUKA
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health.
Moji Medical Center, Kitakyushu, Japan
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: JJOMT 54 (2006): 84-90.
Publication Year and Month: 2006 02

Abstract: Objectives: To examine the association of impairments and functional disabilities with health-related quality of life (QOL) of polio survivors in Japan.
Design: Cross-sectional survey.
Settings: Post-polio clinic at a university hospital.
Participants: Polio survivors (N=39) with mild muscle weakness living in the community who voluntarily participated in a health examination for post-polio syndrome.
Interventions: Not applicable.
Main Outcome Measures: The Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short-Form (SF-36).
Results: Mean score on the physical component scale (43.0) of the SF-36 was lower than that of the mental component scale (52.2), and the vitality subscale for men was higher than that for women. Multivariate analyses identified that the physical dimension of the SF-36 was affected by muscle weakness, while the mental dimension of the SF-36 was affected by personal care activities.

Conclusions: Conclusions: Polio survivors with reduced physical functioning may maintain the mental aspect of QOL using their previous coping strategies to fight functional limitations. Coping with new health problems and adapting to the environment should be examined from not only the physical but also the mental viewpoint of QOL for polio survivors.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Quality of Life

Title: Factors associated with reduced quality of life in polio survivors in Korea
Author: Yang EJ (1), Lee SY (2), Kim K (3), Jung SH (4), Jang S-N (5), Han SJ (6), Kim W-H (7), Lim J-Y (1)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Republic of Korea; (2) Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Gyeonggi, Republic of Korea; (3) Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea; (4) Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea; (5) Red Cross College of Nursing, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; (6) Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Ewha Womans University Medical Center Seoul, Republic of Korea; (7) Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, National Rehabilitation Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Xi'an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, China
Journal: Public Library of Science
Citation: PLoS One. 2015; 10(6): e0130448. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130448
Publication Year and Month: 2015 06

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to assess health-related quality of life in polio survivors (PS) compared with that in the general population in Korea. Polio survivors (n = 120) from outpatient clinics at two hospitals, healthy controls (HC, n = 121) and members of the general population with activity limitations (AL, n = 121) recruited through a proportional-allocation, systematic sampling strategy from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were surveyed with self-rated health-related quality of life (Euro QoL five-dimensions). The proportion of participants who reported problems in mobility, usual activity, and symptoms of anxiety/depression were higher in the PS group compared with the HC and AL groups. There was no significant difference in the self-care dimension across the groups. Polio-specific questionnaire, pain, depression, fatigue, Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) were assessed in the PS group. Those with post-poliomyelitis syndrome had greater problems in mobility, usual activity, and depression/anxiety. Polio survivors, especially those with more pain and fatigue symptoms, and those who did not have access to medical services had poorer health-related quality of life. These findings afford useful information for potential intervention improving quality of life in polio survivors.

Conclusions: In conclusion, the QoL of polio survivors is worse than that of the general population in terms of physical and functional status. Polio survivors experienced greater restriction in mobility and activity, greater pain, and greater depression/anxiety compared with controls, although there was no difference in the self-care domain. To improve the HRQoL of polio survivors, we need to provide better rehabilitation services.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Fatigue

Title: Fainting and Fatigue: Causation or Coincidence?
Author: Richard L. Bruno, Ph.D.
Affiliation: Post-Polio Rehabilitation and Research Service; Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation.
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Bruno RL. Fainting and Fatigue: Causation or Coincidence? CFIDS Chronicle, 1996; 9(2): 37-39.
Publication Year and Month: 1996

Abstract: As the former autonomic nervous system fellow at New York's Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, and in my current incarnation studying chronic fatigue in polio survivors, I have read with special interest the reports from Johns Hopkins University describing neurally mediated hypotension (NMH) in adults and adolescents with CFIDS.[1] In June 1995, we presented a paper to the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine describing several of our post-polio patients who have had episodes of vasovagal syncope.[2] One patient with a 10-year history of severe, chronic and disabling post-polio fatigue had a history of frequent fainting 35 years before she ever experienced fatigue.

Conclusions: Taken together, these findings suggest that polio survivors may be predisposed to fainting because of poliovirus damage to their brainstem cardiodepressor and blood pressure regulation centers and PVN. However, it is important to note that many viruses besides polioviruses (e.g., the Coxsackie viruses) are also known to frequently and preferentially damage the brainstem, especially the reticular formation.[7,11] People with post-viral fatigue may have similar brainstem and hypothalamic damage as is seen following poliovirus infection, as Costa's finding of decreased brainstem perfusion in CFIDS suggests. Thus, damage to cardioregulatory centers could be responsible for NMH in people with CFIDS. But what of the coincidence of fainting and fatigue?

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Falls among adults aging with disability
Author: Matsuda PN (1), Verrall AM (2), Finlayson ML (3), Molton IR (2), Jensen MP (2)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Electronic address: [email protected]; (2) Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA; (3) School of Rehabilitation Therapy, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015 Mar;96(3):464-71. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2014.09.034
Publication Year and Month: 2015 03

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for falling among individuals aging with multiple sclerosis (MS), muscular dystrophy (MD), postpolio syndrome (PPS), and spinal cord injury (SCI).

DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey data from 2009 to 2010 were analyzed. We used forward logistic regression models to examine whether risk factors such as age, sex, mobility level, years since diagnosis, vision, balance, weakness, number of comorbid conditions, and physical activity could distinguish participants who reported falling from those who did not.

SETTING: Surveys were mailed to community-dwelling individuals who had 1 of 4 diagnoses (MS, MD, PPS, or SCI). The survey response rate was 91%.

PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of community-dwelling individuals (N=1862; age, 18-94y) with MS, MD, PPS, or SCI in the United States.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Self-reported fall within the last 6 months.

RESULTS: Fall prevalence for people with MS (54%), MD (70%), PPS (55%), and SCI (40%). Across all 4 groups, fall rates peaked in middle age (45-64y) and among people with moderate mobility limitations. Seven risk factors differentiated participants who fell from those who did not: mobility level, imbalance, age, curvilinear age (age(2)), number of comorbid conditions, duration of diagnosis, and sex. The models differed across diagnostic groups.

Conclusions: People aging with long-term physical disabilities experience unique challenges that affect their risk of falls. A better understanding of the frequency, severity, and risk factors of falls across diagnostic groups is needed to design and implement customized, effective fall prevention and management programs for these individuals.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Fatigue

Title: Fatigue in post-poliomyelitis syndrome: association with disease-related, behavioral, and psychosocial factors
Author: Trojan DA, Arnold DL, Shapiro S, Bar-Or A, Robinson A, Le Cruguel JP, Narayanan S, Tartaglia MC, Caramanos Z, Da Costa D
Affiliation: Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, 3801 University St., Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B4, Canada
Journal: PM&R: The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Citation: PM R. 2009 May;1(5):442-9. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2009.03.003
Publication Year and Month: 2009 05

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the biopsychosocial correlates of general, physical, and mental fatigue in patients with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) by assessing the additional contribution of potentially modifiable factors after accounting for important nonmodifiable disease-related factors. It was hypothesized that disease-related, behavioral, and psychosocial factors would contribute in different ways to general, physical, and mental fatigue in PPS and that a portion of fatigue would be determined by potentially modifiable factors.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.

SETTING: A tertiary university-affiliated hospital post-polio clinic.

PATIENTS: Fifty-two ambulatory patients with PPS who were not severely depressed were included.

ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS: Potential correlates for fatigue included disease-related factors (acute polio weakness, time since acute polio, PPS duration, muscle strength, pain, forced vital capacity, maximum inspiratory pressure, maximum expiratory pressure, body mass index, disability, fibromyalgia), behavioral factors (physical activity, sleep quality), and psychosocial factors (depression, stress, self-efficacy).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Fatigue was assessed with the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI; assesses fatigue on 5 subscales) and the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS).

RESULTS: Multivariate models were computed for MFI General, Physical, and Mental Fatigue. Age-adjusted multivariate models with nonmodifiable factors included the following predictors of (1) MFI General Fatigue: maximum inspiratory pressure, fibromyalgia, muscle strength; (2) MFI Physical Fatigue: maximum expiratory pressure, muscle strength, age, time since acute polio; and (3) MFI Mental Fatigue: none. The following potentially modifiable predictors made an additional contribution to the models: (1) MFI General Fatigue: stress, depression; (2) MFI Physical Fatigue: physical activity, pain; and (3) MFI Mental Fatigue: stress.

Conclusions: PPS fatigue is multidimensional. Different types of fatigue are determined by different variables. Potentially modifiable factors account for a portion of fatigue in PPS.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Falls

Title: Fear of falling, balance confidence and health-related quality of life in individuals with postpolio syndrome.
Author: Legters K, Verbus NB, Kitchen S, Tomecsko J, Urban N.
Affiliation: Gannon University, Erie, PA 16541, USA. [email protected]
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 2006 Jun;22(3):127-35.
Publication Year and Month: 2006 06

Abstract: The purposes of this study were to examine prevalence of fear of falling (FOF) and decreased balance confidence in individuals with postpolio syndrome (PPS) and to determine whether balance confidence was correlated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in this population. A survey, which included demographic questions, the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale, and the MOS SF-36v2, was made available by mail and electronically to individuals with PPS. Descriptive and correlation statistics were used to analyze the responses. Fear of falling was reported in 95% of respondents, with 80% indicating that FOF affected their quality of life. Median ABC score (42 of 100), physical component score (27 of 100), and mental component score (47 of 100) were below average compared with the general population. A moderate correlation (r = 0.4; p < 0.001) was found between balance confidence and the physical component score of HRQOL in PPS.

Conclusions: There was an overwhelming presence of FOF and severely impaired balance confidence in the majority of those with PPS. A fair correlation between the physical functioning component of HRQOL and balance confidence was noted in this population.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Respiratory Complications and Management

Title: Feasibility of lung volume recruitment in early neuromuscular weakness: a comparison between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, myotonic dystrophy, and postpolio syndrome
Author: Kaminska M (1,2), Browman F (3), Trojan DA (4), Genge A (4), Benedetti A (2,5), Petrof BJ (6,7)
Affiliation: (1) Respiratory Division, McGill University Health Centre, 1001 Decarie Blvd, D05.2504 Montreal, Quebec, Canada H4A 3J1; (2) Respiratory Epidemiology and Clinical Research Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (3) Department of Respiratory Therapy, Montreal Chest Institute, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (4) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (5) Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology, Biostatistics & Occupational Health, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (6) Meakins-Christie Laboratories, McGill University and Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (7) Respiratory Division, McGill University Health Centre, 1001 Decarie Blvd, D05.2506 Montreal, Quebec, Canada H4A 3J1
Journal: PM&R: The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Citation: PM R. 2015 Apr;1-8
Publication Year and Month: 2015 04

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Lung volume recruitment (LVR) is a cough assistance technique used in persons with neuromuscular disorders (NMDs), most typically in those requiring noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Whether it may be useful in persons with NMDs who have milder respiratory impairment is unknown.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility, impact on quality of life (QOL), and preliminary physiological effects of daily LVR in different categories of persons with NMDs who have an early stage of respiratory impairment.

DESIGN: Feasibility study.

SETTING: Academic tertiary care center.

PARTICIPANTS: Outpatients diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (n = 8), postpolio syndrome (n = 10), and myotonic dystrophy (n = 6) who had restrictive respiratory defects but were not yet using NIV.

METHODS: Participants were asked to perform LVR up to 4 times daily and log their LVR use in a diary. Physiological measurements and questionnaires were completed at baseline and after 3 months.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Compliance with LVR use was assessed, along with QOL and willingness to continue the treatment. Physiological measurements included forced vital capacity (FVC), lung insufflation capacity (LIC), and the LIC minus FVC difference.

RESULTS: Of the 24 recruited subjects, 7 with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 7 with postpolio syndrome, and 5 with myotonic dystrophy completed the study (n = 19). At baseline, mean values for FVC and spontaneous peak cough flow were 59.9% predicted and 373.1 L/min, respectively. For subjects completing the study, 74% were willing to continue long-term LVR use, and QOL scores were not adversely affected by LVR in any NMD subgroup. The LIC-FVC difference increased from baseline to follow-up by a mean of 0.243 L (P = .006) in all subjects (n = 19), suggesting a possible improvement in respiratory system mechanics.

Conclusions: In patients with NMDs who have early restrictive respiratory defects but do not yet require NIV, regular use of LVR is feasible with no negative impact on QOL over a 3-month period and may have physiological benefits. Further work is needed to determine whether early institution of LVR can improve respiratory system mechanics and help delay ventilatory failure in persons with NMDs.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Polio Immunisation

Title: Field study of fecal excretion as a decision support tool in response to silent reintroduction of wild-type poliovirus 1 into Israel
Author: Moran-Gilad J (1), Mendelson E (2), Burns CC (3), Bassal R (4), Gdalevich M (5), Sofer D (6), Oberste MS (3), Shulman LM (2), Kaliner E (7), Hindiyeh M, Mor O (6), Shahar L (5), Iber J (3), Yishay R (8), Manor J (6), Lev B (9), Gamzu R (10), Grotto I (11)
Affiliation: (1) Public Health Services, Ministry of Health, Jerusalem, Israel; Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel; (2) Central Virology Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Tel-Hashomer, Israel; School of Public Health, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel; (3) Viruses Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA; (4) Israel Center for Disease Control, Ministry of Health, Tel-Hashomer, Israel; (5) Southern District Health Office, Ministry of Health, Beer-Sheva, Israel; (6) Central Virology Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Tel-Hashomer, Israel; (7) Public Health Services, Ministry of Health, Jerusalem, Israel; (8) Department of Laboratories, Public Health Services, Ministry of Health, Jerusalem, Israel; (9) Directorate, Ministry of Health, Jerusalem, Israel; (10) School of Public Health, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel; Directorate, Ministry of Health, Jerusalem, Israel; (11) Public Health Services, Ministry of Health, Jerusalem, Israel; Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel
Journal: Journal of Clinical Virology
Citation: J Clin Virol. 2015 May;66:51-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2015.03.005. Epub 2015 Mar 10
Publication Year and Month: 2015 05

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Israel has used an inactivated polio vaccine (IPV)-only schedule since 2005 (95% coverage). Silent reintroduction of wild type poliovirus 1 (WPV1) into Israel in early 2013 was detected in Southern Israel via routine environmental surveillance without clinical cases.

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the rate of WPV1 excretion by age and residence and inform decision-making regarding supplemental immunization with OPV.

STUDY DESIGN: A convenience sample of Bedouin and Jewish residential areas in the epicenter of the incident, focusing on under 8 year-olds who not previously given OPV. Fecal samples were directly tested for WPV1 RNA using a novel qRT-PCR assay. Positive samples were confirmed by gold standard cell culture and subject to genotyping.

RESULTS: Overall, 2196 non-duplicate fecal samples were collected and analyzed. WPV1 was detected in 61 samples (2.8%), 55 of which (90.2%) were from Bedouins. WPV1 excretion rates were 5.4% among Bedouins and 0.6% among Jewish individuals. Respective age-specific rates among Bedouin and Jewish children were 4.9% and 0.2% for 0-2 years and 7.2% and 1.7% for 2-8 years. Molecular testing had 89.5% sensitivity (higher than culture) and 100% specificity.

Conclusions: The rapid performance of a field study to evaluate WPV1 excretion unequivocally demonstrated substantial WPV1 infection rates among children under 8 years in Southern Israel, thus informing the decision to vaccinate this age group with bOPV and risk communication to both healthcare personnel and the public. Rapid development and implementation of molecular screening can thus underpin risk assessment and management in complex epidemiological situations.

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Orthoses

Title: Findings in Post-Poliomyelitis Syndrome
Author: Perry, J.P., Fontaine, J.D., Mulroy, S., Downey, P.T.
Affiliation: Pathokinesiology Service, Rancho Los Amigos Medical Center, Downey
Journal:
Citation: The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery Vol. 77-A, No. 8, August 1995, 1148-1153
Publication Year and Month: 1995 08

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify overuse of muscles and other alterations in the mechanics of gait in twenty-one patients who had muscular dysfunction as a late consequence of poliomyelitis. All of the patients had good or normal strength (grade 4 or 5) of the vastus lateralis and zero to fair strength (grade 0 to 3) of the calf, as determined by manual testing.

Dynamic electromyography was used, while the patients were walking, to quantify the intensity and duration of contraction of the inferior part of the gluteus maximus, the long head of the biceps femoris. the vastus lateralis, and the soleus muscles. Patterns of contact of the foot with the floor, temporal-spatial parameters, and motion of the knee and ankle were recorded.

The principal mechanisms of substitution for a weak calf muscle fell into three groups: overuse of the quadriceps (twelve patients) or a hip extensor (the inferior part of the gluteus maximus in eight patients and the long head of the biceps femoris in four), or both; equinus contracture (twelve patients); and avoidance of loading-response flexion of the knee (five patients). Most patients used more than one method of substitution.

These obervations support the theory that postpoliomyelitis syndrome results from long-term substitutions for muscular weakness that place increased demands on joints, ligaments, and muscles and that treatment -- based on the early identification of overuse of muscles and ligamentous strain -- should aim at modification of lifestyle and include use of a brace.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Fractures in an aging population of poliomyelitis survivors: a community-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota
Author: Goerss JB, Atkinson EJ, Windebank AJ, O'Fallon WM, Melton LJ 3rd
Affiliation: Department of Medical Genetics, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Minnesota 55905
Journal: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Citation: Mayo Clin Proc. 1994 Apr; 69(4):333-9
Publication Year and Month: 1994 04

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of fractures in a cohort of survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis (“polio”).

DESIGN: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, who had an initial diagnosis of polio between 1935 and 1959 and survived the acute illness.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive medical records-linkage system was used to retrieve all diagnoses of poliomyelitis in residents of the county for the specified 25-year period. For the 277 study subjects, the medical records were searched for the occurrence of fracture from the time of initial diagnosis of polio until death or the most recent clinical contact. All fractures were classified on the basis of type of associated injury and skeletal site of involvement. The influence of polio on the incidence of fractures was evaluated by estimating the cumulative incidence of new fractures after the diagnosis of polio and the standardized morbidity ratio. The relative influence of various factors on the risk of fracture was determined.

RESULTS: Of the 277 Olmsted County residents with polio, 87 experienced 161 fractures, and the estimated cumulative incidence of any fracture after 40 years was 48%. The cumulative incidence of any limb fracture was 41% and was less than the expected value of 44% (P = 0.001). Only the risk of distal femoral and proximal humeral fractures was significantly higher than that among Olmsted County residents in general. The increased risk seemed to be associated with weakness and disuse of the involved limbs rather than with generalized osteoporosis. Theoretically, a greater capacity for bone remodeling in response to changes in muscle use might have protected patients with polio in childhood, but such persons were as likely to sustain a fracture as those with adult-onset poliomyelitis.

Conclusions: These data indicate that survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis do not have an unusual risk of fracture except in affected limbs.

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Frequency and clinical manifestations of post-poliomyelitis syndrome in a Brazilian tertiary care center
Author: Quadros AA (1), Conde MT, Marin LF, Silva HC, Silva TM, Paula MB, Pereira RD, Ramos PE, Abe G, Oliveira AS
Affiliation: (1) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Division of Neuromuscular Disorders, Federal University of São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo SP, Brazil - [email protected]
Journal: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Citation: Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2012 Aug;70(8):571-3
Publication Year and Month: 2012 08

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and clinical manifestations of patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) in a Brazilian division of neuromuscular disorders.

METHODS: A total of 167 patients with prior history of paralytic poliomyelitis was investigated for PPS, based on international diagnostic criteria. Other variables analyzed were: gender, race, age at poliomyelitis infection, age at PPS onset, and PPS symptoms.

RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-nine patients presented PPS, corresponding to 77.2% of the studied population. 62.8% were women and 37.2% were men. Mean age of patients with PPS at onset of PPS symptoms was 39.9±9.69 years. Their main clinical manifestations were: new weakness in the previously affected limbs (69%) and in the apparently not affected limbs (31%); joint pain (79.8%); fatigue (77.5%); muscle pain (76%); and cold intolerance (69.8%).

Conclusions: Most patients of our sample presented PPS. In Brazil, PPS frequency and clinical features are quite similar to those of other countries.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: Functional recovery – a major risk factor for the development of postpoliomyelitis muscular atrophy
Author: Klingman J, Chui H, Corgiat M, Perry J
Affiliation: Department of Neurology, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles
Journal: Archives of Neurology
Citation: Arch Neurol. 1988 Jun;45(6):645-7
Publication Year and Month: 1988 06

Abstract: A retrospective study was undertaken to identify potential risk factors for the development of progressive postpoliomyelitis muscular atrophy (PPMA). Patients with PPMA (n = 57) were compared with patients with a history of poliomyelitis but without a history of progressive weakness (n = 49). Patients who later developed PPMA had histories of more widespread acute paralysis, but relatively greater functional recovery. They were less disabled, and reported higher recent activity levels. Seventy-nine percent of the total variance between the PPMA and control groups could be accounted for by recovery alone (ie, severity minus disability). Functional recovery is generally attributed to reinnervation of sarcomeres by collateral sprouting from surviving lower motor neurons. Since degree of recovery predicts the risk of developing PPMA, our findings suggest that enlarged motor units may carry an increased susceptibility for dysfunction and/or degeneration.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Orthoses

Title: Functional walking capacity of subjects with paralyzed knee extensors while walking with an SCO in locked vs unlocked mode
Author: Sarah Schroder, Eva Probsting, Thomas Schmalz, Andreas Kannenberg, Hartmut Stinus
Affiliation: Ottobock SE & Co. KGaA, Duderstadt, Germany
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Research, DOI: 10.15761/PMRR.1000168
Publication Year and Month: 2018

Abstract: People with a paresis or paralysis of the knee extensors depend on knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs) to restore walking ability. Unlike locked KAFOs whose orthotic
knee joints are only unlocked for sitting down, stance control orthoses (SCOs) may utilize various mechanisms to lock the orthotic knee joint during the stance phase
and unlock it for a free swing phase. Thus far, all studies comparing SCOs to locked KAFOs have only used laboratory-based measures, but no clinical performance
measures commonly used in rehabilitation medicine. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate functional walking capacity using the 6-minute walk test
(6MWT), combined with objective 3D gait measurements, in established SCO users when using the orthosis in the unlocked and locked mode, respectively. In
addition, satisfaction with the SCO was surveyed using the QUEST questionnaire. A total of eight subjects participated in this study. The results show that in the
locked condition, subjects walked a significantly shorter distance (284.4±53.0 m vs. 316.9±59.6 m, p=.04) in the 6MWT than in the unlocked condition. Gait was
more physiological in the unlocked mode with a mean knee flexion angle during swing of 57°±15° vs. full extension in the locked mode. QUEST scores showed a
high overall satisfaction with the E-MAG Active SCO.

Conclusions: Compared to the unlocked condition, the locked mode imposed a clinically meaningful restriction to the functional walking capacity on the subjects. Therefore, fitting
of an SCO may be considered beneficial in individuals dependent on a KAFO to improve their functional walking capacity.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Orthoses

Title: Gait Analysis Techniques
Author: JoAnne K. Gronley and Jacquelin Perry

Affiliation: Physical Therapist, Pathokinesiology Service, Rancho Los Amigos Hospital; Director, Pathokinesiology Service, Rancho Los Amigos Hospital, and Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Southern California
Journal:
Citation: The Journal of American Physical Therapy Assn. Vol. 63, No. 12, December 1984 1831-1838
Publication Year and Month: 1984 12

Abstract: In the gait laboratory at Rancho Los Amigos Hospital, the emphasis is on patient testing to identify functional problems and determine the effectiveness of treatment programs. Footswitch stride analysis, dynamic EMG, energy-cost measurements, force plate, and instrumented motion analysis are the techniques most often used. Stride data define the temporal and distance factors of gait. We use this information to classify the patient's ability to walk and measure response to treatment programs. Inappropriate muscle action in the patient disabled by an upper motor neuron lesion is identified with dynamic EMG. Intramuscular wire electrodes are used to differentiate the action of adjacent muscles. We use the information to localize the source of abnormal function so that selection of treatment procedures is more precise. Force and motion data aid in determining the functional requirement and the muscular response necessary to meet the demand. Determining the optimum mode of locomotion and developing criteria for program planning have become more realistic with the aid of energy-cost measurements. Microprocessors and personal computer systems have made compact and reliable single-concept instrumentation available for basic gait analysis in the standard clinical environment at a modest cost. The more elaborate composite systems, however, still require custom instrumentation and engineering support.

Conclusions: This review of the RLAH gait laboratory has emphasized our clinical focus on patient care. Research projects have followed two directions. Technical developments have related to developing the footswitch, energy cost, and dynamic EMG systems. Functional research has assessed normal performance to provide baselines for interpreting pathological activities.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Exercise

Title: Gait characteristics and influence of fatigue during the 6-minute walk test in patients with post-polio syndrome
Author: Vreede KS, Henriksson J, Borg K, Henriksson M
Affiliation: Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, SE-182 88 Stockholm, Sweden - [email protected]
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2013 Sep;45(9):924-8. doi: 10.2340/16501977-1209.
Publication Year and Month: 2013 09

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate gait in patients with post-polio syndrome, using the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) combined with three-dimensional kinematic analysis.

DESIGN: Descriptive study.

SUBJECTS: Eighteen patients and 11 healthy controls.

METHODS: Kinematic data were obtained during a 6MWT by a Vicon motion capture system. Distance, heart rate, leg tiredness, dyspnoea and exertion were also recorded.

RESULTS: Patients with post-polio syndrome showed larger increases in leg tiredness (p < 0.001) and dyspnoea (p < 0.05) as a result of the 6MWT than did controls. Walking speed decreased by 14.1% in patients vs 4.7% in controls (p < 0.05). Fourteen out of 18 patients displayed plantar-flexed ankle at initial contact (1/11 controls). At foot-off, the patients had a flexed hip (extended in controls) and a more flexed knee. Walking speed in patients correlated with hip angle at footoff, at the start (r = –0.60, p < 0.001) and the end of the 6MWT (r = –0.74, p < 0.001), being higher the more the hip was extended.

CONCLUSION: The 6MWT is fatiguing for patients with post polio syndrome, and this was reflected in the kinematic data. Walking speed was negatively correlated with the increased hip flexion, but not with the ankle plantar-flexion at foot-off in the patients with post-polio syndrome. The three-dimensional results underscore the importance of hip function in this patient group.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

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Category: Orthoses

Title: Gait patterns in association with underlying impairments in polio survivors with calf muscle weakness
Author: Ploeger, H.E., Bus, S.A., Nollet, F., Brehm, M-A.
Affiliation: Nil identified
Journal:
Citation: Ploeger, H.E., Bus, S.A., Nollet, F., Brehm, M-A. Gait patterns in association with underlying impairments in polio survivors with calf muscle weakness. Gait & Posture. 2017 58:146-153. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2017.07.107.
Publication Year and Month: 2017 07

Abstract: The objective was to identify gait patterns in polio survivors with calf muscle weakness and associate them to underlying lower extremity impairments, which are expected to help in the search for an optimal orthosis.

Unilaterally affected patients underwent barefoot 3D-gait analyses. Gait pattern clusters were created based on the ankle and knee angle and ankle moment shown in midstance of the affected limb. Impairment clusters were created based on plantarflexor and knee-extensor strength, and ankle and knee joint range-of-motion. The association between gait patterns and underlying impairments were examined descriptively. The Random Forest Algorithm and regression analyses were used to predict gait patterns and parameters.

Seven gait patterns in 73 polio survivors were identified, with two dominant patterns: one with a mildly/non-deviant ankle angle, ankle moment and knee angle (n = 23), and one with a strongly deviant ankle angle and a mildly/non-deviant ankle moment and knee angle (n = 18). Gait pattern prediction from underlying impairments was 49% accurate with best prediction performance for the second dominant gait pattern (sensitivity 78% and positive predictive value 74%). The underlying impairments explained between 20 and 32% of the variance in individual gait parameters.

Polio survivors with calf muscle weakness who present a similar impairment profile do not necessarily walk the same. From physical examination alone, the gait pattern nor the individual gait parameters could be accurately predicted. The patient’s gait should therefore be measured to help in the prescription and evaluation of orthoses for these patients.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Polio Immunisation

Title: Genetically Thermo-Stabilised, Immunogenic Poliovirus Empty Capsids; a Strategy for Non-replicating Vaccines
Author: Fox, H., Knowlson, S., Minor, P.D., Macadam, A.J.
Affiliation: This work was supported by the WHO Polio Research Committee (http://www.polioeradication.org/Research/Grantsandcollaboration.aspx) through I8-TSA-043 & I8-TSA-083 as well as by NIBSC (National Institute for Biological Standards and Control) through core funding received from the UK Department of Health to fund biological standards and control. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Fox H, Knowlson S, Minor PD, Macadam AJ (2017) Genetically Thermo-Stabilised, Immunogenic Poliovirus Empty Capsids; a Strategy for Non-replicating Vaccines. PLoS Pathog13(1): e1006117. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006117
Publication Year and Month: 2017 01

Abstract: While wild type polio has been nearly eradicated there will be a need to continue immunisation programmes for some time because of the possibility of re-emergence and the existence of long term excreters of poliovirus. All vaccines in current use depend on growth of virus and most of the non-replicating (inactivated) vaccines involve wild type viruses known to cause poliomyelitis. The attenuated vaccine strains involved in the eradication programme have been used to develop new inactivated vaccines as production is thought safer. However it is known that the Sabin vaccine strains are genetically unstable and can revert to a virulent transmissible form. A possible solution to the need for virus growth would be to generate empty viral capsids by recombinant technology, but hitherto such particles are so unstable as to be unusable. We report here the genetic manipulation of the virus to generate stable empty capsids for all three serotypes. The particles are shown to be extremely stable and to generate high levels of protective antibodies in animal models.

Conclusions: The final preparations studied were extremely stable compared to IPV and could conceivably give rise to a vaccine that would not require a cold chain; moreover they were more immunogenic than IPV made from the equivalent strains in the animal model used for testing IPV potency and in challenge studies in transgenic mice. It is possible that this is partly because the particles, unlike IPV, were not treated with formalin. The viruses from which they were derived had lost infectivity presumably because they were unable to uncoat by virtue of their hyperstable capsids. A suitable expression platform would be required to make this a viable vaccine production system and is the focus of one strand of current work of the Consortium, but the properties of the particles are very promising.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Quality of Life

Title: Growing older with post-polio syndrome:
Social and quality-of-life implications

Author: Andrea Duncan and Zinnia Batliwalla
Affiliation: 1Department of Occupational Science & Occupational Therapy, University
of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
2March of Dimes Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: SAGE Open Medicine
Volume 6: 1–7
Publication Year and Month: 2018 07

Abstract: Objectives: To understand the quality-of-life implications for post-polio syndrome survivors.
Methods: For this qualitative study, a focus group methodology, with a case study design, was used. The data were analyzed
for themes using a social ecological conceptual framework.
Results: Three focus groups were conducted with a total of 24 participants (N=24). Participants defined quality of life as
being able to engage in meaningful activities of daily living. Participants shared experiences of adapting to declining physical
health and embracing new activities of daily living. They expressed hope and shared stories that demonstrated resiliency.

Conclusions: The literature states that individuals aging with post-polio syndrome express concern that health providers
often know little about their disability condition. The participants in this study reflected this experience by sharing feelings of
misunderstanding from the medical community and expressing a desire to have more dynamic education for health providers.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Psychology

Title: Growing up with a disability following paralytic poliomyelitis: experiences from persons with late effects of polio
Author: Catharina Sjödahl Hammarlund, Jan Lexell & Christina Brogårdh
Affiliation: Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
Journal: Disability and Rehabilitation
Citation:
Publication Year and Month: 2019 08

Abstract: Purpose: To describe the experiences of growing up after acute paralytic poliomyelitis and strategies used to adapt to the new situation.

Methods: Seven women and seven men (mean age 70 years, min–max 61–78 years) with late effects of polio, who had contracted paralytic polio in their childhood. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by systematic text condensation.

Results: Memories of contracting acute paralytic poliomyelitis involved being immobilized and sent away from home for surgical and physiotherapeutic treatment. Growing up in a social context that was often tough and unfriendly resulted in the development of strategies, such as optimistic thinking, trying to blend in, trusting one’s ability to manage, and to handle the preconceptions and expectations of others. At the onset of late effects of polio, some of these strategies were still functioning, whereas overachieving, disregarding pain, and weariness were not.

Conclusion: The challenges of growing up with a disability following paralytic polio led to the development of various psychological strategies for managing daily life. By understanding these experiences and strategies, knowledge may be gained in assisting rehabilitation professionals to better support persons with late effects of polio in adapting to the new situation.

Conclusions: Growing up with a disability after paralytic poliomyelitis presented both physical and psychological challenges, necessitating new strategies for managing daily situations, such as optimistic thinking, trying to blend in and trust in one’s ability to manage. At the onset of late effects of polio, some of these strategies were still functioning. Strategies that were obsolete were those that made the participants work too hard, for example overachieving, disregarding pain, and weariness. By understanding the experiences and evolved strategies from the past, rehabilitation professionals may better support persons with late effects of polio in their process of adaptation to the new situation.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Complementary Therapies

Title: Hatha yoga and meditation in patients with post-polio syndrome
Author: DeMayo W, Singh B, Duryea B, Riley D
Affiliation: Southern California University of the Health Sciences, USA
Journal: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
Citation: Altern Ther Health Med. 2004 Mar-Apr;10(2):24-5
Publication Year and Month: 2004 03

Abstract: This paper does not have an abstract. The following is an extract:
Conemaugh Health System has completed a preliminary outcome study evaluating the benefits of Hatha yoga and meditation in patients with post-polio syndrome (PPS). This research integrates clinical trials investigating the application of Hatha yoga with ongoing patient care and education. The results of this clinical trial will be used to develop a longitudinal data collection effort integrating research and clinical trials investigating the applications of Hatha yoga in ongoing patient care and education.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Differential Diagnosis

Title: Health and Social Considerations in Norwegian Polio Survivors: A 20-Year Follow-up Study
Author: Festvag L, Schanke A-K, Gilhus NE, et al.
Affiliation: Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital
University of Oslo
University of Bergen; Haukelund University Hospital, Bergen
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2016;48(8):688-695
Publication Year and Month: 2016 10

Abstract: Objective: To explore the physical and social situation of the Norwegian polio population in 2014, and to compare the status of this population in 2014 with the results of a similar survey carried out 20 years previously, in 1994.

Design: The study was based on a questionnaire covering demographics, polio history, and current medical, psychological and social conditions.

Subjects: The questionnaire was prepared in cooperation with the National Society of Polio Survivors and others with known polio (n = 1,968). A total of 1,408 persons responded (72%), mean age 70 years (range 28–98 years).

Results: The most frequent health problems reported were muscle and joint pain, cold intolerance and insomnia. New muscle weakness and loss of muscle volume were reported more frequently in 2014 than in the 1994 study. The use of orthopaedic aids, assistive devices, ventilators and other respiratory aids had increased significantly, but 83% reported that they still had no home care or nursing services support. The 2014 polio population reported only minor subjective worsening of health and well-being compared with the 1994 cohort.

Conclusion: The present study indicates that the elderly polio population are experiencing new muscle weakness and increasing health problems, but that the deterioration occurs slowly and with fewer consequences for the subjective experience of general health and well-being, indicating that the patients are adapting to their life situation. However, subgroups of the elderly polio population are in need of special care.

Conclusions: The present study indicates that the elderly polio population are experiencing new muscle weakness and increasing health problems, but that the deterioration occurs slowly and with fewer consequences for the subjective experience of general health and well-being, indicating that the patients are adapting to their life situation. However, subgroups of the elderly polio population are in need of special care.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Quality of Life

Title: Health related quality of life in Turkish polio survivors: impact of post-polio on the health related quality of life in terms of functional status, severity of pain, fatigue, and social, and emotional functioning
Author: Yesim Garip (1), Filiz Eser (2), Hatice Bodur (2), Bedriye Baskan (2), Filiz Sivas (2), Ozlem Yilmaz (2)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ankara Basak Medical Center, Ankara, Turkey; (2) Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
Journal: Brazilian Journal of Rheumatology (Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia)
Citation: Rev Bras Reumatol. 2015 Mar; dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rbre.2014.12.006
Publication Year and Month: 2015 03

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of postpolio-syndrome on quality of life in polio survivors.

METHODS: Forty polio survivors were included in the study. Twenty-one patients fulfilling the Halstead's postpolio-syndrome criteria participated in postpolio-syndrome group. The remaining nineteen patients formed non-postpolio-syndrome group. Control group was composed of forty healthy subjects. Quality of life was evaluated by Nottingham Health Profile, depression by Beck Depression Scale and fatigue by Fatigue Symptom Inventory. Isometric muscle strength was measured by manual muscle testing.

RESULTS: Total manual muscle testing score was 26.19 ± 13.24 (median: 29) in postpolio-syndrome group and 30.08 ± 8.9 (median: 32) in non-postpolio-syndrome group. Total manual muscle testing scores of non-postpolio-syndrome group were significantly higher than that of postpolio-syndrome group. Patients with postpolio-syndrome reported significantly higher levels of fatigue and reduced quality of life in terms of physical mobility, pain and energy when compared with patients without postpolio-syndrome and control group. It was not reported a statistically significant difference in social and emotional functioning and sleep quality between postpolio-syndrome, non-postpolio-syndrome and control groups. Also it was not found any statistically significant difference in Beck Depression Scale scores among the groups.

Conclusions: Postpolio-syndrome has a negative impact on quality of life in terms of functional status, severity of pain and energy. The identification, early recognition and rehabilitation of postpolio-syndrome patients may result in an improvement in their quality of life.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: High incidence of osteoporosis and fractures in an aging post-polio population
Author: Mohammad AF (1), Khan KA (1), Galvin L (2), Hardiman O (2), O’Connell PG (1)
Affiliation: Departments of (1) Rheumatology, and (2) Neurology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
Journal: European Neurology
Citation: Eur Neurol. 2009 Nov; 62(6):369–374. doi:10.1159/000242444
Publication Year and Month: 2009 11

Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIMS: Since the polio epidemic in Ireland in the 1950s, most polio survivors are approaching into the 6th and 7th decade of their lives. There is little data about bone density and risk of fractures in these patients. In 2006, we undertook an audit of post-polio patients attending rheumatology and neurology outpatient clinics in a university teaching hospital. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis (OP), falls and fractures and to evaluate the association of bone density with other potential contributing factors to OP.

METHODS: Over a 6-month period, 50 post-polio patients attending outpatient clinics completed a questionnaire, and subsequently their medical records were reviewed. Demographic data and details of treatment were extracted. The patients underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning to quantify bone mineral density. Results: Thirty subjects (60%) were females (26 were postmenopausal). The average age of females was 60 ± 13.4 years and of men 59 ± 16.8 years. Overall, 41 (82%) of the patients had experienced falls in the last 5 years and 32 (64%) in the last 6 months. Nineteen (38%) of the patients had experienced a bone fracture in the last 5 years. Based on the bone mineral density data, 28 (56%) of the patients were diagnosed with OP and 20 (40%) had osteopenia, but only 8 (16%) received anti-resorptive therapy. Of the 19 patients who had a fracture, 14 (74%) had OP and 5 (26%) had osteopenia, of whom only 6 (32%) received anti-resorptive therapy. Eight out of 9 fractures of the neck of femur occurred in the weaker leg.

Conclusions: Post-polio patients are a high-risk group for fracture, and thus bone density assessment, review of falls risk and therapeutic intervention should be considered for all patients. Both osteopenia and OP are associated with increased fracture risk.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Histopathologic Basis of Clinical Findings in Poliomyelitis
Author: Bodian, D.
Affiliation: Poliomyelitis Research Center, Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: American Journal of Medicine. 1949: 6(5):563–578
Publication Year and Month: 05

Abstract: 1. Experimental evidence indicates that the onset of CNS pathologic changes occurs in the preparalytic period and is closely associated with the earliest evidence of virus activity in any particular region involved.
2. The earliest cytopathologic changes are diffuse chromatolysis of Nissl substance in the cytoplasm of nerve cells and mild cellular exudate consisting of polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes.
3. Nerve cell changes may be present in the earliest stages without inflammatory reaction in the vicinity and therefore are not necessarily the result of the latter, but rather the result of direct virus action.
4. Nerve cell changes either lead to rapid destruction of the cell or to arrest in the stage of cytoplasmic chromatolysis, following which complete morphologic recovery of the cell generally occurs over a period of about a month or less, depending upon the severity of injury.
5. Virus activity, nerve cell changes and inflammatory reaction are localized only in certain susceptible regions of the CNS, largely due to specific differences of susceptibility of nerve cells. The intensity of the inflammatory reaction, however, may be quite variable in different susceptible centers and in different individuals. Severe inflammatory reaction is usually but not always associated with extensive nerve cell destruction. Severe nerve cell damage may occur without extensive cellular infiltration in the cord.
6. Lesions in the cerebral cortex are usually confined to the motor area of the precentral gyrus and even here the lesions are rarely severe enough to suggest that they may produce clinical symptoms.
7. “Encephalitic” symptoms such as restlessness, stupor, disorientation and coma are associated with severe inflammatory reaction in the brainstem and often with small softenings in this region. They are not associated with unusual involvement of the cerebral cortex.
8. Brainstem centers principally involved in most instances are the reticular formation of the hind-brain, the vestibular nuclei and the roof nuclei of the cerebellum. Resulting functional disturbances are discussed.
9. Widespread dissemination of virus among most motor nerve cells in spinal cord enlargements occurs in experimental poliomyelitis as early as the first day of paralysis. Motor nerve cells which are affected either are destroyed very quickly during the first few days of the disease or undergo slower recovery changes leading to complete morphologic recovery within about a month. After this time it can be shown that the degree of paralysis and atrophy are closely correlated with the number of motor nerve cells destroyed. In the acute stage, however, this correlation is not as high and other factors must also play a role in producing paralysis. An important factor is the reversible injury of motor nerve cells. Less complete evidence from human material suggests that a similar situation obtains in human poliomyelitis.
10. Experimental work suggests three possible factors which may determine the variation in severity of infection. These are, first, variations due to difference in strains of the virus, second, reduction of severity due to previous paralytic or non-paralytic infection, and third, host variation unrelated to previous immunizing experience with the virus.

Conclusions: Poliomyelitis virus has strains that can vary depending on the host, and response to the virus. The virus causes most damage to the anterior horn cells of the cervical and lumbar segments, however there is damage to the brainstem and premotor areas in the brain.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: How long does denervation take in poliomyelitis? Or is it a lifetime?
Author: Senol, M.G., Kaplan, C., Ozdağ, F., Saraçoğlu, M.
Affiliation: GATA Haydarpasa Training Hospital, Istanbul
Journal:
Citation: Journal of Neurosciences in rural practice
Senol, M.G., Kaplan, C., Ozdağ, F., Saraçoğlu, M. (2017) How long does denervation take in poliomyelitis? Or is it a lifetime? J Neurosci Rural Pract. 8:511-5
Publication Year and Month: 2017 11

Abstract: Background and Objective: This study aims to determine the period of reinnervation in patients with poliomyelitis. This research was conducted to identify the appearance of denervation potentials in patients with poliomyelitis as indicators for reinnervation.

Materials and Methods: A total of 246 male patients with poliomyelitis were assessed electrophysiologically between 1988 and 2007. The mean age was 22.8 (18–42). It has been an average of 19.9 ± 4.9 years since the beginning of complaints from the patients.

Results: The patients had no complaints of newly developing muscle weakness, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, and difficulties in breathing and swallowing. Neurological examinations revealed the absence of myotomal pain and sensory loss. Upon assessment of the patients' limbs, the following findings were revealed: two patients had left upper and lower limb involvement, two patients had left upper and right lower limb involvement, 6 patients had left upper limb involvement, 12 patients had both lower limb involvement, 105 patients had left lower limb involvement, 1 patient had both upper limb involvement, 2 patients had right lower and upper limb involvement, 12 patients had right upper limb involvement, 6 patients had both lower limb involvement, 95 patients had right lower limb involvement, and 3 had all the three extremities affected. The needle electromyography revealed the presence of denervation potentials in 25.2% (62) of the patients.

Conclusion: When poliovirus attacks the motor neuron, this neuron may be completely destroyed, damaged, or unaffected. Reinnervation occurs when nearby functioning motor units send out terminal axon sprouts to reinnervate the damaged muscle fibers. As a consequence of poliomyelitis, several muscle fibers become atrophic and fibrotic, but others continue to survive. This study showed that patients with a history of poliomyelitis experienced denervation with subsequent reinnervation for many years.

Conclusions: The electrophysiological evidences indicating denervation continuing in 25% of the patients are shown in this study.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Acute Flaccid Paralysis

Title: Human Enteroviruses isolated during acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Ghana: implications for the post eradication era
Author: Odoom JK, Obodai E, Barnor JS, Ashun M, Arthur-Quarm J, Osei-Kwasi M
Affiliation: Department of Virology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana
Journal: Pan African Medical Journal
Citation: Pan Afr Med J. 2012; 12: 74
Publication Year and Month: 2012 07

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Surveillance of acute flaccid surveillance (AFP) has been used world-wide to monitor the control and eradication of circulating wild polioviruses. The Polio Laboratory since its accreditation in 1996 has supported the Disease Surveillance Department for AFP surveillance. This study aims to isolate and characterize human enteroviruses from patients with AFP in Ghana.

METHOD: Stool suspension was prepared from 308 samples received in 2009 from the surveillance activities throughout the country and inoculated on both RD and L20B cell lines. Isolates that showed growth on L20B were selected for real-time RT-PCR using degenerate and non-degenerate primers and probes. RD isolates were however characterized by microneutralisation technique with antisera pools from RIVM, The Netherlands and viruses that were untypable subjected to neutralization assay using antibodies specific for E71.

RESULTS: Of the 308 samples processed, 17 (5.5%) grew on both L20B and RD cells while 32 (10.4%) grew on RD only. All 28 isolates from L20B were characterized by rRT-PCR as Sabin-like polioviruses. No wild poliovirus or VDPV was found. However from the microneutralisation assay, six different enteroviruses were characterized. Among these, Coxsackie B viruses were most predominant followed by Echovirus. Three children from whom non-polio enteroviruses were isolated had residual paralysis while one child with VAPP found. The non-polio enteroviruses circulated throughout the country with the majority (20.7%) from Ashanti region.

Conclusions: This study showed the absence of wild or vaccine-derived poliovirus circulation in the country. However, the detection of three non-polio enteroviruses and one Sabin-like poliovirus with residual paralysis call for continuous surveillance even in the post polio eradication era.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Inflammation

Title: Identification of novel candidate protein biomarkers for the post-polio syndrome - implications for diagnosis, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation.
Author: Gonzalez H, Ottervald J, Nilsson KC, et al
Affiliation: Karolinska Institute, Sweden
AstraZeneca, Sweden
Lund Technical University, Sweden
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Journal of Proteomics
J Proteomics. 2009 Jan 30;71(6):670-81
Publication Year and Month: 2009 01

Abstract: Survivors of poliomyelitis often develop increased or new symptoms decades after the acute infection, a condition known as post-polio syndrome (PPS). The condition affects 20-60% of previous polio patients, making it one of the most common causes of neurological deficits worldwide. The underlying pathogenesis is not fully understood and accurate diagnosis is not feasible. Herein we investigated whether it was possible to identify proteomic profile aberrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PPS patients. CSF from 15 patients with well-defined PPS were analyzed for protein expression profiles. The results were compared to data obtained from nine healthy controls and 34 patients with other non-inflammatory diseases which served as negative controls. In addition, 17 samples from persons with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) were added as relevant age-matched references for the PPS samples. The CSF of persons with PPS displayed a disease-specific and highly predictive (p=0.0017) differential expression of five distinct proteins: gelsolin, hemopexin, peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase, glutathione synthetase and kallikrein 6, respectively, in comparison with the control groups. An independent ELISA confirmed the increase of kallikrein 6. We suggest that these five proteins should be further evaluated as candidate biomarkers for the diagnosis and development of new therapies for PPS patients.

Conclusions: Protein analysis employing classical proteomics combined with multivariate modeling and identification using mass spectrometry resulted in the discovery of three differentially
expressed proteins or their fragments in PPS samples as compared to in controls. This firstly suggests that these proteins may exert key roles in PPS patophysiology. Secondly, these proteins and their fragments represent potential candidates as biomarkers for the disease. To merit as true biomarkers studies will be required in larger materials of PPS and a variety of other CNS diseases.
Notably, however, in comparison with samples from SPMS (being an age-matched control group with ongoing inflammation and neuronal destruction), the most predictive proteins were specific for PPS.
In conclusion, we herein demonstrate a protein profile, based on its high predictive value, has the potential to serve as a diagnostic biomarker for PPS. The proteins identified in this study are known to be involved in different pathways associated with tissue damage and apoptosis. These data and previous observations of inflammation and cytokine production provide strong support for the hypothesis that PPS is caused by an active inflammatory and neurodegenerative process. There is consequently potential for various modes of anti-inflammatory and/or neuroprotective therapy.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Identification of targets for improving access to care in persons with long term physical disabilities
Author: Jennifer L.Wong, Kevin N.Alschuler, Tracy M.Mroz, Kimberly P.Hreha, Ivan R.Molton
Affiliation: University of Washington, Rehabilitation Medicine, United States
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Disability and Health Journal, Available online 20 January 2019
Publication Year and Month: 2019 01

Abstract: Background
People with long-term physical disability (LTPD) continue to experience difficulties in accessing health care despite the focus of highlighting disparities in the last two decades.

Objectives
To describe health care utilization, accommodations and barriers experienced while accessing health care, and reasons why individuals delay or skip health care among people with LTPD.

Methods
The current study was a part of a larger longitudinal survey administered to individuals with physical disability associated with one of four long-term conditions (MS; SCI; PPS; MD). Measures included demographics, health care utilization, barriers to health care, and reasons for delaying or skipping medical care from the sixth wave of data from 2015 to 2016.

Results
Roughly 90% of all participants (N = 1159) saw at least one medical provider within 12 months. The most encountered barrier participants reported experiencing within that time was an office that did not have a safe transfer device to move them to an exam table (69%). Participants’ physical function, quality of life, status of living with a spouse, diagnostic condition, and sex (male) were significantly associated with endorsing a barrier in accessing health care. The inability to afford out of pocket expenses was the highest reported reason for delaying health care.

Conclusions: People with LTPD access a variety of health care, including rehabilitation services, and continue to experience barriers when doing so. While understanding barriers individuals experience when accessing health care is important, it is equally important to document the type of care they delay or skip due to barriers.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Psychology

Title: Illness narratives of persons with post-polio syndrome
Author: Wenneberg S (1), Ahlström G
Affiliation: (1) Department of Caring Sciences, University of Orebro, Sweden
Journal: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Citation: J Adv Nurs. 2000 Feb;31(2):354-61
Publication Year and Month: 2000 02

Abstract: This qualitative study investigated the lifetime illness experience of individuals with the 'late effects' of polio or post-polio syndrome. Fifteen individuals were interviewed twice about their illness experience and the interviews were transcribed verbatim. The empirical material first underwent a categorization process. The preliminary categories generated through this analysis were then condensed into broader categories which in the final analysis gave rise to the following temporal pattern or stages of the illness experience: (1) the acute phase of polio and subsequent treatment and care; (2) rehabilitation and care at institutions for the disabled; (3) adaptation to a new life; (4) living with the post-polio syndrome today, and finally, (5) memories of the past and apprehensions concerning the future. In spite of the difficult experiences of falling ill and slowly recovering from a life-threatening disease, these individuals have had a good life and accomplished most of their ambitions in the areas of work and family life. Their present psychosocial situation is complicated by the symptoms of the post-polio syndrome which make them more vulnerable to stress, but they are able to handle this burden except when any added strain makes it overwhelming. This potential vulnerability may sometimes express itself as a sudden flashback to traumatic polio experiences and it is therefore important that nurses are aware of the illness history of this patient group.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Complementary Therapies

Title: Immediate and Long-Term Effects of Qigong on Cold Intolerance in Patients with Post-Poliomyelitis Syndrome
Author: Ramos, PS, Abe, GC, Pradella-Hallinan, M, Quadros, AAJ, Tao, T, Oliveira, ASB.
Affiliation: Federal University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TUTCM), Tianjin, China.
Department of Tuina and Orthopedics, Tuina and Orthopedics Clinic, The First Teaching Hospital, Tianjin, China.
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Scientific Research
2018 Vol1(1). DOI:10.4236/health.2017.101004
Publication Year and Month: 2018 01

Abstract: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) is a disorder in individuals who have had poliomyelitis, characterized by new muscle weakness and often associated with other symptoms, including cold intolerance (CI). Qigong is a Traditional Chinese Medicine technique to adjust energy and blood circulation. Objective: To verify the effects and late repercussions of Qigong on CI complaints in PPS patients. Methods: PPS patients (n = 22, 14 females, 8 males; ages 35 - 60) performed Qigong exercises in 40-minute sessions, three times per week, for three consecutive months. They were evaluated at baseline, the end of treatment and every three months for a year using a visual analogue scale adapted for CI (VAS-cold). Results: The systemic VAS-cold scores exhibited significant differences between the baseline, the end of treatment and throughout 12 months of follow-up. Conclusion: The CI scores were low and bearable at the end of intervention and for the following 12 months without activity.

Conclusions: We found that following DQ training, the complaints of CI exhibited statistically significant improvement in all the participants, and the sensitivity to cold exhibited low scores and bearable levels at the end of intervention and in the evaluations performed during the following 12 months.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Polio Immunisation

Title: Immunogenicity of two different sequential schedules of inactivated polio vaccine followed by oral polio vaccine versus oral polio vaccine alone in healthy infants in China
Author: Li RC (1), Li CG (2), Wang HB (3), Luo HM (3), Li YP (1), Wang JF (2), Ying ZF (2), Yu WZ (3), Shu JD (4), Wen N (3), Vidor E (5)
Affiliation: (1) Guangxi Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Nanning, China; (2) National Institutes for Food and Drug Control (NIFDC), Beijing, China; (3) Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; (4) Sanofi Pasteur, Beijing, China; (5) Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, France
Journal: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Citation: J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2015 Apr 16. pii: piv017
Publication Year and Month: 2015 04

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Two vaccination schedules where inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) was followed by oral polio vaccine (OPV) were compared to an OPV-only schedule.

METHODS: Healthy Chinese infants received a 3-dose primary series of IPV-OPV-OPV (Group A), IPV-IPV-OPV (Group B), or OPV-OPV-OPV (Group C) at 2, 3, and 4 months of age. At pre-Dose 1, 1-month, and 14-months post-Dose 3, polio 1, 2, and 3 antibody titers were assessed by virus-neutralizing antibody assay with Sabin or wild-type strains. Adverse events were monitored.

RESULTS: Anti-polio 1, 2, and 3 titers were ≥8 (1/dil) in >99% of participants, and Group A and Group B were noninferior to Group C at 1-month post-Dose 3 as assessed by Sabin strain-based assay (SSBA). In Group A 1-month post-Dose 3, there was no geometric mean antibody titers (GMT) differences for types 1 and 3; type 2 GMTs were ≈3-fold higher by wild-type strain-based assay (WTBA) versus SSBA. For Group B, GMTs were ≈1.7- and 3.6-fold higher for types 1 and 2 via WTBA, while type 3 GMTs were similar. For Group C, GMTs were ≈6.3- and 2-fold higher for types 1 and 3 with SSBA, and type 2 GMTs were similar. Antibodies persisted in >96.6% of participants. Adverse event incidence in each group was similar.

Conclusions: A primary series of 1 or 2 IPV doses followed by 2 or 1 OPV doses was immunogenic and noninferior to an OPV-only arm. SSBA was better at detecting antibodies elicited by OPV with antibody titers correlated to the number of OPV doses (NCT01475539 - https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01475539).

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Drugs

Title: Immunoglobulin g for the treatment of chronic pain: report of an expert workshop
Author: Tamburin S (1), Borg K, Caro XJ, Jann S, Clark AJ, Magrinelli F, Sobue G, Werhagen L, Zanette G, Koike H, Späth PJ, Vincent A, Goebel A
Affiliation: (1) Department of Neurological and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Verona, Italy
Journal: Pain Medicine
Citation: Pain Med. 2014 Jul;15(7):1072-82. doi: 10.1111/pme.12319
Publication Year and Month: 2014 07

Abstract: BACKGROUND: The treatment of chronic pain is still unsatisfactory. Despite the availability of different drugs, most patients with chronic pain do not receive satisfactory pain relief or report side effects. Converging evidence implicates involvement of the immune system in the pathogenesis of different types of nociceptive and neuropathic chronic pain.

DESIGN: At a workshop in Liverpool, UK (October 2012), experts presented evidence suggesting immunological involvement in chronic pain and recent data supporting the concept that the established immune-modulating drug, polyvalent immunoglobulin G (IgG), either given intravenously (IVIg) or subcutaneously (SCIg), may reduce pain in some peripheral neuropathies and a range of other pain disorders. Workshop's attendees discussed the practicalities of using IVIg and SCIg in these disorders, including indications, cost-effectiveness, and side effects.

RESULTS: IgG may reduce pain in a range of nociceptive and neuropathic chronic pain conditions, including diabetes mellitus, Sjögren's syndrome, fibromyalgia, complex regional pain syndrome, post-polio syndrome, and pain secondary to pathological autoantibodies.

Conclusions: IgG is a promising treatment in several chronic pain conditions. IgG is a relatively safe therapeutic strategy, with uncommon and mild side effects but high costs. Randomized, controlled trials and predictive tests are needed to better support the use of IgG for refractory chronic pain.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Drugs

Title: Immunoglobulin treatment in post-polio syndrome: Identification of responders and non-responders
Author: Östlund G (1), Broman L, Werhagen L, Borg K
Affiliation: (1) Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Danderyd University Hospital, Building 39, 3rd floor, SE-182 88 Stockholm, Sweden
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2015 Aug 18. doi: 10.2340/16501977-1985
Publication Year and Month: 2015 08

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To define and characterize responders and non-responders in a group of 124 patients with post-polio syndrome who received a single treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin.

DESIGN: Open trial, prospective follow-up study.

METHODS: Clinical examination and data from medical records. Short Form 36 (SF-36), Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) and visual analogue scale (VAS) measured quality of life, physical activity and intensity of pain, respectively. Data were obtained before treatment and at 6-month follow-up.

RESULTS: Two responder groups were identified with the outcome SF-36 Vitality and 3 with Bodily pain, respectively. Forty-five percent were positive-responders, identified before treatment by reduced physical function, muscle atrophy in the lower extremities, higher levels of fatigue and pain, and a VAS pain score above 20. Negative-responders were identified by good physical function and mental health, lesser muscle atrophy in the lower extremities, and low levels of fatigue and pain.

Conclusions: Intravenous immunoglobulin is a biological intervention, and therefore it is important to be able to identify responders and non-responders. In order to maximize a positive outcome it is suggested that patients with a high level of fatigue and/or pain and reduced physical function are selected.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Pain, Quality of Life

Title: Impact of pain on quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome
Author: Werhagen L, Borg K
Affiliation: Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2013; 45: 161–163. doi: 10.2340/16501977-1096
Publication Year and Month: 2013 00

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Post-polio syndrome is a neurological disorder occurring several years after an acute polio infection. The main symptoms are increased muscular weakness and atrophy, fatigue and pain. Pain is present more often in younger individuals and in females and, according to the visual analogue scale (VAS), the intensity of pain is relatively high. The aim of the present study was to analyse the impact of pain on quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome.

DESIGN: Transversal study.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with post-polio syndrome underwent a thorough neurological and general examination. They were interviewed about the presence and intensity of pain during the previous 3 months, then completed the quality of life inventory Short-Form 36 (SF-36), which included questions about pain during the previous 4 weeks, and rated their pain intensity during the previous 24 h according to the VAS.

RESULTS: Seventy-seven of the patients (68%) experienced pain at the examination. Pain was found to have a significant impact on the SF-36 subdomains Vitality and General health. A correlation was found between pain during the previous 3 months, the previous 4 weeks, and the previous 24 h.

DISCUSSION: Pain is common in patients with post-polio syndrome. Although patients have a high mean VAS score the pain only affects quality of life for Vitality and General Health, but not for other physical and mental domains.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

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Category: Quality of Life

Title: Impact of post-polio-related fatigue on quality of life
Author: On AY, Oncu J, Atamaz F, Durmaz B
Affiliation: Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ege University Medical School, Izmir, Turkey
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2006 Sep;38(5):329-32
Publication Year and Month: 2006 09

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of post-polio-related fatigue on quality of life.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional case control study.

SUBJECTS: Patients without additional health problems that may induce fatigue were selected from among 82 polio survivors. Twenty-six patients with post-polio syndrome and 10 without post-polio syndrome were included. Control group consisted of 30 healthy volunteers.

METHODS: We assessed presence and severity of fatigue by Fatigue Severity Scale, quality of life by Nottingham Health Profile, and impact of fatigue on quality of life by Fatigue Impact Scale. Leg muscle strength was measured by manual muscle testing.

RESULTS: Strength of leg muscles showed no differences between the patients with and without post-polio syndrome. Patients with post-polio syndrome reported significantly higher levels of fatigue and reduced quality of life compared with both patients without post-polio syndrome and control group. Fatigue Impact Scale revealed that fatigue did not significantly impair mental health, but had a negative impact especially on physical and psychosocial functioning of the patients with post-polio syndrome.

Conclusions: Post-polio-related fatigue seems to be an important factor for further impairment of quality of life in polio survivors.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Speech Pathology

Title: Incidence and nature of dysphagia in polio survivors
Author: Coelho CA, Ferranti R
Affiliation: Department of Communication Disorders, Gaylord Hospital, Wallingford, CT 06492
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1991 Dec; 72(13):1071-5
Publication Year and Month: 1991 12

Abstract: Questionnaires pertaining to swallowing function were mailed to 220 members of postpolio support groups in Connecticut. Of the 109 responses, 80 individuals reported having no difficulty with swallowing, while 29 reported having either intermittent or consistent swallowing problems. Twenty-one of the 29 were seen for videofluoroscopic swallowing studies and pulmonary function testing. The swallowing studies showed that 43% of these individuals had difficulty with bolus control, 19% with delayed swallow response, and 81% with decreased pharyngeal transit. Although none of these individuals were observed to aspirate, two were judged to be at significant risk. Incidence of dysphagia within the group of polio survivors was estimated to be approximately 18%. Seventeen of the 20 postpolio subjects with dysphagia also demonstrated decreased breathing capacity. Although moderately to severely depressed values in the pulmonary function measures accompanied moderate dysphagia in certain postpolio individuals, reduced values in these same measures were also present in individuals with minimal swallowing dysfunction. Therefore, although impaired breathing may complicate swallowing dysfunction and vice versa, it does not appear that one can be predicated from the other. Management of dysphagia in postpolio individuals is discussed.

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Category: Polio Immunisation

Title: Intestinal Immunity to Poliovirus Following Sequential Trivalent Inactivated Polio Vaccine/Bivalent Oral Polio Vaccine and Trivalent Inactivated Polio Vaccine–only Immunization Schedules: Analysis of an Open-label, Randomized, Controlled Trial in Chilean Infants
Author: Elizabeth B Brickley Wendy Wieland-Alter Ruth I Connor Margaret E Ackerman Austin W Boesch Minetaro Arita William C Weldon Miguel G O’Ryan Ananda S Bandyopadhyay Peter F Wright
Affiliation: 1Department of Epidemiology, Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire; 2Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical
Medicine, United Kingdom; 3
Department of Pediatrics, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, 4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth
College, and 5Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire; 6
Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; 7
Division of Viral
Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; 8
Microbiology and Mycology Program and Millennium Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Faculty of Medicine,
University of Chile, Santiago; and 9
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, Washington
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 67, Issue suppl_1, 15 November 2018, Pages S42–S50, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy603
Publication Year and Month: 2018 10

Abstract: Background
Identifying polio vaccine regimens that can elicit robust intestinal mucosal immunity and interrupt viral transmission is a key priority of the polio endgame.

Methods
In a 2013 Chilean clinical trial (NCT01841671) of trivalent inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV; targeting types 1 and 3), infants were randomized to receive IPV-bOPV-bOPV, IPV-IPV-bOPV, or IPV-IPV-IPV at 8, 16, and 24 weeks of age and challenged with monovalent oral polio vaccine type 2 (mOPV2) at 28 weeks. Using fecal samples collected from 152 participants, we investigated the extent to which IPV-bOPV and IPV-only immunization schedules induced intestinal neutralizing activity and immunoglobulin A against polio types 1 and 2.

Results
Overall, 37% of infants in the IPV-bOPV groups and 26% in the IPV-only arm had detectable type 2–specific stool neutralization after the primary vaccine series. In contrast, 1 challenge dose of mOPV2 induced brisk intestinal immune responses in all vaccine groups, and significant rises in type 2–specific stool neutralization titers (P < .0001) and immunoglobulin A concentrations (P < 0.0001) were measured 2 weeks after the challenge. In subsidiary analyses, duration of breastfeeding also appeared to be associated with the magnitude of polio-specific mucosal immune parameters measured in infant fecal samples.

Conclusions: Taken together, these results underscore the concept that mucosal and systemic immune responses to polio are separate in their induction, functionality, and potential impacts on transmission and, specifically, provide evidence that primary vaccine regimens lacking homologous live vaccine components are likely to induce only modest, type-specific intestinal immunity.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Immune Response

Title: Intrathecal immune response in patients with the post-polio syndrome
Author: Sharief MK, Hentges R, Ciardi M
Affiliation: Department of Clinical Neurochemistry, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, United Kingdom
Journal: The New England Journal of Medicine
Citation: N Engl J Med. 1991 Sep 12;325(11):749-55
Publication Year and Month: 1991 09

Abstract: BACKGROUND: The syndrome of progressive muscular atrophy decades after acute paralytic poliomyelitis (post-polio syndrome) is not well understood. The theory that physiologic changes and aging cause the new weakness does not explain the immunologic abnormalities reported in some patients. An alternative explanation is persistent or recurrent poliovirus infection.

METHODS: We assessed the intrathecal antibody response to poliovirus and intrathecal production of interleukin-2 and soluble interleukin-2 receptors in 36 patients with the post-polio syndrome and 67 controls (including 13 who had had poliomyelitis but had no new symptoms and 18 with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). Intrathecal antibody responses to measles, mumps, herpes simplex, and varicella zoster viruses were also determined.

RESULTS: Oligoclonal IgM bands specific to poliovirus were detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of 21 of the 36 patients with the post-polio syndrome (58 percent) but in none of the control group (P less than 0.0001). In quantitative studies there was evidence of increased intrathecal synthesis of IgM antibodies to poliovirus only among the patients with the post-polio syndrome; there was no increased synthesis of IgM to measles, mumps, herpes simplex, or varicella zoster viruses. The patients with post-polio syndrome had significantly higher mean (+/- SD) (cerebrospinal fluid levels of interleukin-2 and soluble interleukin-2 receptors than the controls (8.1 +/- 5.3 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.8 U per milliliter and 159.6 +/- 102.9 vs. 10.7 +/- 6.2 U per milliliter, respectively). The intrathecal synthesis of IgM antibodies to poliovirus correlated with the cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of interleukin-2 (P less than 0.0005) and soluble interleukin-2 receptors (P less than 0.001).

Conclusions: An intrathecal immune response against poliovirus is present in many patients with the post-polio syndrome. In some of these patients the recrudescence of muscle weakness may be caused by persistent or recurrent infection of neural cells with the poliovirus.

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Category: Drugs

Title: Intravenous immunoglobulin for postpolio syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Author: Huang Y-H (1), Chen H-C (2,3), Huang K-W (4,5,6), Chen P-C (1,7), Hu C-J (1,8), Tsai C-P (5,9), Tam K-W (2,10,11,12,13,14), Kuan Y-C (1,5,8,14)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Neurology, Taipei Medical University-Shuang Ho Hospital, New Taipei City, Taiwan; (2) Center for Evidence-Based Health Care, Taipei Medical University-Shuang Ho Hospital, New Taipei City, Taiwan; (3) Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Taipei Medical University-Shuang Ho Hospital, New Taipei City, Taiwan; (4) Department of Gastroenterology, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; (5) Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; (6) Department of Gastroenterology, Taipei Medical University-Shuang Ho Hospital, New Taipei City, Taiwan; (7) College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; (8) Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; (9) Department of Neurology, Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; (10) Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; (11) Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; (12) Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei Medical University-Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; (13) Center for Evidence-Based Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; (14) Taipei Medical University-Shuang Ho Hospital, 291 Zhongzheng Road, Zhonghe District, New Taipei City 23561, Taiwan
Journal: BioMed Central Neurology
Citation: BMC Neurology 2015, 15:39 doi:10.1186/s12883-015-0301-9
Publication Year and Month: 2015 03

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Postpolio syndrome (PPS) is characterized by progressive disabilities that develop decades after prior paralytic poliomyelitis. Because chronic inflammation may be the process underlying the development of PPS, immunomodulatory management, such as intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) administration, may be beneficial.

METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective studies that evaluated the efficacy of IVIg in managing PPS. Electronic databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, were searched for articles on PPS published before December 2014. The primary outcomes were pain severity, fatigue scores, and muscle strength. The secondary outcomes were physical performance, quality of life (QoL), and cytokine expression levels.

RESULTS: We identified 3 RCTs involving 241 patients and 5 prospective studies involving 267 patients. The meta-analysis of pain severity (weighted mean difference [WMD] = −1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −2.51 to 0.47), fatigue scores (WMD = 0.28, 95% CI −0.56 to 1.12), and muscle strength revealed no significant differences between the IVIg and the placebo group. Regarding QoL, the RCTs yielded controversial outcomes, with improvement in only certain domains of the Short Form 36 (SF-36). Moreover, one prospective study reported significant improvement on SF-36, particularly in patients aged younger than 65 years, those with paresis of the lower limbs, and high pain intensity.

Conclusions: The present review indicated that IVIg is unlikely to produce significant improvements in pain, fatigue, or muscle strength. Thus, routinely administering IVIg to patients with PPS is not recommended based on RCTs. However, a potential effect in younger patients with lower limbs weakness and intense pain requires confirmation from further well-structured trials.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Drugs

Title: Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment of the post-polio syndrome: sustained effects on quality of life variables and cytokine expression after one year follow up
Author: Gonzalez H (1), Khademi M (2), Borg K (1), Olsson T (2)
Affiliation: (1) Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd Hospital, blg 39, fl 3, S-192 88, Stockholm, Sweden; (2) Neuroimmunology Unit, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation. 2012; 9: 167. doi: 10.1186/1742-2094-9-167
Publication Year and Month: 2012 07

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Expression of inflammatory cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has led to the hypothesis of intrathecal chronic inflammation to explain the denervation observed in post-polio syndrome (PPS). It has been shown that therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) improves physical performance and dampens down the inflammatory process at 6 months in PPS patients. We here examined the effects of IVIG on cytokine expression and clinical outcome one year after IVIG treatment.

METHODS: From a previous study with 135 PPS patients included, 41 patients were further evaluated before un-blinding for one year (21 placebo and 20 treated with IVIG, Xepol® 50 mg/ml), and were assessed for clinical variables by performing the Short Form-36 survey (SF-36) questionnaire assessment, the 6 minute walk distance test (6MWT) and registering pain level by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) after IVIG treatment. A separate cohort of 37 PPS patients went through lumbar puncture (LP) at baseline and 20 patients, treated with IVIG, repeated the LP one year later. Thirty patients affected with other neurological diseases (OND) were used as control group. Inflammatory cytokines TNF, TGFβ, IFNγ, IL-23, IL-13 and IL-10 were measured in blood cells and CSF cells with RT-PCR.

RESULTS: Scores of the physical components of SF-36 were significantly higher at the one year follow up time-point in the IVIG-treated patients when compared to baseline as well as to the control subjects. Pain VAS score and 6MWT improved significantly in the IVIG-treated patients when compared with baseline Relative expression of TNF and IFN-γ in both PBMCs and CSF from PPS patients were increased compared to OND subjects at baseline (p < 0.05). One year after IVIG-treatment a decreased expression of IFN-γ and IL23 was found in CSF of PPS patients, while anti-inflammatory IL-13 was increased (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: IVIG has effects on relevant QoL variables and inflammatory cytokines up to one year in patients with PPS. This gives a basis for scheduling IVIG in upcoming trials with this therapy.

Outcome of Research: More research required.

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Category: Orthoses

Title: Introducing a Surgical Procedure for an Implantable FES Device and Its Outcome
Author: Kiriakos Daniilidis, Eike Jakubowitz, Daiwei Yao
Affiliation:
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Biosystems & Biorobotics, vol 19. Advanced Technologies for the Rehabilitation of Gait and Balance Disorders pp 399-414
Publication Year and Month: 2018 01

Abstract: The adult paralytic foot or drop foot is a secondary related foot deformity, which usually arises due to neurogenic damage (Kunst et al. in Stroke 42:2126–2130, 2011; Truelsen et al. in European Journal of Neurology 13:581–598, 2006). The lack of neural innervation of the muscles, which play a major role in ankle dorsiflexion—M. tibialis anterior, Mm. peronei, M. extensor digitorum longus, and M. extensor halluces longus—can cause a secondary malposition of the foot. As a dorsiflexion of the ankle cannot be actively provoked, this leads to a domination of the flexors and as a secondary outcome to a shortening of these muscles and their tendons. Similarly, it may also lead to a malposition in supination (www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/foot-drop/basics/definition/con-20032918).

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Inverse Relationship Between Polio Incidence in the US and Colorectal Cancer.
Author: STEVEN LEHRER and PETER H RHEINSTEIN
Affiliation: Department of Radiation Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, U.S.A. [email protected]
Severn Health Solutions, Severna Park, MD, U.S.A.
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: In vivo (Athens, Greece) vol. 32,6 (2018): 1485-1489.
Publication Year and Month: 2018

Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIM:
Polio is predominantly an enteric viral infection that was progressively eradicated in the United States after the introduction of polio vaccine in the early 1950s. U.S. colorectal cancer rates have dropped steadily for individuals born between 1890 and 1950, but have been increasing for every generation born since 1950. Moreover, the lowest worldwide age adjusted rates of colorectal cancer in 2012 were in sub-Saharan Africa, Gambia and Mozambique, where polio has not been eradicated. In the current study, poliomyelitis incidence in US states before the introduction of polio vaccine was analyzed.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Reported cases of poliomyelitis per 100,000 population by state 1932-1951 were from Centers for Disease Control. Colorectal cancer deaths per 100,000 in men (2005-2009) by US State are from the American Cancer Society. US state overweight and obesity data are from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Smoking data are from the CDC.

RESULTS:
By US state, colorectal cancer incidence per 100,000 in men for 2005-2009 was inversely correlated with reported cases of poliomyelitis per 100,000 for 1932-1951 (r=-0.311, p=0.032). Colorectal cancer deaths per 100,000 in men in 2005-2009 were also inversely correlated with reported cases of poliomyelitis per 100,000 by state for 1932-1951 (r=-0.493, p<0.001). The relationship between colorectal cancer deaths and polio incidence was significant (β=-0.196, p=0.028) and independent of the effects of smoking (β=0.289, p=0.012) and overweight (β=0.547, p<0.001). The relationship in females with colorectal cancer was identical.

Conclusions: Polio virus infection of cells of the colon may induce some degree of resistance to the development of colon cancer decades later. The effect of polio virus infection seems to be especially potent in reducing the rate of death from colon cancer.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Drugs

Title: IVIG treatment in post-polio patients: evaluation of responders
Author: Ostlund G (1), Broman L, Werhagen L, Borg K
Affiliation: (1) Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Danderyd Hospital, Building 39, 3rd floor, 182 88 Stockholm, Sweden
Journal: Journal of Neurology
Citation: J Neurol. 2012 Dec;259(12):2571-8. doi: 10.1007/s00415-012-6538-y. Epub 2012 May 17
Publication Year and Month: 2012 05

Abstract: The aim of this work is to evaluate the outcome of IVIG treatment in patients with post-polio syndrome (PPS) and to identify responders. The study included 113 PPS patients who had received one IVIG treatment in an open trial, prospective follow-up study. Clinical examination was performed and clinical data were retrieved from medical records. The short form 36 (SF-36), physical activity scale for the elderly (PASE), and the visual analogue scale (VAS) were used as measurements of quality of life, physical activity, and the intensity of pain. Data before treatment and at 6-month follow-up were collected. Analysis was performed in subgroups based on demographic and medical parameters. A statistically significant increase of the SF-36 sub domains bodily pain, vitality, social function, role emotional, and the mental compound score (MCS) was found at the 6-month follow-up. A significant decrease of pain was found in patients who reported pain intensity over VAS of 20 mm, in patients younger than 65 years of age and in patients who had paresis in the lower extremities. A trend was found in patients with PPS as the only diagnosis. IVIG leads to increase of quality of life at 6-month follow-up for SF-36 regarding sub domains of bodily pain, vitality, social function, role emotional, as well as for pain. Age below 65 years, paresis in the lower extremities, and lack of concomitant disorders may be the main indicators for a future identification of responders.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Orthoses

Title: Knee exoskeletons for gait rehabilitation and human performance augmentation: A state-of-the-art
Author: Bing Chen, Bin Zi, Zhengyu Wang, Ling Qin, Wei-Hsin Liao
Affiliation: School of Mechanical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Mine Mechanical and Electrical Equipment, China University of Mining and Technology, China

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China

Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Mechanism and Machine Theory
Volume 134, April 2019, Pages 499-511

Publication Year and Month: 2019

Abstract: The number of patients with knee impairments caused by a stroke, spinal cord injury, post-polio, injury, osteoarthritis, or other related diseases is increasing worldwide. Robotic devices such as knee exoskeletons have been studied and adopted in gait rehabilitation, as they can provide effective gait training for the patients and release the physical therapists from the intensive labor required by the traditional physical therapy. In addition, knee exoskeletons can augment human performance in normal walking, loaded walking, and even running by enhancing the strength of the wearers’ knee joints. A systematic review of knee exoskeletons is presented in this paper. The biomechanics of the human knee joint is firstly presented. Then, the design concepts of knee exoskeletons, including the actuators and sensors, are provided, followed by the introduction of the corresponding control strategies. Finally, the limitations of the available devices and the research and development directions in the field of knee exoskeletons are discussed, thus providing useful information to the researchers developing knee exoskeletons that are suitable for practical applications.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: Late denervation in patients with antecedent paralytic poliomyelitis
Author: Cashman NR, Maselli R, Wollmann RL, Roos R, Simon R, Antel JP
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: The New England Journal of Medicine
Citation: N Engl J Med. 1987 Jul 2; 317(1):7-12
Publication Year and Month: 1987 07

Abstract: The development of new weakness, fatigue, and pain decades after acute paralytic poliomyelitis is a recognized syndrome. We conducted a controlled study of this syndrome by analyzing clinical, electromyographic, and muscle-biopsy features in 18 patients with a history of poliomyelitis--13 reporting 1 to 20 years of new weakness and 5 without new symptoms. The patients with new weakness also reported new muscle atrophy (9 of 13) and fatigue (10 of 13), symptoms not reported by the controls. The age at the time of acute poliomyelitis, severity of poliomyelitis, residual disability, number of years since acute poliomyelitis, and age at the time of study were comparable in the weakening and control groups. Evidence of remote denervation consistent with antecedent poliomyelitis was demonstrated in all patients by electromyography or muscle biopsy or both. In addition, active denervation (as evidenced by spontaneous activity on conventional electromyography, increased jitter on single-fiber electromyography, or atrophic myofibers) was found in 12 patients in the weakening group and in all 5 controls. Immunohistochemical detection of myofibers expressing the neural-cell adhesion molecule corroborated ongoing denervation in both patient groups. When muscle data from both groups were pooled, correlations were observed between the extent of past reinnervation and the degree of ongoing motor-unit instability. We conclude that the extensive reinnervation of denervated muscle that occurs in paralytic poliomyelitis may be followed by late denervation of the previously reinnervated muscle fibers. Electromyographic and muscle-biopsy evidence of ongoing denervation does not distinguish between stable patients with prior paralytic poliomyelitis and those with new weakness.

Conclusions:

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Category: Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: Late effects of polio: critical review of the literature on neuromuscular function
Author: Agre JC, Rodríquez AA, Tafel JA
Affiliation: University of Wisconsin - Madison Medical School
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1991 Oct; 72(11):923-31
Publication Year and Month: 1991 10

Abstract: Many individuals who have had poliomyelitis are now complaining of several new problems attributed to their former illness including muscle atrophy; fatigue; progressive weakness; and muscle, back, and joint pain. This paper critically examines the literature regarding the neuromuscular effects of poliomyelitis. Weakness resulting from poliomyelitis was due to destruction of anterior horn cells. After the illness, muscle strength was partially recovered as a result of several physiologic adaptive mechanisms including terminal sprouting and reinnervation, myofiber hypertrophy, and, possibly, myofiber type transformation. Several pathophysiologic and functional etiologies have been proposed for late neuromuscular deterioration, but none has been proven. In fact, to date, there is no objective evidence documenting progressive loss of strength in polio survivors. Studies attempting to differentiate polio survivors with and without symptoms of deterioration have resulted in conflicting results; however, it appears reasonable to conclude that symptomatic postpolio subjects had a more severe illness with greater loss of neuromuscular function. Exercise may be helpful for many postpolio patients, but the prescription must be tailored to the individual to avoid problems of overuse or excessive fatigue.

Conclusions:

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Category: Late Effects of Polio

Title: Late functional deterioration following paralytic poliomyelitis
Author: D. Kidd, R.S. Howard, A.J. Williams, F.W. Heatley, C.P. Panayiotopoulos and G.T. Spencer
Affiliation: Departments of Neurology, Respiratory Medicine and Orthopaedics, the Lane-Fox Unit, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK
Journal: Post-Polio Network (NSW) Inc
Citation: QJ Med 1997; 90: 189 - 196
Publication Year and Month: 1997 01

Abstract: Many patients with previous poliomyelitis develop 'post-polio syndrome' (PPS) in which late functional deterioration follows a period of relative stability. The frequency with which PPS can be attributed to clearly defined causes remains uncertain. We reviewed 283 newly-referred patients with previous poliomyelitis seen consecutively over a 4-year period; 239 patients developed symptoms of functional deterioration at a mean of 35 (5-65) years after the paralytic illness. Functional deterioration was associated with orthopaedic disorders in 170 cases, neurological disorders in 35, respiratory disorders in 19 and other disorders in 15. Progressive post-polio muscular atrophy was not observed. Functional deterioration following paralytic poliomyelitis is common, and associated with orthopaedic, neurological, respiratory and general medical factors which are potentially treatable.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Muscular Atrophy

Title: Late postpoliomyelitis muscular atrophy: clinical, virologic, and immunologic studies
Author: Dalakas MC, Sever JL, Madden DL, Papadopoulos NM, Shekarchi IC, Albrecht P, Krezlewicz A
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: Reviews of Infectious Diseases
Citation: Rev Infect Dis. 1984 May-Jun; 6 Suppl 2:S562-7
Publication Year and Month: 1984 05

Abstract: Seventeen relatively young patients, ages 31-65 years (average, 45) with prior poliomyelitis, who after a number of years of stability had experienced new neuromuscular symptoms, were studied. Seven patients had deterioration of functional capacity and then stabilization without new muscular weakness. The other 10 had late postpoliomyelitis muscular atrophy (late PPMA) characterized by focal progressive muscle weakness, wasting, fasciculations, and muscle pains affecting previously spared muscles or muscles previously affected but recovered. Four patients with late PPMA had lymphorrhages or lymphocytic infiltrates in their biopsied muscle; three of three patients had oligoclonal IgG bands in their spinal fluid, and five had variable peripheral T lymphocyte-subset ratios. In one patient with late PPMA, antibodies to poliovirus were specifically elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid. Our findings indicate that new motor-neuron disease can occur in patients with prior poliomyelitis and that immunopathologic mechanisms may play a role.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Immune Response

Title: Leukocyte myeloperoxidase and pathogenesis of the post-polio syndrome
Author: Movitz C, Bergström T, Borg K, Hellstrand K, Lycke E, Lycke J
Affiliation: Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg; Department of Public Health Services, Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Danderyds University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm; Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden - [email protected]
Journal: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Disease
Citation: Scand J Infect Dis. 2010 Dec;42(11-12):958-60. doi: 10.3109/00365548.2010.524663
Publication Year and Month: 2010 12

Abstract: Letter to the Editor - does not have an abstract.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

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Category: Quality of Life

Title: Life purpose: effect on functional decline and quality of life in polio survivors.
Author: Harrison TC, Stuifbergen AK.
Affiliation: School of Nursing, University of Texas-Austin, USA. [email protected]
Journal: Rehabilitation Nursing
Citation: 2006 Jul-Aug;31(4):149-54.
Publication Year and Month: 2006 07

Abstract: This article explores the protective effects that finding a purpose in life has on the level of physical and mental impairment and overall quality of life. Results were gathered from a national sample of 2,153 polio survivors. Although the combined social and physical experience of living with the disabling effects of polio has been associated with accelerated aging due to an increased allostatic load, finding a purpose in life may diminish these effects. The findings of this study indicate that purpose in life is associated with less perceived decline in health. Moreover, purpose in life is predictive of better quality of life despite levels of physical and mental impairment. Rehabilitation nurses should consider ways to help persons with polio maintain activities and interests that promote their sense of purpose in life.

Conclusions: Rehabilitation nurses should consider ways to help persons with polio maintain activities and interests that promote their sense of purpose in life.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Quality of Life

Title: Life satisfaction and self-reported impairments in persons with late effects of polio.
Author: Lexell J, Brogårdh C.
Affiliation: Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, 22100 Lund, Sweden. [email protected]
Journal: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: Volume 55, Issues 9–10, December 2012, Pages 577-589
Publication Year and Month: 2012 12

Abstract: Objective
Decades after an acute poliomyelitis infection many persons experience new symptoms or impairments which may affect their life satisfaction. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between life satisfaction and self-reported impairments in persons with late effects of polio.

Material and methods
One hundred and sixty-nine persons (104 women and 65 men) with prior polio responded on admission to rehabilitation to the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LiSat-11) assessing satisfaction with life as a whole and 10 domains of life satisfaction and to a 13-item questionnaire assessing self-reported impairments related to late effects of polio.

Results
A majority was to some degree satisfied with life as a whole and with all 10 domains of life satisfaction in LiSat-11, but less than 20% was very satisfied or satisfied with their somatic health. Muscle fatigue, muscle weakness, general fatigue, muscle and/or joint pain during physical activity and cold intolerance were the most frequently reported impairments. Overall, those who rated themselves as not satisfied (according to LiSat-11) reported significantly higher degrees of impairment than those who were satisfied. The relationships between the items of life satisfaction in LiSat-11 and the items in the self-report questionnaire varied from −0.01 to −0.64.

Conclusions: Satisfaction with life as a whole, and different domains of life satisfaction are low to moderately associated with self-reported impairments. This implies that rehabilitation interventions must address not only self-reported impairments but also activity limitations and participation restrictions in order to enhance life satisfaction in people with late effects of polio.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Life-long morbidity among Danes with Poliomyelitis
Author: Nielsen NM, Rostgaard K, Askgaard D, Skinhoj P Aaby P.
Affiliation: Statens Serum Insitut, Copenhagen, Denmark
National University Hospital, Cpenhagen, Denmark
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004; 85:385-91
Publication Year and Month: 2004 03

Abstract: Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
To estimate long-term morbidity in a cohort of Danish poliomyelitis patients.

DESIGN:
A historical prospective cohort study of 27,047 persons.

SETTING:
Denmark.

PARTICIPANTS:
A total of 5421 persons hospitalized for poliomyelitis between 1919 to 1954 in Copenhagen, Denmark, and 21,626 age- and gender-matched Danes. Participants were followed up on average for 20.6 years, yielding a total of 555,884 person-years of follow-up.

INTERVENTIONS:
Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
The exposed (poliomyelitis) cohort and the unexposed (control) cohort were followed up for somatic hospitalization from 1977 to 1999 in the Danish Hospital Discharge Register. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) was calculated as the ratio between the incidence rate of disease in the exposed and unexposed cohorts.

RESULTS:
Overall, polio patients had a 1.2- to 1.3-fold increased risk of being hospitalized with pulmonary diseases, heart diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, or diseases of the locomotive apparatus. Among paralytic polio patients, long-term morbidity seems to be associated with the acute severity of poliomyelitis, as well as young age at infection. Paralytic patients, who contracted respiratory polio under the age of 5, had the highest risk of being hospitalized with lung diseases (IRR=7.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.06-18.33), diseases of the locomotive apparatus (IRR=4.05; 95% CI, 1.66-9.86), heart diseases (IRR=1.70; 95% CI, 0.65-3.98), and diseases of the digestive system (IRR= 2.23; 95% CI, 1.03-4.62). Surprisingly, patients without paralyses, especially women, also had an increased morbidity.

CONCLUSIONS:
Overall, a history of poliomyelitis was associated with a slightly increased morbidity measured by hospitalizations. Long-term morbidity was highest among respiratory polio patients; however, patients presumably left without any residual symptoms also had an increased morbidity.

Conclusions: Overall, a history of poliomyelitis was associated with a slightly increased morbidity measured by hospitalizations. Long-term morbidity was highest among respiratory polio patients; however, patients presumably left without any residual symptoms also had an increased morbidity.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Life-Long Morbidity Among Danes With Poliomyelitis
Author: Nete Munk Nielsen, MD, PhD, Klaus Rostgaard, MSc, Dorthe Askgaard, MD, Peter Skinhøj, MD, DMSc,
Peter Aaby, MSc, DMSc
Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology Research, Danish Epidemiology Science
Centre, Statens Serum Institut (Nielsen, Rostgaard, Aaby) and Department of Infectious Diseases M, National University Hospital, (Askgaard, Skinhøj), Copenhagen,
Denmark.
Supported by the Danish Medical Research Council, the AP Møller and Chastine
McKinney Møller Foundation, the Danish National Research Foundation, the WedellWedellsborg Foundation, and The National Polio Society
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and
Rehabilitation Vol 85, March 2004
Publication Year and Month: 2004 03

Abstract: Objective: To estimate long-term morbidity in a cohort of
Danish poliomyelitis patients.
Design: A historical prospective cohort study of 27,047
persons.
Setting: Denmark.
Participants: A total of 5421 persons hospitalized for poliomyelitis between 1919 to 1954 in Copenhagen, Denmark,
and 21,626 age- and gender-matched Danes. Participants were
followed up on average for 20.6 years, yielding a total of
555,884 person-years of follow-up.
Interventions: Not applicable
Main Outcome Measures: The exposed (poliomyelitis) cohort and the unexposed (control) cohort were followed up for
somatic hospitalization from 1977 to 1999 in the Danish Hospital Discharge Register. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) was
calculated as the ratio between the incidence rate of disease in
the exposed and unexposed cohorts.
Results: Overall, polio patients had a 1.2- to 1.3-fold
increased risk of being hospitalized with pulmonary diseases, heart diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, or diseases
of the locomotive apparatus. Among paralytic polio patients,
long-term morbidity seems to be associated with the acute
severity of poliomyelitis, as well as young age at infection.
Paralytic patients, who contracted respiratory polio under
the age of 5, had the highest risk of being hospitalized with
lung diseases (IRR=7.26; 95% confidence interval [CI],
3.06–18.33), diseases of the locomotive apparatus
(IRR=4.05; 95% CI, 1.66–9.86), heart diseases (IRR=1.70;
95% CI, 0.65–3.98), and diseases of the digestive system
(IRR= 2.23; 95% CI, 1.03–4.62). Surprisingly, patients
without paralyses, especially women, also had an increased
morbidity.

Conclusions: Conclusions: Overall, a history of poliomyelitis was associated with a slightly increased morbidity measured by hospitalizations. Long-term morbidity was highest among respiratory polio patients; however, patients presumably left without any residual symptoms also had an increased morbidity.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Late Effects of Polio

Title: Living with polio and postpolio syndrome in the United Kingdom
Author: Atwal A (1), Giles A, Spiliotopoulou G, Plastow N, Wilson L
Affiliation: (1) School of Health Science and Social Care, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge, Middlesex, London, UK - [email protected]

Journal: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
Citation: Scand J Caring Sci. 2013 Jun;27(2):238-45. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6712.2012.01029.x
Publication Year and Month: 2013 06

Abstract: The term Postpolio Syndrome (PPS) is used to describe new and late manifestations of poliomyelitis that occur later in life in polio survivors. Polio had been eradicated in the United Kingdom (UK) and most of Europe, although this is not the case in all countries. Research in this area has tended to focus upon the impact of polio and PPS on health status and functional health rather than its overall effect on people's lives. This study's two main aims were to explore the ways in which polio and PPS in the UK has affected the respondents' lives and to ascertain their views about how the quality of life could be improved. The two questions were as follows: (1) How has the health of people with polio and PPS affected their quality of life? (2) What would people with polio and PPS change to improve their quality of life? Deductive content analysis using existing qualitative data from a cross-sectional survey of 336 returned questionnaires from persons with polio and PPS was carried out. The average age of the participants was 54 years. Our research found that polio survivors valued social occupations and participation in family life. Our research has also shown that healthcare professionals still do not understand polio and PPS and this lack of understanding influences their clients' quality of life. Finances and accessibility of environments also influence participation in chosen occupations. Rehabilitation programmes for people with polio and PPS need to be targeted towards maintaining and improving accessible environments and participation in chosen occupations, and healthcare professionals need to ensure that persons with polio and PPS are referred to persons with specific expertise in this area.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Psychology

Title: Living with the late effects of disability: a five-year follow-up survey of coping among post-polio survivors
Author: Westbrook M, McIlwain D
Affiliation: Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney
Journal: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
Citation: Aust Occup Ther J. 1996 June;43(2):60-71
Publication Year and Month: 1996 06

Abstract: A follow-up survey of 176 people aged 33–77 yrs with postpolio syndrome found that while they were experiencing significantly less anxiety, uncertainty, depression, and helplessness concerning their increasing disability than 5 yrs ago, their feelings of anger persisted. Relationships were found between coping styles, breadth of coping attempted, and emotions experienced. Specifically, a coping style of focusing on symptoms while attempting to maintain previous activity levels characterized people who felt more helpless, depressed, and angry. Those who coped by accommodating to their symptoms had adopted more strategies. Coping strategies involving lifestyle and personal changes were rated as more effective than many treatments and interpersonal strategies. Findings highlight the need for health practitioners to tap into clients' knowledge when designing and evaluating appropriate rehabilitation programs.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Psychology

Title: Long-standing poliomyelitis and psychological health
Author: Shiri S (1), Gartsman I, Meiner Z, Schwartz I
Affiliation: Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel
Journal: Disability and Rehabilitation
Citation: Disabil Rehabil. 2015 Jul 26:1-5
Publication Year and Month: 2015 07

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To compare the psychological health of the individuals with long-standing poliomyelitis, with or without post-polio syndrome (PPS), to the general population and to identify the role of work as well as other variables with regard to their psychological health.

DESIGN: A cross-sectional study.

SUBJECTS: One hundred and ninety-five polio patients attending postpolio clinic in Jerusalem.

METHODS: Emotional distress (ED) was measured using the general health questionnaire (GHQ-12). Demographic, medical, social and functional data were recorded using a specific structured questionnaire. Each polio patient was compared to four age- and sex-matched controls.

RESULTS: ED was higher in the polio population as compared to the general population. Within the polio population ED was inversely correlated with work status. No correlation was found between ED and the functional level of polio participants and no difference was found in GHQ score between polio participants with or without post-polio. In addition, ED was less affected by subjective perception of physical health among polio patients as compared to the general population.

Conclusions: Long-standing poliomyelitis is associated with decreased psychological health as compared to the general population. Yet, the resilience of polio survivors is manifested by their ability to block further decline of their psychological health in spite of deterioration in their physical health. Work appears as a significant source of resilience in the polio population.

IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION: Individuals with long-standing poliomyelitis often suffer from high emotional distress and may benefit from psychotherapy aimed at reducing distress. As active employment status is associated with increased mental health among polio survivors, encouraging participation at work needs to be a significant component of psychotherapeutic programs. Polio survivors, although physically disabled, may be relatively resilient, as their mental health is less affected by their negative health perception. This and other expressions of resilience may serve as a platform for increasing personal growth among them by implementing hope-oriented psychotherapy.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Late Effects of Polio

Title: Long-term follow-up of patients with prior polio over a 17-year period.
Author: Vreede KS, Broman L, Borg K.
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Danderyd University Hospital, Building 39, Floor 3, SE-182 88 Stockholm, Sweden, [email protected]
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: 2016 Apr;48(4):359-64
Publication Year and Month: 2016 04

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
Follow-up of the health of patients with prior polio over a 17-year period.

DESIGN:
Follow-up study.

PATIENTS:
Patients with prior polio.

METHODS:
The study questionnaire was answered in 1995 by 270 patients. In 2012 the questionnaire was sent again to the surviving patients.

RESULTS:
Of the patients who answered the questionnaire in 1995, 116 (40%) were still alive in 2012. The group of patients who had died was older, and had a mean age of 70 years in 1995. A total of 60 patients participated in the study by answering the questionnaire in both 1995 and 2012. Most of these patients (84%) reported that they felt progressively worse, with poor mobility and increased muscle weakness in 2012 compared with 1995, and more than half reported a lower quality of life in 2012. The number of wheelchair users had increased significantly. Furthermore, the patients experienced increasing problems with activities of daily living (ADL) function.

Conclusions: More than half of the patients with prior polio had died between 1995 and 2012. These patients were, on average, older than patients surviving in 2012. When interviewed in 2012 most of the patients felt progressively worse, with poor mobility and increased muscle weakness.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Surgery

Title: Long-term results after triple arthrodesis: Influence of alignment on ankle osteoarthritis and clinical outcome
Author: Klerken, T., Kosse, N.M., Aarts, C.A.M., Louwerens, J.W.K.
Affiliation: Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Foot and Ankle Surgery. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fas.2017.11.003

Publication Year and Month: 2017 11

Abstract: Background
Pain, deformity and instability are the main reasons for fusion of the tarsal joints, a triple arthrodesis. The short and midterm results show that mobility, function and satisfaction increase postoperatively. However, osteoarthritis (OA) of the adjacent ankle joint is described as a long-term complication. Alignment of the foot could be an influencing factor. The aim of this study was to examine whether malalignment after triple arthrodesis leads to a higher grade of OA at long-term follow-up.


Conclusions
Triple arthrodesis is a salvage procedure in patients with a painful and deformed hindfoot and results in a clinically beneficial outcome, even 15 years after surgery. The present study did not show that malalignment after triple arthrodesis results in a higher grade of OA of the ankle joint in the long-term. The cause of the aggravation of OA is still not fully understood and needs further research. Nevertheless, clinical results are satisfying 15 years postoperatively.

Conclusions: A triple arthrodesis was effective 15 years after surgery. Aggravation of ankle joint osteoarthritis does not relate to patient satisfaction. Slow radiographic aggravation of osteoarthritis of the ankle joint was seen in 42% of the patients.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Quality of Life

Title: Long-term socio-economic consequences and health care costs of poliomyelitis: a historical cohort study involving 3606 polio patients.
Author: Nielsen NM, Kay L, Wanscher B, Ibsen R, Kjellberg J, Jennum P.
Affiliation: 1 Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, 2300, Copenhagen S, Denmark. [email protected]
2 The PTU Rehabilitation Centre, Fjeldhammervej 8, 2610, Rødovre, Denmark.
3 Danish Center for Sleep Medicine, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Center for Healthy Ageing, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
4 Danish Institute for Local and Regional Government Research, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Journal: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Citation: 2016 Jun;263(6):1120-8.
Publication Year and Month: 2016 06

Abstract: Worldwide 10-20 million individuals are living with disabilities after acute poliomyelitis. However, very little is known about the socio-economic consequences and health care costs of poliomyelitis. We carried out a historical register-based study including 3606 individuals hospitalised for poliomyelitis in Copenhagen, Denmark 1940-1954, and 13,795 age and gender-matched Danes. Participants were followed from 1980 until 2012, and family, socio-economic conditions and health care costs were evaluated in different age groups using chi-squared tests, boot-strapped t tests or hazard ratios (HR) calculated in Cox-regression models. The analyses were performed separately for paralytic and non-paralytic polio survivors and their controls, respectively. Compared with controls a higher percentage of paralytic polio survivors remained childless, whereas no difference was observed for non-paralytic polio survivors. The educational level among paralytic as well as non-paralytic polio survivors was higher than that among their controls, employment rate at the ages of 40, 50 and 60 years was slightly lower, whereas total income in the age intervals of 31-40, 41-50 and 51-60 years were similar to controls. Paralytic and non-paralytic polio survivors had a 2.5 [HR = 2.52 (95 % confidence interval (CI); 2.29-2.77)] and 1.4 [HR = 1.35 (95 % CI; 1.23-1.49)]-fold higher risk, respectively, of receiving disability pension compared with controls. Personal health care costs were considerably higher in all age groups in both groups of polio survivors. Individuals with a history of poliomyelitis are well educated, have a slightly lower employment rate, an income similar to controls, but a considerably higher cost in the health care system.

Conclusions: Individuals with a history of poliomyelitis are well educated, have a slightly lower employment rate, an income similar to controls, but a considerably higher cost in the health care system.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: Loss of motor unit size and quadriceps strength over 10 years in post-polio syndrome
Author: Bickerstaffe A (1), van Dijk JP (2), Beelen A (3), Zwarts MJ (4), Nollet F (5)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center (AMC), Postbus 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: [email protected]; (2) Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Department of Neurology/Clinical Neurophysiology, Postbus 910, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Epilepsy Centre Kempenhaeghe, Postbus 61, 5590 AB Heeze, The Netherlands. Electronic address: [email protected]; (3) Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center (AMC), Postbus 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: [email protected]; (4) Epilepsy Centre Kempenhaeghe, Postbus 61, 5590 AB Heeze, The Netherlands. Electronic address: [email protected]; (5) Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center (AMC), Postbus 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: [email protected]
Journal: Clinical Neurophysiology
Citation: Clin Neurophysiol. 2014 Jun;125(6):1255-60. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2013.11.003
Publication Year and Month: 2014 06

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether strength decline in post-polio syndrome (PPS) results from excessive distal axonal degeneration of enlarged motor units.

METHODS: We assessed changes over 10 years in isometric quadriceps strength, mean motor unit action potential (MUAP) size, root mean squared (RMS) amplitude, and level of interference (LOI) in 47 patients with PPS and 12 healthy controls, using high density surface EMG. At baseline, all patients had symptomatic quadriceps dysfunction, evidenced by transmission defects on single-fibre EMG.

RESULTS: MU size and strength declined significantly by 20% and 15%, respectively in patients with PPS. Those with the largest initial MU sizes exhibited the greatest losses of mean MU size (27%) and proportional decreases in quadriceps strength (23%). Initial strength, change in LOI and change in RMS amplitude together explained 35% of the variability in strength changes in patients. MU size of controls did not change, although they lost 29% strength.

SIGNIFICANCE: This long term follow-up study provides evidence that size diminution of enlarged MUs combined with a reduced number of active MUs contributes to the gradual strength decline in PPS.

Conclusions: MU size and strength declined concomitantly in a homogeneous cohort of patients with PPS and quadriceps dysfunction.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Exercise

Title: Low-intensity, alternate-day exercise improves muscle performance without apparent adverse affect in postpolio patients.
Author: Agre, J., Rodriguez, A., Franke, T., Swiggum, E., Harmon, R., Curt, J.
Affiliation: Agre- Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison Medical School, 53791, USA.
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1996;75(1):50-8.
Publication Year and Month: 1996 01

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a low-intensity, alternate-day, 12 wk quadriceps muscle-strengthening exercise program on muscle strength and muscle and motor unit integrity in 12 postpolio patients. Patients performed six to ten repetitions of a 5-s duration knee extension exercise with ankle weights. After completing six repetitions, patients rated the perceived exertion (RPE) in the exercised muscle. The patient continued repetitions until RPE was >/= 17 or ten repetitions were performed. The weight was increased the next exercise day whenever the RPE was < 17 after ten repetitions. Before and after the training program, median macroamplitude as well as jitter and blocking were determined electromyographically (EMG), serum creatine kinase (CK) was measured, and quadriceps muscle strength was assessed. The ankle weight lifted after 2 wk of training and at the end of the program were also recorded. Although the ankle weight lifted at the end of the program significantly (P < 0.05) increased from a mean +/- SD of 7.1 +/- 2.7 to 11.2 +/- 4.7 kg, the dynametrically determined muscle strength measures did not significantly (P > 0.05) increase. The EMG and the serum CK variables also did not significantly (P >0.05) change as a result of the exercise program. We conclude that performance was improved, as demonstrated by an increase in the amount of weight the patients lifted in the exercise program. No evidence was found to show that this program adversely affected the motor units or the muscle as the EMG and CK did not change.

Conclusions: Patients increased leg strength without changes in motor unit innervation or fatigue levels.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Lower-limb muscle strength, static and dynamic postural stabilities, risk of falling and fear of falling in polio survivors and healthy subjects
Author: Thaiana Santos Galvão PT, Egídio Sabino Magalhães Júnior PT, MSc, Marco Antonio Orsini Neves PhD, MD & Arthur de Sá Ferreira PhD, PT
Affiliation: This study was supported by the Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ) [Grant numbers E-26/200.564/2015 and E-26/202.769/2015].
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, DOI: 10.1080/09593985.2018.1512178
Publication Year and Month: 2018

Abstract: Introduction: This study investigated the association between preserved lower-limb muscle strength, dynamic and static postural stability, risk of falling, and fear of falling in polio survivors. We also investigated whether these clinical features differ between polio survivors and healthy controls. Methods: This quasi-experimental study enrolled 16 polio survivors (13 underwent a complete-case analysis) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Participants were assessed by the manual muscle test, Berg Balance Scale, force platform posturography, and Falls Efficacy Scale. Between-group mean differences with confidence intervals (MD, CI 95%) and Spearman’s ρ are reported. Results: Compared to healthy controls, polio survivors presented reduced muscle strength (MD = –13, CI 95% −16 to −9 points), lower dynamic postural stability (MD = –14, CI 95% −19 to −8 points), and increased fear of falling (MD = 14, CI 95% 10–18 points) (all P < 0.001). In polio survivors, lower-limb muscle strength was correlated with dynamic (ρ = 0.760) and static postural stability (ρ = 0.738–0.351), risk of falling (ρ = −0.746), and fear of falling (ρ = −0.432). Dynamic postural stability was correlated with risk of falling (ρ = −0.841), fear of falling (ρ = −0.277), and static postural stability (ρ = −0.869 to −0.435; ρ = −0.361 to −0.200, respectively). Risk and fear of falling were also correlated (ρ = 0.464). Discussion: Polio survivors exhibited impaired dynamic postural stability but preserved static stability and increased risk of falling and fear of falling. Preserved lower-limb muscle strength, postural stability, fear of falling, and risk of falling are associated clinical features in this population.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Respiratory Complications and Management

Title: Lung function in post-poliomyelitis syndrome: a cross-sectional study
Author: Lira CABD, Minozzo FC, Sousa BS, Vancini RL, Andrade MDS, Quadros AAJ, Oliveira ASB, Silva ACD.
Affiliation: Federal University of Goiás at Jataí, Jataí, Brazil - [email protected]
Journal: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia (Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology)
Citation: J Bras Pneumol. 2013 Jun-Aug; 39(4): 455–460. doi: 10.1590/S1806-37132013000400009
Publication Year and Month: 2013 08

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To compare lung function between patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome and those with sequelae of paralytic poliomyelitis (without any signs or symptoms of post-poliomyelitis syndrome), as well as between patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome and healthy controls.

METHODS: Twenty-nine male participants were assigned to one of three groups: control; poliomyelitis (comprising patients who had had paralytic poliomyelitis but had not developed post-poliomyelitis syndrome); and post-poliomyelitis syndrome. Volunteers underwent lung function measurements (spirometry and respiratory muscle strength assessment).

RESULTS: The results of the spirometric assessment revealed no significant differences among the groups except for an approximately 27% lower mean maximal voluntary ventilation in the post-poliomyelitis syndrome group when compared with the control group (p = 0.0127). Nevertheless, the maximal voluntary ventilation values for the post-poliomyelitis group were compared with those for the Brazilian population and were found to be normal. No significant differences were observed in respiratory muscle strength among the groups.

Conclusions: With the exception of lower maximal voluntary ventilation, there was no significant lung function impairment in outpatients diagnosed with post-poliomyelitis syndrome when compared with healthy subjects and with patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis without post-poliomyelitis syndrome. This is an important clinical finding because it shows that patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome can have preserved lung function.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

Comments (if any): The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

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Category: Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: Macro electromyography and motor unit number index in the tibialis anterior muscle: differences and similarities in characterizing motor unit properties in prior polio
Author: Sandberg A, Nandedkar SD, Stalberg E
Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-751 85, Sweden
Journal: Muscle & Nerve
Citation: 2011 Mar;43(3):335-41
Publication Year and Month: 2011 03

Abstract: Our objective was to establish the usefulness of the noninvasive method of the motor unit number index (MUNIX) in a large muscle and to study how macro electromyography (EMG) and MUNIX complement each other in describing the motor units (MUs) in prior polio. MUNIX and macro EMG were performed in 48 tibialis anterior muscles in 33 prior polio patients. In addition, the reproducibility of MUNIX was investigated. It is shown that MUNIX can be used to characterize MUs with high reproducibility, even in a large muscle. As judged by MUNIX values, the patients had a 25% reduction of motor neurons, whereas the macro EMG indicated a loss of 60% of the neurons. Macro EMG showed more pronounced changes compared with control material than the MUNIX. One of the reasons for this finding may be the difference in MU populations studied with the two methods.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Management of post-polio syndrome
Author: Trojan DA, Finch L
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: NeuroRehabilitation
Citation: NeuroRehabil. 1997;8:93-105
Publication Year and Month: 1997 08

Abstract: The management of patients presenting with post-poliomyelitis syndrome is discussed. It is essential to identify and treat other medical and neurological conditions which could produce these symptoms. New weakness can be managed with exercise, avoidance of muscular overuse, weight loss, orthoses and assistive devices. Fatigue can be managed with energy conservation techniques. The management of pain is dependent upon its causes. Treatments are reviewed.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Management of postpolio syndrome
Author: Gonzalez H, Olsson T, Borg K
Affiliation: Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden – [email protected]
Journal: The Lancet Neurology
Citation: Lancet Neurol. 2010 Jun; 9(6):634-42 and Comment in: Lancet Neurol. 2010 Jun; 9(6):561-3
Publication Year and Month: 2010 06

Abstract: Postpolio syndrome is characterised by the exacerbation of existing or new health problems, most often muscle weakness and fatigability, general fatigue, and pain, after a period of stability subsequent to acute polio infection. Diagnosis is based on the presence of a lower motor neuron disorder that is supported by neurophysiological findings, with exclusion of other disorders as causes of the new symptoms. The muscle-related effects of postpolio syndrome are possibly associated with an ongoing process of denervation and reinnervation, reaching a point at which denervation is no longer compensated for by reinnervation. The cause of this denervation is unknown, but an inflammatory process is possible. Rehabilitation in patients with postpolio syndrome should take a multiprofessional and multidisciplinary approach, with an emphasis on physiotherapy, including enhanced or individually modified physical activity, and muscle training. Patients with postpolio syndrome should be advised to avoid both inactivity and overuse of weak muscles. Evaluation of the need for orthoses and assistive devices is often required.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Orthoses

Title: Manufacture of Passive Dynamic Ankle–Foot Orthoses Using Selective Laser Sintering
Author: Mario C. Faustini ; Richard R. Neptune ; Richard H. Crawford ; Steven J. Stanhope
Affiliation: Department of Mechanical Engineering, the University of Texas at Austin.
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering ( Volume: 55 , Issue: 2 , Feb. 2008 )
Publication Year and Month: 2008 02

Abstract: Ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) designs vary in size, shape, and functional characteristics depending on the desired clinical application. Passive Dynamic (PD) Response ankle-foot orthoses (PD-AFOs) constitute a design that seeks to improve walking ability for persons with various neuromuscular disorders by passively (like a spring) providing variable levels of support during the stance phase of gait. Current PD-AFO manufacturing technology is either labor intensive or not well suited for the detailed refinement of PD-AFO bending stiffness characteristics. The primary objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using a rapid freeform prototyping technique, selective laser sintering (SLS), as a PD-AFO manufacturing process. Feasibility was determined by replicating the shape and functional characteristics of a carbon fiber AFO (CF-AFO). The study showed that a SLS-based framework is ideally suited for this application. A second objective was to determine the optimal SLS material for PD-AFOs to store and release elastic energy; considering minimizing energy dissipation through internal friction is a desired material characteristic. This study compared the mechanical damping of the CF-AFO to PD-AFOs manufactured by SLS using three different materials. Mechanical damping evaluation ranked the materials as Rilsantrade D80 (best), followed by DuraFormtrade PA and DuraFormtrade GF. In addition, Rilsantrade D80 was the only SLS material able to withstand large deformations.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Fatigue

Title: Measuring fatigue in polio survivors: content comparison and reliability of the Fatigue Severity Scale and the Checklist Individual Strength
Author: Koopman FS, Brehm MA, Heerkens YF, Nollet F, Beelen A
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. [email protected]
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2014 Sep;46(8):761-7. doi: 10.2340/16501977-1838
Publication Year and Month: 2014 09

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To compare the content of the Fatigue Severity Scale and the subscale "subjective experience of fatigue" of the Checklist Individual Strength, and to assess the reliability of both questionnaires in polio survivors.

DESIGN: Repeated-measures at a 3-week interval.

SUBJECTS: Consecutive series of 61 polio survivors.

METHODS: Concepts contained in the questionnaire items were linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), using standardized linking rules. Reliability analyses included tests of internal consistency, test-retest reliability and measurement error.

RESULTS: Questionnaires differed in the extent to which they measured other than fatigue-related aspects of functioning (represented ICF components: "Body functions": 50% and 80%, "Activities and Participation": 30% and 0%, for the Fatigue Severity Scale and Checklist Individual Strength, respectively). Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were considered acceptable, while measurement error was large (Cronbach's α: 0.90 and 0.93, intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.80 and 0.85, smallest detectable change: 28.7% and 29.4% for the Fatigue Severity Scale and Checklist Individual Strength, respectively).

Conclusions: Considering the acceptable clinimetric properties, we conclude that both the Fatigue Severity Scale and the Checklist Individual Strength can be applied in research on post-poliomyelitis syndrome when measuring fatigue. However, because the 2 questionnaires differ in content they cannot be used interchangeably.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

Comments (if any): The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

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Category: Fatigue

Title: Measuring Physical and Cognitive Fatigue in People With Post-Polio Syndrome: Development of the Neurological Fatigue Index for Post-Polio Syndrome (NFI-PP).
Author: Young CA, Wong SM, Quincey AC, Tennant A
Affiliation: Walton Centre NHS Trust, Lower Lane, Liverpool, L9 7LJ, United Kingdom.
Walton Centre NHS Trust, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
Swiss Paraplegic Research, Nottwil, Switzerland.
Journal: PM&R: The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Citation: 2018 Feb;10(2):129-136.
Publication Year and Month: 2018 02

Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Fatigue in post-polio syndrome (PPS) has been shown to affect quality of life adversely. There is currently no disease-specific measure of fatigue for PPS.

OBJECTIVE:
To develop a scale to measure fatigue in PPS that meets rigorous psychometric standards.

DESIGN:
Qualitative followed by validation and test-retest studies.

SETTING:
Polio clinic followed by national questionnaire studies.

PARTICIPANTS:
A total of 45 participants from polio clinic for qualitative; 319 participants from clinic or self-referral for validation study, of whom 87 completed the retest questionnaire.

METHODS:
Draft questionnaire items on PPS fatigue were derived from transcripts of qualitative interviews. After cognitive debriefing, the draft measure was administered by mail along with comparator questionnaires to a new sample.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS:
Draft PPS fatigue measure, Fatigue Severity Scale, and visual analog scale for fatigue.

RESULTS:
Analysis of 271 of 319 (85%) questionnaires identified a 2-factor solution (RMSEA 0.058). For the physical subscale, a 20-item scale showed good fit (χ2P = .189), strict unidimensionality (t-test 5.17%), and reliability 0.91. For the cognitive subscale, a 7-item scale showed excellent fit (χ2P = .917), strict unidimensionality (t-test 5.2%), and reliability 0.89. Evidence of a "difficulty factor" emerged also supporting a total score that showed good fit (χ2P = .151), strict unidimensionality (t-test 0.4%), and reliability consistent with group use at 0.73. Test-retest correlations for all scales were greater than 0.85. Standard error of measurement on metric ranges was 5.4 for total, 2.9 for physical, and 1.69 for cognitive domains. With the latent estimate of the total score transformed to a 0-100 scale, the mean score was 49.5 (SD 6.9). Spearman correlations with the Fatigue Severity Scale and visual analog scale were 0.60 and 0.55, respectively.

Conclusions: CONCLUSIONS:
A patient-derived Neurological Fatigue Index for PPS, with physical and cognitive subscales and a total score, has demonstrated good reliability, appropriate concurrent validity, and satisfies the Rasch measurement model. A raw-score to interval scale transformation is available for parametric applications and the calculation of change scores.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Orthoses

Title: Mechanoadaptation: articular cartilage through thick and thin
Author: Tonia L. Vincent, Angus K. T. Wann
Affiliation:
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: The Journal of Physiology
Publication Year and Month: 2018 06

Abstract: The articular cartilage is exquisitely sensitive to mechanical load. Its structure is largely defined by the mechanical environment and destruction in osteoarthritis is the pathophysiological consequence of abnormal mechanics. It is often overlooked that disuse of joints causes profound loss of volume in the articular cartilage, a clinical observation first described in polio patients and stroke victims. Through the 1980s, the results of studies exploiting experimental joint immobilisation supported this. Importantly, this substantial body of work was also the first to describe metabolic changes that resulted in decreased synthesis of matrix molecules, especially sulfated proteoglycans. The molecular mechanisms that underlie disuse atrophy are poorly understood despite the identification of multiple mechanosensing mechanisms in cartilage. Moreover, there has been a tendency to equate cartilage loss with osteoarthritic degeneration. Here, we review the historic literature and clarify the structural, metabolic and clinical features that clearly distinguish cartilage loss due to disuse atrophy and those due to osteoarthritis. We speculate on the molecular sensing pathways in cartilage that may be responsible for cartilage mechanoadaptation.

Conclusions: Mechanoadaptation in cartilage is rapid and reversible, and potentially of a similar scale to that seen in muscle and bone. Comprehensive studies of cartilage atrophy in vivo have been carried out although largely during the ‘pre‐molecular’ era and prior to the discovery of direct chondrocyte mechanosensing mechanisms. Advances in newly available glycobiology and proteomic techniques, in combination with genetic modification in rodents, will add considerable value to future studies. Cartilage atrophy is readily distinguished from osteoarthritis at the clinical, tissue and molecular level but cannot be discerned on a plain radiograph except by noting the absence of bone remodelling. As joint space narrowing is typically used to diagnose OA, it is important to consider atrophy as a differential diagnosis. Harnessing the molecules that drive mechanoadaption in articular cartilage may provide novel strategies to prevent or treat OA.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Muscle Strength

Title: Men With Late Effects of Polio Decline More Than Women in Lower Limb Muscle Strength: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study
Author: Flansbjer UB (1), Brogårdh C (2), Horstmann V (3), Lexell J (4)
Affiliation: (1) 1Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Rehabilitation Medicine Research Group, Box 157, SE221 00 Lund, Sweden; (2) Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Physiotherapy Research Group, Box 157, SE221 00 Lund, Sweden; Department of Neurology and Rehabilitation Medicine, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden; (3) Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Research Group Active and Healthy Ageing, Box 157, SE221 00 Lund, Sweden; (4) Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Rehabilitation Medicine Research Group, Box 157, SE221 00 Lund, Sweden; Department of Neurology and Rehabilitation Medicine, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden
Journal: PM&R: The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Citation: PM R. 2015 May 12. pii: S1934-1482(15)00233-6. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2015.05.005
Publication Year and Month: 2015 05

Abstract: BACKGROUND: In persons with prior paralytic poliomyelitis, progressive muscle weakness can occur after a stable period of at least 15 years. Knowledge is limited about which factors influence changes in lower limb muscle strength in these persons.

OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in lower limb muscle strength annually over 4 years in persons with late effects of polio and to identify prognostic factors for changes in muscle strength.

DESIGN: A prospective, longitudinal study.

SETTING: University hospital outpatient program.

PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-two ambulant persons (mean age ± standard deviation: 64 ± 6 years) with verified late effects of polio.

METHODS: Mixed linear models were used to analyze changes in muscle strength and to identify determinants among the following covariates: gender, age, age at acute polio infection, time with late effects of polio, body mass index, and estimated baseline muscle weakness.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Knee extensor and flexor and ankle dorsiflexor muscle strength were measured annually with a Biodex dynamometer.

RESULTS: The men (n = 28) had significant linear change over time for all knee muscle strength measurements, from -1.4% (P < .05) per year for isokinetic knee flexion in the less-affected lower limb to -4.2% (P < .001) for isokinetic knee extension in the more-affected lower limb, and for 2 ankle dorsiflexor muscle strength measurements (-3.3%-1.4% per year [P < .05]). The women (n = 24) had a significant linear change over time only for ankle dorsiflexor measurements (4.0%-5.5% per year [P < .01]). Gender was the strongest factor that predicted a change in muscle strength over time.

Conclusions: Over 4 years, men had a greater decline in muscle strength than did women, but the rate of decline did not accelerate. This finding indicates that gender could be a contributing factor to the progressive decline in muscle strength in persons with late effects of polio.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Women's Health

Title: Menopause and post-polio symptoms as predictors of subjective sleep disturbance in poliomyelitis survivors.
Author: Kalpakjian CZ, Quint EH, Toussaint LL.
Affiliation: Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, USA
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Climacteric. 2007 Feb;10(1):51-62.
Publication Year and Month: 2007 02

Abstract: OBJECTIVES:
Sleep disturbance in polio survivors is a common complaint, yet little is known about the effects of the interaction of physical disability and menopause on sleep. The purpose of this study was to understand the relative contribution of menopause factors and disability to subjective sleep disturbance.

METHODS:
Participants were 465 women aged 50-65 years who had physical disabilities due to poliomyelitis. Hierarchical regression modeling was used to examine menopause (symptoms, status, hormone replacement use, ovarectomy status) and disability factors (post-polio symptoms) in sleep disturbance.

RESULTS:
In the final model, 19% (frequency) and 17% (severity) of sleep disturbance variance was explained. Psychological symptoms exerted the most influence (for both outcomes) followed by post-polio symptoms, vasomotor symptoms, an interaction of vasomotor and post-polio symptoms and estrogen use. For women with fewer post-polio symptoms, vasomotor symptoms exerted greater influence on sleep disturbance than for women with greater post-polio symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS:
Psychological symptoms had the strongest association with sleep disturbance in these women. Controlling for the influence of various menopause factors, our findings show that vasomotor symptoms were only one of several influences on sleep disturbance.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Women's Health

Title: Menopause characteristics of women with physical disabilities from poliomyelitis.
Author: Kalpakjian CZ, Quint EH, Tate DG, Roller S, Toussaint LL.
Affiliation: Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, USA
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Maturitas. 2007 Feb 20;56(2):161-72.
Publication Year and Month: 2007 02

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To describe menopause characteristics of women with physical disabilities from poliomyelitis.

METHODS:
Nine hundred and nine women with a history of poliomyelitis completed a survey on health, physical functioning, emotional well being and menopause.

RESULTS:
The majority of the sample was postmenopausal having had a natural menopause around the average age of 50.3 years; 34.7% of the sample had had hysterectomies. Thirty-nine percent were using some form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Menopause symptoms were clustered into psychological, somatic-sensory, somatic-sleep and vasomotor factors. Among never and past HRT users, there were significant differences in menopause factor severity by menopause status. Somatic/sleep symptoms were lowest in never users; past users had significantly higher vasomotor symptoms; desire for sexual activity and painful intercourse did not vary by HRT use. Compared to population estimates, post-polio women had similar rates of hysterectomies overall, but among some age cohorts they had significantly lower rates, contrary to expectations. However, they used HRT at significantly higher rates than expected.

CONCLUSIONS:
This study suggests that basic menopause characteristics of women with polio are generally similar to those of their non-disabled peers. There were few substantial differences in severity of menopause symptoms by HRT use, which is critical in light of the dearth of studies examining its risk-benefit ratio among women with physical disabilities. Until such studies provide some evidence of the specific risks or benefits to women with physical disability, each woman should carefully weigh the known risks and benefits with her physician.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Assistive Technology

Title: Mobility and participation among ageing powered wheelchair users: using a lifecourse approach
Author: Delphine Labbé, W. Ben Mortenson, Paula W. Rushton, Louise Demers, and William C. Miller
Affiliation: Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
Rehabilitation Research Lab, Vancouver, Canada
Department of Gerontology, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada
School of Rehabilitation, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Canada
CHU Sainte Justine Research Center, Montréal, Canada
Centre de recherche de l'institut universitaire de gériatrie de Montréal, Montreal, Canada
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Ageing and Society, 1-17.
Publication Year and Month: 2018 09

Abstract: About 65 million people use wheelchairs worldwide. Powered wheelchairs offer independent mobility for those who find it difficult to propel a manual wheelchair. Previous studies have described powered wheelchairs as a mixed blessing for the users in terms of usability, accessibility, safety, cost and stigma; however, few studies have explored their impact on mobility and participation over time. Therefore, as part of a larger longitudinal study, we used a combined retrospective and prospective lifecourse perspective to explore the experiences of older adult powered wheelchair users. Based on the interpretive description approach, 19 participants took part in a series of semi-structured interviews over a two-year period about their mobility, social participation and ageing process. The participants were powered wheelchair users, at least 50 years of age, recruited in Vancouver, Montreal and Quebec City (Canada). We identified three themes that highlighted how the powered wheelchair experience was integrated into the life continuum of the users. ‘It's my legs’ emphasised how powered wheelchairs are a form of mobility that not only enables users to take part in activities, but also impacts their identities, past and present. ‘Wheels of change’ explored the dynamic nature of powered wheelchair use and changes related to ageing. ‘Getting around’ illustrated how users’ mobility was affected by the interaction with their physical and social environments.

Conclusions: Developing public policies to advance social and environmental changes could help countries to ensure equity of access and social inclusion of those ageing with disabilities.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Pain

Title: Modeling subjective well-being in individuals with chronic pain and a physical disability: the role of pain control and pain catastrophizing.
Author: Furrer, A., Michel, G., Terrill, A.L., Jensen, M.P., Müller, R.
Affiliation: Nil
Journal: Disability and Rehabilitation
Citation: Furrer, A., Michel, G., Terrill, A.L., Jensen, M.P., Müller, R. (2017) Modeling subjective well-being in individuals with chronic pain and a physical disability: the role of pain control and pain catastrophizing. Disability and Rehabilitation 23:1-10 doi: 10.1080/09638288.2017.1390614. [Epub ahead of print]
Publication Year and Month: 2017 10

Abstract: PURPOSE:
To investigate the associations between subjective well-being and pain intensity, pain interference, and depression in individuals with physical disabilities. We hypothesized that (1) pain control and (2) pain catastrophizing mediate the effects of subjective well-being on pain intensity, pain interference, and depression.

METHODS:
Analyses of cross-sectional data from 96 individuals diagnosed with spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular disease, or post-polio syndrome, with average pain intensity of ≥4 (0-10) on at least half the days in the past month. Two models tested study hypotheses using structural equation.

RESULTS:
Both models showed acceptable model fit. Pain catastrophizing significantly mediated the effect of subjective well-being on pain intensity and pain interference, but not on depression. Pain control did not significantly mediate the effect of subjective well-being on pain intensity, pain interference, or depression. Path coefficients showed significant direct effects of subjective well-being on pain control (β = 0.39), pain catastrophizing (β = -0.61), pain interference (β = -0.48; -0.42), and depression (β = -0.75; -0.78).

CONCLUSIONS:
This study supports the potential of enhancing subjective well-being and lowering pain catastrophizing for reducing pain intensity, pain interference, and depressive symptoms in individuals with chronic pain and a physical disability. The findings indicate that true experiments to test for causal associations are warranted. Implications for rehabilitation The majority of individuals with physical disabilities report having persistent moderate-to-severe pain that may negatively limit daily activities and quality of life. The present cross-sectional study indicates that individuals who reported greater subjective well-being showed significantly lower pain intensity via the mediating effect of lower pain catastrophizing. Since sample size and respective power are low, these findings should be taken as first indications of potential underlying mechanisms between subjective well-being and pain outcomes that need further confirmation in longitudinal research. However, the findings suggest that treatments which enhance subjective well-being (increasing positive affect and life satisfaction, and decreasing negative affect, e.g., via positive psychology exercises) and reducing pain catastrophizing (via e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy) may have the highest potential for benefiting individuals with disability-associated chronic pain.

Conclusions: Treatments which enhance subjective well-being (increasing positive affect and life satisfaction, and decreasing negative affect, e.g., via positive psychology exercises) and reducing pain catastrophizing (via e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy) may have the highest potential for benefiting individuals with disability-associated chronic pain.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Motoneuron Disease and Past Poliomyelitis in England and Wales
Author: Martyn CN, Barker DJP, Osmond C.
Affiliation: MRC Environmental Epidemiology Unit, Southampton Hospital, United Kingdom
Journal: The Lancet Neurology
Citation: The Lancet, 331(8598):1319-1322

Publication Year and Month: 1988 06

Abstract: Past notification rates for poliomyelitis show a close geographical relation with current mortality from motoneuron disease in England and Wales. The increasing rate of poliomyelitis during the first half of this century and its predilection for affluent places and families were unique amongst infectious diseases. The unusual epidemiology of poliomyelitis is now being paralleled by motoneuron disease. These observations provide new evidence for a causal connection between the two conditions.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: Motor unit number estimation (MUNE)
Author: Clifton L Gooch, MD. Robert Henderson, MD.
Affiliation: Department of Neurology
University of South Florida, Royal Brisbane & Women's Hospital
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Clifton L Gooch, MDRobert Henderson, MDSection Editor:Jeremy M Shefner, MD, PhDDeputy Editor:April F Eichler, MD, MPH
Publication Year and Month: 2018

Abstract: Electrophysiologic testing of nerve and muscle function has played a critical role in the diagnosis of neuromuscular disease for over half a century. Advances in computer technology and technical refinements have enabled the development of more sophisticated electrodiagnostic methods, which are providing information on the motor nerve and its function in health and disease. Motor unit number estimation (MUNE) is a technique that can be used to determine the approximate number of motor neurons in a muscle or group of muscles. In addition, MUNE methods provide a means of measuring motor unit size, enabling tracking of both loss of motor units and the compensatory phenomenon of collateral reinnervation. MUNE is used most often in neuromuscular disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy.
This topic will review the methodology and utility of MUNE.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX) as a biomarker of motor unit loss in post-polio syndrome versus needle EMG
Author: Malgorzata Gawel, Ewa Zalewska, Elżbieta Szmidt-Salkowska, Marta Lipowska, Anna Lusakowska, Anna M.Kaminska, Anna Kostera-Pruszczyk
Affiliation: Department of Neurology, Medical University of Warsaw, 02-097 Warsaw, Banacha 1A str., Poland

Nalecz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-109 Warsaw, Ks. Trojdena 4 str., Poland
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Volume 46, June 2019, Pages 35-40
Publication Year and Month: 2019 06

Abstract: MUNIX method (Motor Unit Number Index) had been not used to assess number of motor neurons in post-polio syndrome in contrary to needle electromyography.

Objectives
To confirm if MUNIX reflects motor unit loss and clinical stage and to assess difference in MUNIX and EMG results between muscles in different stage.

Methods
132 Muscles (MUNIX) and 96 (EMG) in 12 patients were studied and divided into groups: with normal strength(N), stable weakness and atrophy(S), new weakness and atrophy(W).

Results
In PPS group MUNIX global was 561.36 ± 282.6 (right 6 muscles) and 561.27 ± 281.1 (left) significantly lower than in control group (six muscles 1139.6 ± 164.5) (p < 0.05). MUNIX global correlated with MRC global. MUNIX was greater in muscles with normal strength (95–100% of normal values) than in those with stable weakness (48%-0% of normal values) and new weakness (65%-0% of normal values). Respectively to clinical stage of muscle MUP (motor unit potential) amplitude increased to 350% of normal value, from 250% to 110%, and from 300% to 700%. No correlation was found between MUP parameters and MRC values.

Conclusions: MUNIX reflects motor dysfunction and could be a good biomarker for loss of motor neurons in PPS.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Fatigue

Title: Multidimensional fatigue inventory and post-polio syndrome - a Rasch analysis
Author: Dencker A (1,3), Sunnerhagen KS (1,2), Taft C (1,3), Lundgren-Nilsson Å (1,2)
Affiliation: (1) Centre for Person-centred Care, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; (2) Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; (3) Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 405 30, Sweden - [email protected]
Journal: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Citation: Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2015 Feb 12;13(1):20. doi: 10.1186/s12955-015-0213-9
Publication Year and Month: 2015 02

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a common symptom in post-polio syndrome (PPS) and can have a substantial impact on patients. There is a need for validated questionnaires to assess fatigue in PPS for use in clinical practice and research. The aim with this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Swedish version of Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) in patients with PPS using the Rasch model.

METHODS: A total of 231 patients diagnosed with PPS completed the Swedish MFI-20 questionnaire at post-polio out-patient clinics in Sweden. The mean age of participants was 62 years and 61% were females. Data were tested against assumptions of the Rasch measurement model (i.e. unidimensionality of the scale, good item fit, independency of items and absence of differential item functioning). Reliability was tested with the person separation index (PSI). A transformation of the ordinal total scale scores into an interval scale for use in parametric analysis was performed. Dummy cases with minimum and maximum scoring were used for the transformation table to achieve interval scores between 20 and 100, which are comprehensive limits for the MFI-20 scale.

RESULTS: An initial Rasch analysis of the full scale with 20 items showed misfit to the Rasch model (p < 0.001). Seven items showed slightly disordered thresholds and person estimates were not significantly improved by rescoring items. Analysis of MFI-20 scale with the 5 MFI-20 subscales as testlets showed good fit with a non-significant x (2) value (p = 0.089). PSI for the testlet solution was 0.86. Local dependency was present in all subscales and fit to the Rasch model was solved with testlets within each subscale. PSI ranged from 0.52 to 0.82 in the subscales.

Conclusions: This study shows that the Swedish MFI-20 total scale and subscale scores yield valid and reliable measures of fatigue in persons with post-polio syndrome. The Rasch transformed total scores can be used for parametric statistical analyses in future clinical studies.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

Comments (if any): The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

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Category: Fatigue

Title: Multidimensional fatigue inventory and post-polio syndrome – a Rasch analysis
Author: Anna Dencker, Katharina S Sunnerhagen, Charles Taft and Åsa Lundgren-Nilsson
Affiliation: Centre for Person-centred Care, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. [email protected]
Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 457, 405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden. [email protected]
Centre for Person-centred Care, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. [email protected]
Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. [email protected]
Centre for Person-centred Care, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. [email protected]
Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 457, 405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden. [email protected]
Centre for Person-centred Care, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. [email protected]
Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. [email protected]
Journal: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Citation: 2015 Feb 12;13:20
Publication Year and Month: 2015 02

Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Fatigue is a common symptom in post-polio syndrome (PPS) and can have a substantial impact on patients. There is a need for validated questionnaires to assess fatigue in PPS for use in clinical practice and research. The aim with this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Swedish version of Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) in patients with PPS using the Rasch model.

METHODS:
A total of 231 patients diagnosed with PPS completed the Swedish MFI-20 questionnaire at post-polio out-patient clinics in Sweden. The mean age of participants was 62 years and 61% were females. Data were tested against assumptions of the Rasch measurement model (i.e. unidimensionality of the scale, good item fit, independency of items and absence of differential item functioning). Reliability was tested with the person separation index (PSI). A transformation of the ordinal total scale scores into an interval scale for use in parametric analysis was performed. Dummy cases with minimum and maximum scoring were used for the transformation table to achieve interval scores between 20 and 100, which are comprehensive limits for the MFI-20 scale.

RESULTS:
An initial Rasch analysis of the full scale with 20 items showed misfit to the Rasch model (p < 0.001). Seven items showed slightly disordered thresholds and person estimates were not significantly improved by rescoring items. Analysis of MFI-20 scale with the 5 MFI-20 subscales as testlets showed good fit with a non-significant x (2) value (p = 0.089). PSI for the testlet solution was 0.86. Local dependency was present in all subscales and fit to the Rasch model was solved with testlets within each subscale. PSI ranged from 0.52 to 0.82 in the subscales.

Conclusions: CONCLUSIONS:
This study shows that the Swedish MFI-20 total scale and subscale scores yield valid and reliable measures of fatigue in persons with post-polio syndrome. The Rasch transformed total scores can be used for parametric statistical analyses in future clinical studies.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Quality of Life

Title: Multiple Chronic Medical Conditions and Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Adults, 2004–2006
Author: John P. Barile, PhD,corresponding author William W. Thompson, PhD, Matthew M. Zack, MD, Gloria L. Krahn, PhD, MPH, Willi Horner-Johnson, PhD, and Sonya E. Bowen, MSW
Affiliation: William W. Thompson, Matthew M. Zack, Gloria L. Krahn, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Willi Horner-Johnson, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon; Sonya E. Bowen, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Baltimore, Maryland.
Corresponding Author: John P. Barile, PhD, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, 2530 Dole St, Sakamaki Hall, C404, Honolulu, HI 96822. Telephone: 808-956-6271. E-mail: [email protected]
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Preventing Chronic Disease, Published online 2013 Sep 26. doi: 10.5888/pcd10.120282
Publication Year and Month: 2013 09

Abstract: Introduction
Understanding longitudinal relationships among multiple chronic conditions, limitations in activities of daily living, and health-related quality of life is important for identifying potential opportunities for health promotion and disease prevention among older adults.

Methods
This study assessed longitudinal associations between multiple chronic conditions and limitations in activities of daily living on health-related quality of life among older adults (≥65 years) from 2004 through 2006, using data from the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (N = 27,334).

Results
Using a longitudinal path model, we found the numbers of chronic conditions at baseline and 2-year follow-up were independently associated with more limitations in activities of daily living at 2-year follow-up. In addition, more limitations in activities of daily living at 2-year follow-up were associated with worse health-related quality of life during the follow-up time period. The association between multiple chronic conditions and indices of health-related quality of life was mediated by changes in limitations in activities of daily living.

Conclusions: Both baseline and new multiple chronic conditions led to worse health in terms of activities of daily living and health-related quality of life and should be considered important outcomes to intervene on for improved long-term health. In addition, public health practitioners should consider addressing classes of multiple chronic conditions by using interventions designed to reduce the emergence of multiple chronic conditions, such as physical activity, reductions in smoking rates, and improved and coordinated access to health care services.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Multiple sclerosis and poliomyelitis. A Danish historical cohort study.
Author: Nielsen NM, Wohlfahrt J, Melbye M, Rasmussen S, Mølbak K, Askgaard DS, Aaby P.
Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark
Journal: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Citation: Acta Neurol Scand 2000 Jun;101(6):384-7.
Publication Year and Month: 2000 06

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate whether persons with a history of poliomyelitis are at an increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS).

MATERIAL AND METHODS:
All patients diagnosed with acute poliomyelitis in the greater capital area of Copenhagen, Denmark, between 1919 and 1954 were identified and followed with respect to MS. Information on vital status and diagnosis of sclerosis was obtained through linkage with the Danish Civil Registration System and The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry, respectively. Follow-up started on the date of the establishment of the Danish Civil Registration System (April 1, 1968) until death, emigration or December 31, 1996, whichever came first. The observed incidence of MS among polio patients was compared with the expected incidence calculated according to national gender, age and period specific rates of MS.

RESULTS:
During 149,364 years of follow-up, 19 cases of multiple sclerosis were observed among 5652 polio patients compared with 11.0 expected (SIR = 1.73 (1.04-2.74)). The increased risk of MS was most pronounced in polio patients hospitalized during adolescence. Neither gender nor the acute severity of poliomyelitis modified the risk of MS.

CONCLUSION:
Our results are based on small numbers of events, however the findings suggest that the polio patients might be at an increased risk of MS.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: Muscle Function, Muscle Structure, and Electrophysiology in a Dynamic Perspective in Late Polio
Author: Gunnar Grimby, MD, PhD, Erik Stålberg, MD.
Affiliation:
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Gunnar Grimby, MD, PhD, Erik Stålberg, MD., Muscle Function, Muscle Structure, and Electrophysiology in a Dynamic Perspective in Late Polio, Chapter 2, pp 15-24.
Publication Year and Month: 1995

Abstract: The muscular impairment in patients with a history of polio varies from none to severe. The relationship between the degree of initial involvement and the effect of various compensatory mechanisms determines the clinical picture, which changes dynamically. Early and late recovery after poliomyelitis depend on a number of factors. Clinical improvement that appears within a few weeks after the acute phase is probably due to recovery in the excitability of functional, but not degenerated, motor neurons. Degeneration of neurons, causing peripheral denervation, is compensated by collateral sprouting, i.e., by nerve twigs branching off from surviving motor units overlapping with the denervated ones. This is most likely the main factor explaining recovery within the first 6-12 months. Another late compensatory process is the increase in size of the muscle fibers. As a result of these processes, normal muscle strength and presumably normal muscle volume can be seen despite a calculated loss exceeding 50% of the number of motor neurons.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Muscle Strength

Title: Muscle strength is only a weak to moderate predictor of gait performance in persons with late effects of polio.
Author: Flansbjer, UB, Brogardh, C, Lexell, J
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Swede
Journal: NeuroRehabilitation
Citation: 2013;33(3):457-64. doi: 10.3233/NRE-130978
Publication Year and Month: 2013 03

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To assess muscle strength in the knee extensors, knee flexors and ankle dorsiflexors in persons with late effects of polio, and determine how much muscle strength, gender, age and BMI are related to gait performance.

METHODS:
Ninety community-dwelling ambulant persons (47 men and 43 women; mean age 64 years SD 8) with late effects of polio participated. Isokinetic concentric knee extensor and flexor muscle strength was measured at 60°/s and ankle dorsiflexor muscle strength at 30°/s. Gait performance was assessed by the Timed "Up & Go", the Comfortable and Fast Gait Speed tests, and the 6-Minute Walk test.

RESULTS:
There were significant correlations between knee extensor and flexor muscle strength and gait performance (p < 0.01), and between ankle dorsiflexor muscle strength and gait performance (p < 0.05), for both lower limbs. Muscle strength in the knee extensors and flexors explained 7% to 37% and 9% to 47%, respectively, of the variance in gait performance. Strength in the ankle dorsiflexors explained 4% to 24%, whereas gender, age and BMI contributed at most an additional 9%.

CONCLUSION:
Knee muscle strength, and to some extent ankle dorsiflexor muscle strength, are predictors of gait performance in persons with late effects of polio, but the strength of the relationships indicates that other factors are also important.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Fatigue

Title: Muscular effects in late polio.
Author: Sunnerhagen, K.S., Grimby, G.
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Goteborg University, Sweden
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica.
Sunnerhagen, K.S. & Grimby, G. (2001) Muscular Effects of Polio. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 171: 335–340. doi:10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00836.x
Publication Year and Month: 2001 03

Abstract: New or increased muscular weakness, fatigue and muscle and joint pain with neuropathic electromyography (EMG) changes in a person with a confirmed history of polio constitute the cardinal symptoms of the post-polio syndrome. Unusual tiredness or fatigue is a common complaint in late polio subjects as is intolerance to cold. Fatigue in polio subjects can have several explanations: emotional fatigue, central nervous system fatigue, ‘general’ fatigue and/or neuromuscular fatigue. Some studies indicate central fatigue, but it is unclear how often and to which degree there will be a central muscular fatigue. Polio patients are known to be deconditioned (reduced function because of low activity level), and aerobic power is reduced. Defects in the neuromuscular transmission may be present but are not seen in all post-polio subjects with reduction in force and increased fatigability. The fatigue experienced by late polio patients is most likely an augmented peripheral muscle fatigue. Possible explanations may be an imperfection in the sarcoplasmatic reticulum with altered calcium release mechanisms (activation) or in sliding filament function (contractile properties). This may be a secondary effect to the enlarged muscle fibres. However, the prolonged subjective feeling of fatigue reported despite unchanged maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) remains unexplained.

Conclusions: The fatigue experienced by late polio patients is most likely an augmented peripheral muscle fatigue. Possible explanations may be an imperfection in the sarcoplasmatic reticulum with altered calcium release mechanisms (activation) or in sliding filament function (contractile properties). This may be a secondary effect to the enlarged muscle fibres. However, the prolonged subjective feeling of fatigue reported despite unchanged maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) remains unexplained.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Speech Pathology

Title: Myasthenia gravis masquerading as post-poliomyelitis syndrome
Author: Singh R, Pentland B
Affiliation: Rehabilitation Medicine Unit, Astley Ainslie Hospital, Edinburgh, UK - [email protected]
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2006 Mar;38(2):136-7
Publication Year and Month: 2006 03

Abstract: A 79-year-old man with previous bulbar poliomyelitis developed dysphagia and was diagnosed as having post-polio syndrome. Over 2 years, his swallowing deteriorated and he suffered an aspiration pneumonia. Only after the subsequent development of fatigue and facial weakness was myasthenia gravis diagnosed. Diagnostic criteria for post-polio syndrome include the exclusion of all other neurological conditions such as myasthenia gravis. Moreover, in any instance where a patient develops new symptoms, it is advisable to reconsider the original diagnosis.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

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Category: Complementary Therapies

Title: Myofascial Release: Perspective of an informed consumer.
Author: DOROTHY WOODSMITH, RN, PHD,
Affiliation: UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN MAINE, PORTLAND, MAINE
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Polio Network News, Winter 1997 Vol. 13 No.1
Publication Year and Month: 1997

Abstract: As the recipient of over 50 myofascial release treatments for my polio-related symptoms administered by Steven Moreau, MS, Pz I want to discuss the
topic from the perspective of an informed consumer.
I have paraphrased and quoted from materials
prepared by Moreau.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: National Rehabilitation Hospital Limb Classification for Exercise, Research, and Clinical Trials in Post-Polio Patients
Author: Lauro S. Halstead, Anne Carrington Gawne, and Bao T. Pham

Affiliation: The Post-Polio Program; National Rehabilitation Hospital, Washington, DC


Journal: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Citation: The Post-Polio Syndrome: Advances in the Pathogenesis and Treatment Volume 753 pp 343-353 of the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences May 25, 1995.
Publication Year and Month: 1995 05

Abstract:

Conclusions: A need exists for an objective classification of polio patients for clinical and research purposes that takes into account the focal, asymmetric, and frequent subclinical nature of polio lesions. In order to prescribe a safe, effective exercise program, we developed a five-level (Classes I-V) limb-specific classification system based on remote and recent history, physical examination, and a four-extremity electrodiagnostic study (EMG/NCS). Class I limbs have no history of remote or recent weakness, normal strength, and a normal EMG. Class II limbs have no history of remote or recent weakness (or if remote history of weakness, full recovery occurred), normal strength and EMG evidence of prior anterior horn cell disease (AHCD). Class III limbs have a history of remote weakness with variable recovery, no new weakness, decreased strength, and EMG evidence of prior AHCD. Class IV limbs have a history of remote weakness with variable recovery, new clinical weakness, decreased strength, and EMG evidence of AHCD. Class V limbs have a history of severe weakness with little-to-no recovery, severely decreased strength and atrophy, and few-to-no motor units on EMG. In a prospective study of 400 limbs in 100 consecutive post-polio patients attending our clinic, 94 (23%) limbs were Class I, 88 (22%) were Class II, 95 (24%) were Class III, 75 (19%) were Class IV, and 48 (12%) were Class V. Guidelines for the use of this classification in a clinical/research setting are presented along with sample case histories and class-specific exercise recommendations.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: Neurological manifestations of the post-polio syndrome
Author: Jubelt B, Cashman NR
Affiliation: Les Turner Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Research Laboratory, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois
Journal: Critical Reviews in Neurobiology
Citation: Crit Rev Neurobiol. 1987;3(3):199-220
Publication Year and Month: 1987 03

Abstract: Patients with late effects of poliomyelitis, ie PPS, are being seen at an ever increasing frequency by general physicians, neurologists, and orthopedists. An appropriate time interval for the onset of late manifestations has elapsed since the major epidemics of poliomyelitis in the 1940s and 1950s. Post-polio neurological manifestations primarily include new weakness, atrophy, muscle pain, and fasciculations. Fortunately, the weakness is of a very slow, progressive nature. Abnormal laboratory studies include routine EMG, demonstrating chronic denervation; SFEMG, demonstrating increased fiber density, increased jitter, and blocking; and muscle biopsy most often revealing fiber-type grouping of chronic denervation and small isolated angular (or angulated) fibers and group atrophy in some series, both suggestive of active denervation. Unfortunately, both EMG and muscle biopsy studies suffer from a lack of specificity as they do not appear to distinguish asymptomatic from symptomatic (new weakness, PPMA) patients with prior poliomyelitis. Although the cause of PPMA is unknown, electrophysiological (SFEMG) and muscle biopsy studies suggest that the process involves a loss or dropout of axon terminals of reinnervated motor units. The axons terminal dropout could be due to dysfunction in the cell soma, the axon, or the terminals themselves. Whether motor neuron exhaustion, a persistent viral infection, or immune-mediated mechanisms play a role in the pathogenesis of the late weakness is unclear at present and will require further investigation. Treatment at this time is of a supportive nature. A major controversy involves the role of strengthening exercises in these patients since experimental animal studies suggest that excessive exercise of denervated muscles leads to increased weakness. Clearly, a better understanding of PPS and PPMA will allow more effective management of these patients’ problems and might also provide insight into other motor neuron and neuromuscular junction diseases.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Neurological Symptoms in Danes with a History of Poliomyelitis: Lifelong Follow-Up of Late Symptoms, their Association with Initial Symptoms of Polio, and Presence of Postpolio Syndrome
Author: Kay L. Nielsen N.M. Wanscher B. Jennum P.
Affiliation: Specialized Hospitalet for Polio and Accident Patients, Rødovre, Denmark
Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark
Medical Department 3, Næstved, Slagelse and Ringsted Hospital, Slagelse, Denmark
Danish Center for Sleep Medicine, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup, Denmark
Journal: European Neurology
Citation: 2018, Vol.80, No. 5-6
Publication Year and Month: 2018

Abstract: Background: Previous studies suggest that patients with a history of poliomyelitis (PM) later in life experience a variety of symptoms. These studies were carried out in patients who later in life were admitted to hospital or became members of polio societies and may therefore not be representative of all polio patients. Little data have been published concerning patients actually discharged from hospital with a diagnosis of acute paralytic PM. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of late symptoms in individuals with a history of paralytic PM with that of controls, and to study whether late symptoms in individuals with a history of PM were associated with symptoms at the acute stage of polio, and finally to compare the prevalence of symptoms in polio patients with postpolio syndrome (PPS) with the prevalence of symptoms in polio patients without PPS. Methods: A questionnaire concerning various symptoms was sent to a previously established cohort of patients, who during the polio epidemics were discharged from the Department of Infectious Disease at Blegdamshospitalet, Copenhagen, with a diagnosis of paralytic PM, and to age- and gender-matched controls without PM. Information about symptoms at the acute stage of disease was obtained from hospital records. Logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age and gender was applied to compare the occurrence of late symptoms in cases and controls and within the above-mentioned groups of individuals with a history of PM. Results: (i) Compared with controls, individuals with a history of polio significantly more often reported muscle symptoms, pain, neuropathic sensory symptoms, and bulbar symptoms; (ii) the occurrence of symptoms did not seem to be related to symptoms of the initial PM; and (iii) symptom prevalence was significantly higher in individuals with a history of polio who reported PPS as compared with those who did not.

Conclusions: Conclusion: Our data indicate that individuals with a history of PM late in life experience a variety of symptoms that cannot be attributed to lesions of the anterior horn. Furthermore, late symptoms do not seem to be related to initial symptoms of the acute stage of PM but to reported PPS. The last finding supports the perception that the cause of PPS is not just normal ageing.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Activity Levels

Title: Neuromuscular function in polio survivors
Author: Agre JC, Rodriquez AA
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Wisconsin - Madison Medical School 53792
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Dec; 14(12):1343-7
Publication Year and Month: 1991 12

Abstract: Although there is no documented, objective evidence that symptomatic post-polio subjects are rapidly losing strength, they have a number of neuromuscular deficits related to a more severe poliomyelitis illness that may explain why they complain of problems with strength, endurance, and local muscle fatigue. Symptomatic post-polio subjects were hospitalized longer during the acute poliomyelitis, recovered more slowly, and had electromyographic evidence of greater loss of anterior horn cells. Additionally, recent assessment demonstrated that they were weaker, had a reduced work capacity, and recovered strength less readily after activity in the quadriceps muscles as compared to asymptomatic subjects. Of great clinical importance, rating of perceived exertion in the muscle during exercise was the same in symptomatic and asymptomatic post-polio and control subjects, indicating that symptomatic subjects have a mechanism to monitor local muscle fatigue that could be used to avoid exhaustion. A study of pacing (interspersing activity with rest breaks) showed that symptomatic subjects had less local muscle fatigue and greater strength recovery when they paced their activity than when they worked at a constant rate to exhaustion. We recommend that post-polio individuals pace their daily activity to avoid excessive fatigue.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: Neuromuscular function in polio survivors at one-year follow-up.
Author: Agre JC, Rodriguez AA
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: 1991 Jan;72(1):7-10.
Publication Year and Month: 1991 01

Abstract: Many polio survivors complain of progressive loss of strength, work capacity, endurance, and ability to recover from fatiguing activity. These variables were measured initially and one year later in the quadriceps muscles of 28 symptomatic and 16 asymptomatic persons who had polio and 38 control individuals. Peak knee extension torque was measured isokinetically and isometrically. Endurance, or the amount of time the subject could maintain isometric torque at 40% of maximal torque, was measured. Work capacity was determined as the product of isometric torque and endurance time. Recovery of strength was measured at regular intervals for ten minutes after the endurance test. Statistical analysis was done by repeated measures ANOVA. Although the initial measures showed significant deficits in mean peak torque, work capacity, and recovery of strength in symptomatic postpolio subjects, no significant changes were found one year later in any of the variables.

Conclusions: Symptomatic postpolio subjects do not lose significant neuromuscular function in one year.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Muscle Strength

Title: Neuromuscular function: comparison of symptomatic and asymptomatic polio subjects to control subjects
Author: Agre JC, Rodriquez AA
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Wisconsin - Madison Medical School 53792
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1990 Jul; 71(8):545-51
Publication Year and Month: 1990 07

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine if there were any differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic polio survivors by history of acute poliomyelitis illness, electromyographic evidence of terminal motor unit reorganization, and neuromuscular function of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Thirty-four symptomatic postpolio subjects, 16 asymptomatic postpolio subjects, and 41 controls were studied. A questionnaire assessed polio history. Peak knee extension torque was measured isokinetically and isometrically. Endurance (time to exhaustion) was measured at 40% of maximal isometric torque. Work capacity was determined as the product of torque and duration. Recovery of isometric strength was measured at regular intervals for ten minutes after exhaustion. Quantitative electromyography was also performed on the quadriceps to determine motor unit action potential duration and amplitude. It was found that symptomatic subjects had evidence of more severe original polio involvement by history (documented electromyographically), were weaker and capable of performing less work than asymptomatic subjects, and recovered strength less readily than controls.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Late Effects of Polio

Title: New problems in old polio patients: results of a survey of 539 polio survivors
Author: Halstead LS, Rossi CD
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1985 Jul; 8(7):845-50
Publication Year and Month: 1985 07

Abstract: Presented are the results of a questionnaire survey on new health problems in 539 polio survivors. The most common new problems were fatigue, weakness in previously affected and unaffected muscles, muscle pain, and joint pain. The median time from polio to the onset of these problems ranged from 30 to 40 years. Factors at onset of polio most strongly associated with developing these new health problems were: being hospitalized, being over 10 years old, being on a ventilator, and having paralytic involvement of all four limbs. The differential diagnoses of these new problems, implications for treatment and areas for future research are discussed.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Polio Immunisation

Title: New vaccine strategies to finish polio eradication
Author: Grassly NC
Affiliation: Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, St Mary's Hospital, London W2 1PG, UK; Wellcome Trust Research Laboratory, Division of Gastrointestinal Sciences, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
Journal: The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Citation: Lancet Infect Dis, Volume 15, Issue 8, 864-865
Publication Year and Month: 2015 06

Abstract: The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) currently faces two specific challenges. First, all the cases in the past 9 months caused by ongoing wild-virus transmission were in Afghanistan and Pakistan—Africa has had a remarkable 9 months without detection of the disease. Second, circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses are continuing to cause poliomyelitis in a few countries, a rare outcome associated with continued use of the live-attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). In The Lancet Infectious Diseases, the results of two clinical trials of OPV that address these challenges are reported by Fatima Mir and colleagues and Concepción Estívariz and colleagues.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Polio Immunisation

Title: Next generation inactivated polio vaccine manufacturing to support post polio-eradication biosafety goals
Author: Thomassen YE (1), van 't Oever AG (1), van Oijen MG (1), Wijffels RH (2), van der Pol LA (1), Bakker WA (1)
Affiliation: (1) Institute for Translational Vaccinology (Intravacc), Bilthoven, The Netherlands; (2) Bioprocess Engineering, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Journal: Public Library of Science
Citation: PLoS One. 2013 Dec 12;8(12):e83374. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083374
Publication Year and Month: 2013 12

Abstract: Worldwide efforts to eradicate polio caused a tipping point in polio vaccination strategies. A switch from the oral polio vaccine, which can cause circulating and virulent vaccine derived polioviruses, to inactivated polio vaccines (IPV) is scheduled. Moreover, a manufacturing process, using attenuated virus strains instead of wild-type polioviruses, is demanded to enhance worldwide production of IPV, especially in low- and middle income countries. Therefore, development of an IPV from attenuated (Sabin) poliovirus strains (sIPV) was pursued. Starting from the current IPV production process based on wild type Salk strains, adaptations, such as lower virus cultivation temperature, were implemented. sIPV was produced at industrial scale followed by formulation of both plain and aluminium adjuvanted sIPV. The final products met the quality criteria, were immunogenic in rats, showed no toxicity in rabbits and could be released for testing in the clinic. Concluding, sIPV was developed to manufacturing scale. The technology can be transferred worldwide to support post polio-eradication biosafety goals.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Complementary Therapies

Title: No Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Training on Muscle Strength and Gait Performance in Persons With Late Effects of Polio: A Pilot Study
Author: Brogardh C, Flansbjer U-B, Lexell J.
Affiliation: Skane University Hospital
Lund University
Lulea University of Technology
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Volume 91, Issue 9, September 2010, Pages 1474-1477
Publication Year and Month: 2010 09

Abstract: Objective
To evaluate the feasibility and possible effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on muscle strength and gait performance in people with late effects of polio.

Design
A case-controlled pilot study with assessments before and after training.

Setting
A university hospital rehabilitation department.

Participants
People (N=5; 3 men, 2 women; mean age, 64±6.7y; range, 55−71y) with clinically and electrophysiologically verified late effects of polio.

Interventions
All participants underwent 10 sessions of supervised WBV training (standing with knees flexed 40°−55° up to 60 seconds per repetition and 10 repetitions per session twice weekly for 5 weeks).

Main Outcome Measures
Isokinetic and isometric knee muscle strength (dynamometer), and gait performance (Timed Up & Go, Comfortable Gait Speed, Fast Gait Speed, and six-minute walk tests).

Results
All participants completed the 5 weeks of WBV training, with no discernible discomfort. No significant changes in knee muscle strength or gait performance were found after the WBV training period.

Conclusions: This pilot study did not show any significant improvements in knee muscle strength and gait performance following a standard protocol of WBV training. Thus, the results do not lend support to WBV training for people with late effects of polio.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Activity Levels, Psychology,

Title: No reduction of severe fatigue in patients with postpolio syndrome by exercise therapy or cognitive behavioral therapy: results of an RCT
Author: Koopman FS (1), Voorn EL (1), Beelen A (1), Bleijenberg G (2), de Visser M (1), Brehm MA (1), Nollet F (1)
Affiliation: (1) University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; (2) Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Journal: Neurorehabilitation & Neural Repair
Citation: Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2015 Aug 7. pii: 1545968315600271
Publication Year and Month: 2015 08

Abstract: BACKGROUND: People with postpolio syndrome (PPS) commonly experience severe fatigue that persists over time and negatively affects functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQoL).

OBJECTIVES: To study the efficacy of exercise therapy (ET) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on reducing fatigue and improving activities and HRQoL in patients with PPS.

METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Over 4 months, severely fatigued patients with PPS received ET, CBT, or usual care (UC). The primary end point (fatigue) was assessed using the subscale fatigue severity of the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS20-F). Secondary end points included activities and HRQoL, which were assessed with the Sickness Impact Profile and the 36-Item Short-Form, respectively. End points were measured at baseline and at 4, 7, and 10 months.

RESULTS: A total of 68 patients were randomized. No differences were observed between the intervention groups and UC group for fatigue (mean differences in CIS20-F score = 1.47, 95%CI = -2.84 to 5.79, for ET versus UC; and 1.87, 95%CI = -2.24 to 5.98, for CBT versus UC), activities, or HRQoL.

Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that neither ET nor CBT were superior to UC in reducing fatigue in severely fatigued PPS patients. Further research should investigate explanations for the lack of efficacy of these 2 currently advised approaches in clinical practice, which may provide clues to improving treatment aimed at reducing fatigue in PPS.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Nonparalytic polio and postpolio syndrome
Author: Halstead LS, Silver JK
Affiliation: National Rehabilitation Hospital, Washington, DC 20010, USA
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2000 Jan-Feb;79(1):13-8
Publication Year and Month: 2000 01

Abstract: We describe four cases of postpolio syndrome with typical histories, physical examination results, and electrodiagnostic evidence of extensive anterior horn cell disease, as well as the putative pathophysiology of postpolio syndrome in persons with histories of nonparalytic polio and the diagnostic implications for individuals older than 40 yr of age who are experiencing unexplained new weakness, fatigue, and muscle or joint pain. Although the diagnosis of postpolio syndrome traditionally has required a remote history of paralytic polio, many persons such as the ones described here with typical symptoms of postpolio syndrome have no clear history of paralytic disease and are being misdiagnosed. With this in mind, we believe that the diagnostic criteria for postpolio syndrome should be modified to include the following: a history of remote paralytic polio or findings on history, physical examination results, and laboratory studies compatible with poliovirus damage of the central nervous system earlier in life.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Immune Response

Title: Normal serum levels of immune complexes in postpolio patients
Author: Melin E (1), Sohrabian A (2), Rönnelid J (2), Borg K (1)
Affiliation: (1) Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; (2) Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
Journal: Results in Immunology
Citation: Results in Immunology. 2014; 4: 54–57. doi: 10.1016/j.rinim.2014.06.001
Publication Year and Month: 2014 06

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of the postpolio syndrome is not fully understood. Increased cytokine levels in cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood indicate a systemic inflammatory process. Decreased cytokine levels and the clinical effect of intravenous immunoglobulin treatment further indicate an inflammatory/immunological pathogenesis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether an autoimmune process follows the initial infection, by means of analyzing immune complexes.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Circulating immune complexes were analyzed from blood samples of 20 postpolio patients and 95 healthy controls. To compensate for differences in age between patients and controls, a sub-analysis was performed using only the 30 oldest controls. Tumor necrosis factor-inducing properties of polyethylene glycol-precipitated immune complexes were compared between the postpolio patients and 10 healthy controls.

RESULTS: When comparing levels in postpolio patients to the whole control group, including the 30 oldest investigated, there were no statistically significant differences. No difference was found in tumor necrosis factor levels induced by immune complexes when comparing patients and controls.

Conclusions: There was no increase in circulating immune complex or in tumor necrosis factor-inducing effects of circulating immune complex between postpolio patients and healthy controls, indicating that the postpolio syndrome is not due to an autoimmune reaction.

Outcome of Research: More research required.

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Category: Vocational Implications

Title: Occupations that people with late effects of polio perceive difficult to perform
Author: Appelin K, Lexell J, Månsson Lexell E
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Skåne University Hospital, Sweden
Journal: Occupational Therapy International
Citation: Occupational Therapy International - Occup Ther Int. 2014 Sep;21(3):98-107. doi: 10.1002/oti.1368
Publication Year and Month: 2014 09

Abstract: The aims of this study were to describe which occupations that people with late effects of polio perceive difficult to perform, which occupational area the occupations were related to and their level of complexity. The aims were also to describe their own perception of the importance, performance and satisfaction with these occupations. Sixty-two participants (mean age 61 years) were assessed with the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. A total of 431 occupations were reported (43% self-care, 32% productivity and 25% leisure). Two subcategories, household management (27 %) and functional mobility (23 %), represented half of all the reported occupations. Ratings for prioritized occupations (N = 300) were high for importance and generally low for performance and satisfaction. A wide variety of occupations were reported, related to both occupational areas and different levels of complexity within an occupational area. The results underscore the importance of using assessment tools that can capture both the variety and complexity of occupations. By obtaining more detailed information about occupations that people with late effects of polio perceive difficult to perform, this will enable occupational therapists to offer targeted interventions that can facilitate engagement in meaningful and purposeful occupations. A larger and more heterogeneous sample may enable the results to be generalized to more people with late effects of polio. Future studies should focus on methods that can facilitate engagement in meaningful and purposeful occupations for people with late effects of polio.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Osteoporosis in a postpolio clinic population
Author: Haziza M (1), Kremer R, Benedetti A, Trojan DA
Affiliation: (1) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007 Aug;88(8):1030-5
Publication Year and Month: 2007 08

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To determine (1) the frequency of osteoporosis at the hip and lumbar spine in a postpolio clinic population and (2) the association of lower-extremity muscle strength and other potential contributing factors to osteoporosis with bone density measured at the hip.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study involving a chart review.

SETTING: A university-affiliated hospital postpolio clinic.

PARTICIPANTS: Patient charts (N=379) were reviewed; 164 (26%) were included, and 215 (74%) were not included primarily (74%) because of the unavailability of bone density results.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Bone density (in g/cm(2)) and T score were assessed at the femoral neck and lumbar spine. Muscle strength was evaluated by manual muscle testing in 7 bilateral lower-extremity muscles.

RESULTS: The occurrence of osteoporosis at the hip and lumbar spine was 20 (32%) of 62 and 6 (10%) of 61 in men, 3 (9%) of 33 and 2 (6%) of 32 in premenopausal women, and 18 (27%) of 67 and 7 (11%) of 65 in postmenopausal women, respectively. In a logistic regression model, the presence of osteoporosis at the hip was significantly associated with strength sum score in the same extremity in which the bone density was performed after adjusting for other important risk factors (age, body mass index, time since polio).

Conclusions: Osteoporosis occurred commonly at the hip in a postpolio clinic population. Hip bone density was associated with muscle strength in the same lower extremity.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Speech Pathology

Title: Otolaryngology manifestation of postpolio syndrome
Author: Baugh RF
Affiliation: Not Stated
Journal: Journal of the National Medical Association
Citation: J Natl Med Assoc. 1993 Sep;85(9):689-91
Publication Year and Month: 1993 09

Abstract: Twenty-one patients with postpolio syndrome were surveyed to determine otolaryngologic symptoms. An alteration in voice, dysphagia, and fatigue were the most common symptoms reported. Prevailing etiologic theories are presented, and treatment recommendations are offered.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

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Category: Anaesthesia, Surgery

Title: Outcome of femoral fractures in poliomyelitis patients
Author: Yechiel N. Gellman, Amal Khoury, Meir Liebergall, Rami Mosheiff, Yoram A. Weil
Affiliation: Orthopedic Trauma ServiceHadassah Hebrew University HospitalJerusalemIsrael
Department of OrthopedicsHadassah Medical CenterJerusalemIsrael
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: International Orthopaedics (SICOT) (2019)
Publication Year and Month: 2019

Abstract: Background and purpose
As patients who were afflicted with poliomyelitis during the outbreaks in the past are aging, lower extremity osteoporotic fractures are becoming more frequent. Fixation in deformed, porotic bone, coupled with muscle weakness and imbalance creates a unique challenge when treating these fractures as does their reduced rehabilitation potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcome of femoral fractures in surviving poliomyelitis patients.

Patients and methods
Sixty-five patients with 74 femoral fractures were treated between 1990 and 2014. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Parkland and Palmer mobility score, and quality-of-life was assessed using the SF-12® score.

Results
Some 84% of the fractures were a result of low-energy mechanisms and occurred in the polio-affected limbs, but nonaffected limbs were also injured owing to low-energy mechanisms in all cases. Fifty-seven fractures were treated operatively. There were nine re-operations (16%), including implant removals, nonunion, peri-implant fractures, and malunion. Some 60% of the patients did not regain their previous ambulatory capacity. Post-operative weight-bearing status did not correlate with the final functional outcome.

Conclusions: Conclusions
Polio patients with femoral fractures have a guarded prognosis for regaining their pre-injury ambulatory capacity. A higher re-operation rate than that with “normal” osteoporotic fractures is expected.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Outcome of physiotherapy as part of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation in an unselected polio population with one-year follow-up: an uncontrolled study.
Author: Bertelsen M, Broberg S, Madsen E.
Affiliation: Rehabilitation Centre of the Danish Society of Polio and Accident Victims (PTU), Rødovre, Denmark. [email protected]
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: 2009 Jan;41(1):85-7.
Publication Year and Month: 2009 01

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of physiotherapy as part of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation.

DESIGN:
Prospective uncontrolled intervention study.

SUBJECTS:
Fifty patients with late effects of polio, first time referred to physiotherapy at the Danish Society of Polio and Accident Victims (PTU) Rehabilitation Centre.

METHODS:
The intervention was physiotherapy as an essential part of an individually planned multidisciplinary rehabilitation. The outcome measures Six-Minute Walk Test and Timed-Stands Test were used to assess the functional capacity. Quality of life was evaluated by Medical Outcome Survey Short Form (SF-36) and fatigue by Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20). Patients were tested at baseline; 3 months after the start of rehabilitation and at one-year follow-up.

RESULTS:
The patients showed significantly better functional capacity on all measurements 3 months after start of intervention and at one-year follow-up. The patients showed significant improvement in 3 of the SF-36 dimensions regarding quality of life, but only the improvement in "general health" remained after one year.

Conclusions: This study shows that patients with late effects of polio, who experience new problems related to polio, can benefit from an individually planned multidisciplinary intervention with emphasis on physiotherapy, and the improvement in physical capacity and general health can remain at one-year follow-up.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Surgery

Title: Outcome of total knee arthroplasty in patients with poliomyelitis
Author: Anoop Prasad, Richard Donovan, Manoj Ramachandran, Sebastian Dawson-Bowling, Steven Millington, Rej Bhumbra, Pramod Achan, Sammy A. Hanna
Affiliation:
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery, 6 Jun 2018
Publication Year and Month: 2018 06

Abstract: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients affected by poliomyelitis is technically challenging owing to abnormal anatomical features including articular and metaphyseal angular deformities, external rotation of the tibia, excessive valgus alignment, bone loss, narrowness of the femoral and tibial canals, impaired quadriceps strength, flexion contractures, genu recurvatum and ligamentous laxity. Little information is available regarding the results and complications of TKA in this challenging group of patients.

Conclusions: The findings of this review support the use of TKA to alleviate pain and functional limitation in poliomyelitis patients with knee arthropathy. Post-operative patient satisfaction and functional improvement is similar to other patients; however, the revision rate is higher. Quadriceps muscle power is an important prognostic factor for functional outcome and patients should be counselled about this pre-operatively. The use of constrained implant designs is recommended in the presence of less than antigravity quadriceps strength. Irrespective of the type of implant used, meticulous intra-operative balancing of soft tissues and restoration of alignment are crucial factors for achieving a good outcome.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Vocational Implications

Title: Overcoming barriers to work participation for patients with postpoliomyelitis syndrome
Author: Ten Katen K, Beelen A, Nollet F, Frings-Dresen MH, Sluiter JK
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Journal: Disability and Rehabilitation
Citation: Disabil Rehabil. 2011;33(6):522-9. doi: 10.3109/09638288.2010.503257. Epub 2010 Jul 12
Publication Year and Month: 2010 07

Abstract: PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the perceived work ability of patients with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS), to identify barriers and factors that are impeding or conducive, respectively, to work participation, and to identify possible interventions.

METHODS: Qualitative cross-sectional interview study with 17 subjects with PPS, 12 women and 5 men, mean age 49 years (SD: 11). Semi-structured interviews were held with the subjects in their homes, with the aid of a topic list. The COREQ criteria list for qualitative research was used as guideline in design and analysis.

RESULTS: Thirteen out of 17 subjects rated their work ability six or higher on a scale from 0 to 10. Most subjects worked in an administrative, educational or managerial function. Five subjects stopped working, four worked between 0 and 20 h/week and eight worked between 20 and 40 h/week. Factors conducive to working were physical adaptations in the workplace, accessibility of the workplace and high decision latitude. Barriers to full work ability in PPS patients were high physical job demands, low social support and the symptoms of PPS, especially fatigue and pain.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that work-oriented interventions aimed at preventing PPS patients from dropping out of the workforce should primarily focus on reducing physical job demands, arranging adaptations in the workplace and increasing job control.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: P63-S Insidious neuromuscular deterioration in polio survivors demonstrated by CMAP scan analysis.
Author: Sirin NG, Erbas B, Akasu EO, et al.
Affiliation: Istanbul University Istanbul Medical Faculty, Neurology Department, Istanbul, Turkey

Istanbul University Istanbul Medical Faculty, Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Department, Istanbul, Turkey
Journal: Clinical Neurophysiology
Citation: Volume 130, Issue 7, July 2019, Pages e110-e111

Publication Year and Month: 2019 07

Abstract: This study aimed to explore the subtle motor unit(MU) changes in asymptomatic muscles of poliomyelitis survivors (PS) using CMAP Scan analysis.

Material and method
Nineteen PS cases and 21 controls were recruited. CMAP Scan recordings were obtained from asymptomatic thenar and hypothenar muscles. CMAP Scan parameters indicating nerve excitability [stimulus intensities producing 50%, 95% and 5% of the CMAP amplitude (SI%5, SI%50, SI%95), absolute range width (ARW) (SI%95-SI%5), relative width (RW) (SI95 − SI5)/SI5], all step parameters and D50 which reflect the MU motor unit loss and reinnervation were analyzed. The new motor unit number estimation (MUNE) method, MscanFit was also calculated.

Results
There were no significant differences in ages, maximum CMAP amplitudes and MScanFit MUNE between the groups. PS group median and ulnar D50 values (46.76 ± 10.98, 46.19 ± 12.42 respectively) were lower than control group (37.21 ± 17.37, 36.44 ± 11.99) (p < 0.05). Median nerve,excitability parameters of patients (SI 5%; 14.81 ± 6.97, SI 50%; 19.07 ± 9.2, SI 95%; 24.06 ± 11.52), ARW (9.26 ± 5.79), RW (0.65 ± 0.31) were higher than those of the controls (SI 5%; 9.64 ± 2.57, SI 50%; 11.64 ± 3.27, SI 95%; 13.64 ± 3.66, ARW; 4.00 ± 1.56, RW; 0.42 ± 0.13) (p < 0.05). Median and ulnar nerve step size parameters, step number and step% in the patients were also significantly higher (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: CMAP Scan can show reduced axonal excitability and reveal insidious MU loss and reinnervation in presumably unaffected muscles of PS, regardless of the decrease in CMAP amplitudes or a significant reduction in MUNE values.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: P66-S Corticospinal function in poliomyelitis survivors
Author: Nermin Gorkem Sirin, Bahar Erbas, Gulsah Gula, Emel Oguz-Akarsu, Hava Ozlem Dede, Elif Kocasoy-Orhan, Mehmet Baris Baslo, Aysegul Ketenci, Halil Atilla Idrisoglu, Ali Emre Oge
Affiliation: Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Istanbul, Turkey

Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Istanbul, Turkey
Journal: Clinical Neurophysiology
Citation: Volume 130, Issue 7, July 2019, Pages e111-e112

Publication Year and Month: 2019 07

Abstract: Poliomyelitis survivors (PS) become candidates to post-polio syndrome (PPS) in their later lives. The mechanism of PPS has been suggested to be multifactorial involving cortical, spinal and peripheral mechanisThe aim of this study was to evaluate TMS parameters in PS and to compare them with those of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and controls.

Material and methods
Single and paired TMS, contralateral and ipsilateral silent period (SP) and triple stimulation technique (TST) were performed by recording from abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscles of 18 PS, 31 ALS patients and 21 controls. The results were compared with mixed ANOVA and nonparametric independent tests.

Results
No significant difference was present for within and between subject factors except those for the different interstimuli intervals. Resting motor threshold and MEP/M% in ADM, MEP amplitudes and latencies and TST% in both ADM and APB were significantly different. In posthoc analyses, MEP latencies were higher and TST% were lower in both ADM and APB in ALS group (20.7 ± 4.2 ms, 22.4 ± 5.0 ms, 83.1 ± 42.2, 72.3 ± 29.9) as compared to PS (18.3 ± 1.0 ms, 19.2 ± 2.0 ms, 101.6 ± 15.9, 98.1 ± 14.9), MEP/M% in ADM were lower in PS group (56.0 ± 13.4) as compared to controls (85.2 ± 23.9). SPs, TST, MEP amplitudes and latencies and MEP/M amplitudes did not show any significant difference between ADM and APB in both patient groups.

Conclusions: Our results revealed upper motor neuron dysfunction in ALS compared to PS and may provide limited evidence about presence of an abnormal cortical drive to mostly uninvolved upper extremity muscles in PS.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Pain

Title: Pain in persons with post-polio syndrome: frequency, intensity, and impact
Author: Stoelb BL, Carter GT, Abresch RT, Purekal S, McDonald CM, Jensen MP
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (Stoelb, Carter, Purekal, Jensen); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of California/Davis, Sacramento, CA
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008 Oct; 89(10): 1933–1940. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2008.03.018
Publication Year and Month: 2008 10

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency, intensity, and impact of pain in persons with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS).

DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional survey.

SETTING: Community-based survey.

PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of people with PPS.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall intensity and duration of pain, pain sites, pain interference, pain treatments, and relief provided by pain treatments.

RESULTS: A total of 91% (n=57) of the study participants (N=63) reported pain. The most frequently reported pain sites were the shoulders, lower back, legs, and hips. Participants reported pain intensity to be the greatest in the knees, legs, wrists, lower back, and head. Pain interfered most with sleep and with activities requiring a high level of musculoskeletal involvement. Respondents also reported pain problems that were more severe than those of the general population and than those of a sample of people with multiple sclerosis. Many treatments had been tried previously for pain, but continued use of treatments was reported by relatively few participants at the time of the survey.

Conclusions: The findings indicate that pain is a persistent and common problem in persons with PPS, highlighting the need for effective and accessible pain treatments for this population.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

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Category: Brain

Title: Parallels between Post Polio fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome: a common pathophysiology?
Author: Bruno, R.L., Creange, S.J., and Frick, N.M
Affiliation: Kids' Fatigue Management Program and The Post-Polio Institute, Englewood Hospital and Medical Center, New Jersey
Journal:
Citation: Am J Med.

Publication Year and Month: 1998 09

Abstract: Fatigue is the most commonly reported and most debilitating of post-polio sequelae affecting the >1.8 million North American polio survivors. Post-polio fatigue is characterized by subjective reports of difficulty with attention, cognition, and maintaining wakefulness. These symptoms resemble those reported in nearly 2 dozen outbreaks of post-viral fatigue syndromes (PVFS) that have recurred during this century and that are related clinically, historically, anatomically, or physiologically to poliovirus infections. This article reviews recent studies that relate the symptoms of post-polio fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) to clinically significant deficits on neuropsychologic tests of attention, histopathologic and neuroradiologic evidence of brain lesions, impaired activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, increased prolactin secretion, and electroencephalogram (EEG) slow-wave activity. A possible common pathophysiology for post-polio fatigue and CFS, based on the Brain Fatigue Generator Model of PVFS, and a possible pharmacotherapy for PVFS based on replacement of depleted brain dopamine, will be described

Conclusions: There is evidence of severe brain lesions at the brain stem and less severe lesions in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex which could play a role in general and cognitive fatigue.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Paralytic vs "nonparalytic" polio: distinction without a difference?
Author: Bruno RL
Affiliation: The Post-Polio Institute, Englewood Hospital and Medical Center, New Jersey, USA
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2000 Jan-Feb;79(1):4-12
Publication Year and Month: 2000 01

Abstract: Nonparalytic polio (NPP) is commonly thought to be synonymous with "abortive polio," in which the poliovirus neither entered the central nervous system nor damaged neurons. Described are two epidemic illness-"The Summer Grippe" and Iceland disease-apparently caused by a low virulence but neuropathic type 2 poliovirus. Studies show that neuronal lesions in the brain and spinal cord and muscle weakness were common in NPP, and epidemiologic studies document late-onset weakness and fatigue in 14% to 42% of NPP survivors. These findings indicate that clinicians should not require a history of paralytic polio, electromyographic evidence of denervation, and new muscle weakness for the diagnosis of "Postpolio Syndrome" but should be aware that NPP, and possibly even poliovirus-induced "minor illnesses," can be associated with acute central nervous system damage and late-onset muscle weakness and fatigue.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Participation in Two Evidence-Based Falls Prevention Programs by Adults Aging With a Long-Term Disability: Case-Control Study of Reach and Effectiveness
Author: Thomas John Eagen, S. M. Teshale, A. P. Herrera-Venson, A. Ordway, J. Caldwell
Affiliation: University of Washington Seattle
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Journal of Aging and Health · November 2018
Publication Year and Month: 2018 11

Abstract: Objective: Adults aging with a long-term disability (LTD) are at an increased risk for falls. The Older Americans Act Title III-D and Prevention and Public Health Fund (PPHF) support several organizations to deliver falls prevention evidence-based programs designed to reduce risk factors; however, little is understood about the reach and effectiveness of these fall prevention programs for those with LTD compared to those without LTD. This study compared the reach and effectiveness of two evidence-based falls prevention programs between older adults with and without LTD. Method: Using a matched case-control design, 105 LTD older adults enrolled in A Matter of Balance (AMOB) or Stepping On were matched to 315 non-LTD older adults on age, sex, race, and education. Results: On average, LTD older adults attended a higher number of class sessions and were significantly more likely to complete the program compared with the matched-sample of non-LTD older adults. LTD older adults were equally likely as non-LTD older adults to report significant reductions in self-reported fear of falling, falls-related activity restriction, and improvement in falls self-efficacy following completion of the programs.

Conclusions: Discussion: These findings provide preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of these evidence-based falls prevention programs for LTD older adults; however, more research is needed to extend these findings.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Pathogenetic mechanisms of post-polio syndrome: morphological, electrophysiological, virological, and immunological correlations.
Author: Dalakas MC
Affiliation: Medical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1382, USA.
Journal: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Citation: 1995 May 25;753:167-85.
Publication Year and Month: 1995 05

Abstract: To understand the mechanism of post-poliomyelitis muscular atrophy (PPMA) and the post-polio syndrome (PPS) in general, we performed the following studies: (1) histopathology in spinal cord sections from patients who died 9 days to 44 years after acute paralytic poliomyelitis; (2) enzyme histochemistry, immunocytochemistry (for lymphocyte subsets, MHC antigens and N-CAM) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for poliovirus RNA in the muscle biopsies from symptomatic or asymptomatic muscles of post-polio patients; (3) determination of lymphocyte subsets and circulating IgG or IgM antibodies against GM1 and poliovirus; (4) virological studies in the spinal fluid for oligoclonal bands and search for poliovirus genome with PCR; (5) electrophysiological studies including single fiber EMG, fiber density and macro-EMG; and (6) [31P] exercise MRS spectroscopy on previously affected muscles to search for a metabolic correlate of fatigue. These studies concluded that in PPS a continuing dysfunction is present in the spinal cord motor neurons, resulting in ongoing muscle denervation and reinnervation first evident at the axonal branch points. Symptoms are related to attrition of the oversprouting motor neurons which after a period of time cannot support all their axonal sprouts, resulting in failure of re-reinnervation. In some patients with PPS there is also an ongoing immune activation and presence of defective viral particles in the spinal fluid. However, their role in the pathogenesis of PPS is presently unknown.

Conclusions: These studies concluded that in PPS a continuing dysfunction is present in the spinal cord motor neurons, resulting in ongoing muscle denervation and reinnervation first evident at the axonal branch points.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Muscle Strength

Title: Patient-report as an option for describing muscle weakness: An integrative review
Author: Bohannon, Richard W.
Affiliation: Department of Physical Therapy, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Buies Creek, NC 27506, USA | Tel.: +1 910 814 4096; E-mail: [email protected]
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Isokinetics and Exercise Science, vol. Pre-press, no. Pre-press, pp. 1-4, 2019
Publication Year and Month: 2019

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Muscle strength, although usually measured by performance, can be measured by patient-report. OBJECTIVE: Review the utility and clinimetric properties of muscle strength assessed by patient-report. METHODS: PubMed and hand searches were used to identify relevant literature. Findings were systematically summarized. RESULTS: Most patient-report measures identified individuals with muscle weakness, however, the clinimetric properties of measures were highly limited. Particularly missing was information on reliability and responsiveness. CONCLUSIONS: There is a place for the inclusion of patient-reported muscle strength, but clinimetric support for its use is still limited.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Polio Immunisation

Title: Patients with Primary Immunodeficiencies Are a Reservoir of Poliovirus and a Risk to Polio Eradication
Author: Aghamohammadi A (1), Abolhassani H (1), Kutukculer N (2), Wassilak SG (3), Pallansch MA (4), Kluglein S (5), Quinn J (6), Sutter RW (7), Wang X (8), Sanal O (9), Latysheva T (10), Ikinciogullari A (11), Bernatowska E (12), Tuzankina IA (13), Costa-Carvalho BT (14), Franco JL (15), Somech R (16), Karakoc-Aydiner E (17), Singh S (18), Bezrodnik L (19), Espinosa-Rosales FJ (20), Shcherbina A (21), Lau Y (22,23), Nonoyama S (24), Modell F (6), Modell V (6), The JMF Centers Network Investigators and Study Collaborators, Barbouche M (25), and McKinlay MA (5)
Affiliation: (1) Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Children’s Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran; (2) Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Immunology, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey; (3) Global Immunization Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States; (4) Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States; (5) Center for Vaccine Equity, Task Force for Global Health, Atlanta, GA, United States; (6) Jeffrey Modell Foundation, New York, NY, United States; (7) Research and Product Development, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland' (8) Department of Clinical Immunology, Children’s Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China; (9) Division of Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey; (10) Department of Allergology and Immunotherapy, Institute of Immunology, Moscow, Russia; (11) Department of Pediatric Immunology and Allergy, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey; (12) Department of Clinical Immunology, The Children’s Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw, Poland; (13) Institute of Immunology and Physiology, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg, Russia; (14) Department of Pediatrics, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; (15) Grupo de Inmunodeficiencias Primarias, Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia; (16) Pediatric Department A and the Immunology Service, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Jeffrey Modell Foundation Center, Affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; (17) Division of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Marmara Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey; (18) Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Unit, Advanced Pediatrics Centre, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India; (19) Dr. Ricardo Gutierrez Hospital de Niños, Buenos Aires, Argentina; (20) Clinical Immunology and Allergy Unit, Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Ciudad de México, Mexico; (21) Department of Clinical Immunology, Dmitry Rogachev Federal Research and Clinical Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russia; (22) Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, Hong Kong; (23) Shenzhen Primary Immunodeficiency Diagnostic and Therapeutic Laboratory, Hong Kong University-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China; (24) Department of Pediatrics, National Defense Medical College, Saitama, Japan; (25) Department of Immunology, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, University Tunis El-Manar, Tunis, Tunisia.
Journal: Frontiers in Immunology
Citation: Front. Immunol. 8:685. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00685
Publication Year and Month: 2017 06

Abstract: Immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived polioviruses (iVDPVs) have been isolated from primary immunodeficiency (PID) patients exposed to oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Patients may excrete poliovirus strains for months or years; the excreted viruses are frequently highly divergent from the parental OPV and have been shown to be as neurovirulent as wild virus. Thus, these patients represent a potential reservoir for transmission of neurovirulent polioviruses in the post-eradication era. In support of WHO recommendations to better estimate the prevalence of poliovirus excreters among PIDs and characterize genetic evolution of these strains, 635 patients including 570 with primary antibody deficiencies and 65 combined immunodeficiencies were studied from 13 OPV-using countries. Two stool samples were collected over 4 days, tested for enterovirus, and the poliovirus positive samples were sequenced. Thirteen patients (2%) excreted polioviruses, most for less than 2 months following identification of infection. Five (0.8%) were classified as iVDPVs (only in combined immunodeficiencies and mostly poliovirus serotype 2). Non-polio enteroviruses were detected in 30 patients (4.7%). Patients with combined immunodeficiencies had increased risk of delayed poliovirus clearance compared to primary antibody deficiencies. Usually, iVDPV was detected in subjects with combined immunodeficiencies in a short period of time after OPV exposure, most for less than 6 months. Surveillance for poliovirus excretion among PID patients should be reinforced until polio eradication is certified and the use of OPV is stopped. Survival rates among PID patients are improving in lower and middle income countries, and iVDPV excreters are identified more frequently. Antivirals or enhanced immunotherapies presently in development represent the only potential means to manage the treatment of prolonged excreters and the risk they present to the polio endgame.

Conclusions: This study provides an estimate of the global iVDPV prevalence among PID patients without paralytic disease and supports expanded screening for iVDPV excretion in these patients. Although most previous studies focused on the risk of long-term iVDPV infection in antibody deficient patients, the predominance of risk in patients with combined immunodeficiencies included in the current study highlights the importance of considering this group of PID patients in any surveillance program. Reinfection with poliovirus and NPEV excretion in PID patients described elsewhere demonstrates the need for prolonged follow-up (17).

The Global Polio Eradication Initiative plans to cease use of OPV worldwide once WPV has been certified as eradicated, which will end the generation of new iVDPVs. However, there is currently no means for addressing the threat posed by existing immunodeficient persons infected with iVDPVs, either to the infected individual’s risk of paralytic disease, or to the community of a continuing source of poliovirus transmission. Antivirals represent a potential means to manage the treatment of iVDPV excreters and the risk they present to the eradication effort (32, 34). Two safe virus-specific antivirals acting by differing mechanisms are now being developed and may be used as a combination (e.g., pocapavir and V-7404). This strategy may resolve the individual’s infection, stop iVDPV excretion, and serve to eliminate the risk of poliovirus transmission in the community. Currently, pocapavir is being considered for use in poliovirus excreting PID patients on a compassionate use basis.

The potential risk posed by iVDPV excreters to the polio eradication effort indicates the immediate need to develop and implement a global iVDPV surveillance strategy. Utilizing this approach, individuals at risk of prolonged poliovirus excretion can be identified and antiviral treatment can be initiated.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Continence

Title: Pelvic floor and poliomyelitis. Case report
Author: Gabriella Fizzotti, Michelangelo Buonocore, Eliana Giambelluca, Antonio Nardone
Affiliation: Spinal Unit, ICS Maugeri, Pavia, Italy
Unit of Clinical Neurophysiology and Neurodiagnostic Skin Biopsy, ICS Maugeri, Pavia, Italy,
School of Specialization in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy;
Department of Clinical-Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences University of Pavia, Pavia
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Open Access 2:1-3 (2018)
Publication Year and Month: 2018

Abstract: Introduction: Living with polio increases the risk of having bladder dysfunction. Normal pelvic visceral function depends on the complex interactions
of intact somatic and autonomic nervous systems. Tests that are used to investigate the integrity of the somatic innervation of the pelvic floor muscles and urinary and anal sphincters include electromyography (EMG), nerve conduction studies and the evaluation of the sacral reflexes.
Clinical Picture and Investigation: A 53-year-old South-American man who had a history of poliomyelitis which affected his lower right limb
when he was 2 years old. Patient was unable to empty his bladder completely. The aim of this paper is to describe the correlation between pelvic
floor dysfunction, bladder symptoms and neurophysiological tests in poliomyelitis.

Conclusions: Conclusion: Neurophysiological diagnostic procedures adopted in our study can discern the degree of central and peripheral nervous system damage and confirmed that pelvic floor and detrusor muscles have been paralyzed by the poliovirus.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Late Effects of Polio

Title: People living with post-polio syndrome must not be forgotten
Author: Hill T
Affiliation: British Polio Fellowship
Journal: Nursing Standard
Citation: Nurs Stand. 2015 Nov 4;30(10):30-1. doi: 10.7748/ns.30.10.30.s38
Publication Year and Month: 2015 11

Abstract: As research conducted by YouGov reveals, only 7% of people in Britain are aware of the neurological condition post-polio syndrome (PPS). The British Polio Fellowship is keen to highlight what is now an urgent need for more support for those living with PPS, from both the public and the nursing and medical community.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Quality of Life

Title: Perceived consequences of ageing with late effects of polio and strategies for managing daily life: a qualitative study
Author: Catharina Sjödahl Hammarlund, Jan Lexell and Christina Brogårdh
Affiliation: 1Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Box 157, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden
2The PRO-CARE Group, School of Health and Society, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden
3Department of Neurology and Rehabilitation Medicine, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden
4Department of Health Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden
Catharina Sjödahl Hammarlund, Phone: +46462228961,
Email: [email protected]_lhadojS.anirahtaC.
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Biomed Central Geriatrics 2017; 17: 179.
Publication Year and Month: 2017

Abstract: Background
New or increased impairments may develop several decades after an acute poliomyelitis infection. These new symptoms, commonly referred to as late effects of polio (LEoP), are characterised by muscular weakness and fatigue, generalised fatigue, pain at rest or during activities and cold intolerance. Growing older with LEoP may lead to increased activity limitations and participation restrictions, but there is limited knowledge of how these persons perceive the practical and psychological consequences of ageing with LEoP and what strategies they use in daily life. The aim of this qualitative study was therefore to explore how ageing people with LEoP perceive the their situation and what strategies they use for managing daily life.

Methods
Seven women and seven men (mean age 70 years) were interviewed. They all had a confirmed history of acute poliomyelitis and new impairments after a stable period of at least 15 years. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using systematic text condensation.

Results
The latent analysis resulted in three categories ‘Various consequences of ageing with LEoP’, ‘Limitations in everyday activities and participation restrictions’, and ‘Strategies for managing daily life when ageing with LEoP’ and 12 subcategories. The new impairments led to decreased physical and mental health. The participants perceived difficulties in performing everyday activities such as managing work, doing chores, partaking in recreational activities and participating in social events, thereby experiencing emotional and psychological distress. They managed to find strategies that mitigated their worries and upheld their self-confidence, for example finding practical solutions, making social comparisons, minimising, and avoidance.

Conclusions: Ageing with LEoP affected daily life to a great extent. The participants experienced considerable impact of the new and increased impairments on their life situation. Consequently, their ability to participate in various social activities also became restricted. Social comparisons and practical solutions are strategies that facilitate adaptation and acceptance of the new situation due to LEoP. This emphasises the need to design rehabilitation interventions that focus on coping, empowerment and self-management for people ageing with LEoP.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Muscle Strength

Title: Perceived disability, fatigue, pain and measured isometric muscle strength in patients with post-polio symptoms
Author: Hildegunn L, Jones K, Grenstad T, Dreyer V, Farbu E, Rekand T
Affiliation: Department of Physical Therapy, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway
Journal: Physiotherapy Research International
Citation: Physiother Res Int. 2007 Mar;12(1):39-49
Publication Year and Month: 2007 07

Abstract: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several years after the acute polio illness, patients may develop new post-polio symptoms. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate patients with post-polio symptoms with regard to perceived fatigue, functional ability, muscle strength, pain and with regard to measured physical fitness and isometric muscle strength. In addition, the relationship between the results of these subjective and objective measurements was investigated.

METHOD: This was a prospective cross-sectional study in which 32 patients with post-polio symptoms were included. Main outcome measures were the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), the Disability Rating Index (DRI), pain intensity, pain distribution, self-reported and measured muscle strength and oxygen uptake.

RESULTS: A marked reduction in isometric muscle strength compared to normal data, high scores in fatigue, widespread pain, low oxygen uptake and difficulties in performing some daily activities were found. Self-reported general muscle strength, pain intensity and pain distribution correlated significantly with patients' perceived fatigue and function at the activity level. There was no significant correlation between self-reported and measured results except for that found between isometric muscle strength in the legs and patients' perceived general muscle strength and oxygen uptake.

Conclusions: Evaluation of pain intensity, pain distribution, perceived muscle strength, fatigue and ability to perform daily tasks reveals important aspects of health status in patients with post-polio symptoms. Reduction in isometric muscle strength was not reflected in those tests or in reported symptoms, and should be monitored independently using a sensitive assessment tool. Accurate screening of isometric muscle strength in isolated muscle groups contributes to therapeutic management in making a functional diagnosis at the level of body function and structure when designing specific training programmes and in motivating patients. An evaluation combining self-reports with sensitive muscle strength measures provide supplementary information and is appropriate for evaluating these patients in physiotherapy practice.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Anaesthesia, Surgery

Title: Percutaneous Tracheostomy
Author: Al-Shathri Z, Susanto I
Affiliation: Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care Medicine, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California.
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2018 Dec;39(6):720-730
Publication Year and Month: 2018

Abstract: Tracheostomy is a commonly performed surgical procedure in intensive care units (ICUs). Over the past three decades, there has been a substantial body of evidence to suggest percutaneous tracheostomy (PT) is at least as safe as surgical tracheostomy (ST) in the hands of trained clinicians. In most institutions, PT is more readily performed at bedside than ST in the ICU; hence, PT is an attractive alternative to ST in the ICU. Bedside PT generates significant cost savings by eliminating operating room and anesthesia charges. Bronchoscopy is commonly used as a visual aid during PT. Ultrasound (US)-guided PT is gaining popularity. It can be used as an adjunct or alternative to bronchoscopic-guided PT, especially in hospitals where access to bronchoscopy remains fairly limited and US is more widely available. There are many benefits in converting translaryngeal intubation to tracheostomy. It is widely accepted that tracheostomy is preferred if there is an anticipation of prolonged need for an artificial airway. The timing of this conversion from translaryngeal intubation to tracheostomy remains a subject of controversy. Limited data are available regarding the safety of PT on patients who are on dual antiplatelet therapy or active anticoagulation. Given the heterogeneity of PT techniques, adequate training and experience with the technique, coupled with careful planning are essential in minimizing any potential complication.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Activity Levels

Title: Physical activity in persons with late effects of polio: a descriptive study.
Author: Winberg C, Flansbjer UB, Carlsson G, Rimmer J, Lexell J.
Affiliation: 1 Department of Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine Research Group, Lund University, Box 157, SE221 00 Lund, Sweden. Electronic address: [email protected]
2 Department of Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine Research Group, Lund University, Box 157, SE221 00 Lund, Sweden; Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
3 Department of Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine Research Group, Lund University, Box 157, SE221 00 Lund, Sweden.
4 University of Alabama, Birmingham, USA.
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Disability and Health Journal. 2014 Jul;7(3):302-8. doi: 10.
Publication Year and Month: 2014 07

Abstract: BACKGROUND:
To promote a healthy and active lifestyle there is a need to increase our knowledge of the level of physical activity (PA) among people with late effects of polio.

OBJECTIVES:
To examine PA in people with late effects of polio and to assess the relationship between PA, life satisfaction and various sociodemographic factors.

METHODS:
PA was assessed in 81 persons with late effects of polio using the Physical Activity and Disability Survey (PADS) and by a pedometer. Life satisfaction was assessed with the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LiSat-11).

RESULTS:
The amount of PA varied considerably but on average the participants were physically active almost 3 h per day, mostly in household activities. The mean value of the pedometer counts was 6212 steps per day (SD = 3208). Sixty-nine percent of the participants rated themselves as satisfied with life as a whole. The sum of PADS was positively and significantly related to the number of steps (r = 0.39, p < 0.001), increasing age (r = 0.26, p < 0.05) and to the level of global satisfaction with life (rho = 0.23, p < 0.05). The number of steps was also positively and significantly associated with level of global satisfaction with life (rho = 0.37, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Despite a progressive physical disability, people with late effects of polio are physically active, but much of the activities are performed as part of their household activities and not as traditional exercise. The relationship between PA, life satisfaction and age further supports the general contention that an active lifestyle is an important factor for perceived well-being among older people.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Physical therapy management of the patient with post-polio syndrome. A case report.
Author: Donna J. Twist, Dong M. Ma
Affiliation:
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Physical Therapy, Volume 66, Issue 9, 1 September 1986, Pages 1403–1406
Publication Year and Month: 1986 09

Abstract: This case report documents the treatment of a patient who experienced progressive muscle weakness and a decrease in function over time that did not appear to be related to any secondary neuromuscular disease. We discuss the relationship between age and maximal muscle function in addition to some general guidelines for rehabilitation. This type of patient can represent a challenge for the physical therapist. This case report, however, illustrates the degree of muscular and functional recovery that can result with a physical therapy program aimed at reducing levels and intensity of exercise, daily activity, and stress.

Conclusions: A combination of short-term goals appears to be essential to the successful management of a patient with post-polio syndrome.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Respiratory Complications and Management

Title: Physiologic events initiating REM sleep in patients with the postpolio syndrome
Author: H. Siegel, C. McCutchen, M.C. Dalakas, A. Freeman, B. Graham, D. Alling, S. Sato
Affiliation:
Journal: Neurology
Citation: February 1, 1999, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.52.3.516
Publication Year and Month: 1999 02

Abstract: Background: We previously studied the occurrence of muscle tone reduction (MTR), sawtooth waves (STW), and REM in sleep, and found a stereotypical sequence of these events in normal subjects. Patients with the postpolio syndrome may have involvement of the reticular formation in the brainstem, an area known to mediate initiation of REM sleep. We hypothesized that such brainstem pathology might affect the stereotyped sequence of events initiating REM sleep.

Methods: We measured the latencies to the onsets of the first MTR, the first STW, and the first REM in 13 patients with postpolio syndrome, 7 of whom had bulbar involvement. All latencies were calculated from the last body movement before the onset of REM sleep.

Results: Using analysis of variance, we found highly significant differences among the overall mean latencies of the three types of onset (MTR, STW, REM) and also between the mean latencies of the two subgroups of patients (bulbar, nonbulbar). Although the latencies for the entire group were longer than those of the normal volunteers, the differences were not significant. However, when the bulbar and nonbulbar groups were compared, analysis of variance showed significantly longer latencies for the bulbar group than for the nonbulbar group (p < 0.0001). The values for the nonbulbar patients closely resembled those for the normal controls. Although the latencies differed, the slopes of the regressions of REM on STW, STW on MTR, and REM on MTR resembled each other closely (p = 0.924).

Conclusions: Conclusion: Prolongation of these latencies may be due to prolonged recruitment time for neurons in the pontine tegmentum, following damage from polio. This may be a sensitive marker of a brainstem lesion, and may also represent a type of sleep pathology not previously explored.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Brain

Title: Physiology of the motor cortex in polio survivors.
Author: Lupu, V.D. et al.
Affiliation: EMG Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, CRC, 7-5680, 10 Center Drive, MSC-1404 Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

Journal: Muscle & Nerve
Citation: Muscle Nerve. 2008;37(2):177-82.
DOI: 10.1002/mus.20913

Publication Year and Month: 2008 02

Abstract: We hypothesized that the corticospinal system undergoes functional changes in long-term polio survivors. Central motor conduction times (CMCTs) to the four limbs were measured in 24 polio survivors using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Resting motor thresholds and CMCTs were normal. In 17 subjects whose legs were affected by polio and 13 healthy controls, single- and paired-pulse TMS was used to assess motor cortex excitability while recording from tibialis anterior (TA) muscles at rest and following maximal contraction until fatigue. In polio survivors the slope of the recruitment curve was normal, but maximal motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were larger than in controls. MEPs were depressed after fatiguing exercise. Three patients with central fatigue by twitch interpolation had a trend toward slower recovery. There was no association with symptoms of post-polio syndrome. These changes occurring after polio may allow the motor cortex to activate a greater proportion of the motor neurons innervating affected muscles.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Physiotherapy for poliomyelitis: a descriptive study in the Republic of Congo
Author: Mancini S, Coldiron ME, Nicholas S, Llosa AE, Mouniaman-Nara I, Ngala J, Grais RF, Porten K
Affiliation: Epicentre, Paris, France - [email protected]
Journal: BioMedCentral Research Notes
Citation: BMC Res Notes. 2014 Oct 23;7:755. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-7-755
Publication Year and Month: 2014 10

Abstract: BACKGROUND: A large poliomyelitis outbreak occurred in 2010 in the Republic of Congo. This paper describes the demographic and clinical characteristics of poliomyelitis cases and their outcomes following physiotherapy.

FINDINGS: Demographic and clinical data were collected on 126 individuals between November 23, 2010 and March 23, 2011. The male/female ratio was 2.5 and the median age was 19 years (IQR: 13.5-23). The most severe forms of the disease were more common in older patients, 81 of the 126 patients (64.3%) had multiple evaluations of muscle strength. Among patients with multiple evaluations, 38.1% had improved strength at final evaluation, 48.3% were stable and 13.6% had decreased strength.

Conclusions: Most acute poliomyelitis patients receiving physiotherapy had improved or stable muscle strength at their final evaluation. These descriptive results highlight the need for further research into the potential benefits of physiotherapy in polio affected patients.

Outcome of Research: More research required.

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Category: Complementary Therapies

Title: Pitting oedema in a polio survivor with lumbar radiculopathy complicated disc herniation
Author: Eric Chun Pu Chu, Aaron Ka Chun Chan, Andy Fu Chieh Lin
Affiliation: New York Chiropractic and Physiotherapy Center, New York Medical Group, Hong Kong, China
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. Volume : 8 | Issue : 5 | Page : 1765-1768
Publication Year and Month: 2019 05

Abstract: We report a 58-year-old male with sequelae of polio who presented with low back and left buttock pain, and pitting oedema of both legs for four months. The patient had a history of poliomyelitis at the age of 1 year which resulted in bilateral lower leg weakness, particularly on the left side. Magnetic resonance imaging showed cervical spinal stenosis secondary to posterior osteophyte formation, left paracentral disc extrusion at L2/L3 and L3/L4 levels with compression of the traversing L4 nerve root. The findings confirmed a diagnosis of lumbar radiculopathy caused by a herniated disc. The patient subsequently underwent a chiropractic treatment. The painful symptoms and pitting oedema in this case resolved with spinal adjustment in addition to scraping therapy to strengthen bilateral low back and the gluteal muscles. This case provides circumstantial evidence of a scarcely mentioned association between pitting oedema and lumbar radiculopathy caused by disc herniation. The pathophysiological mechanism is elusive, but might involve a complexity of cytokine-mediated inflammation and interconnection between somatic and autonomic nervous systems.

Conclusions: This case provides circumstantial evidence of a scarcely mentioned association between pitting oedema and lumbar radiculopathy caused by disc herniation.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Exercise

Title: Polio residuals clinic: conditioning exercise program
Author: Owen RR, Jones D
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1985 Jul; 8(7):882-3
Publication Year and Month: 1985 07

Abstract: The additional disability experienced by individuals who had poliomyelitis many years earlier has a variety of expressions and a variety of interacting origins. Undertraining and deconditioning are addressed in this article. Weakened musculature often fatigues before a conditioning level of activity is reached. An adapted exercise program for cardiac endurance will reduce symptoms of fatigue and pain. An intentional training program for muscles weakened further by disuse or underutilization will supplement the conditioning program. The clinical assessment and exercise prescription is described.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Polio survivors perceptions of a multi-disciplinary rehabilitation programme
Author: Atwal, A., Duncan, H., Queally, C., Cedar, S.H.
Affiliation: Nil
Journal: Disability and Rehabilitation
Citation: Atwal, A., Duncan, H., Queally, C., Cedar, S.H. (2017) Polio survivors perceptions of a multi-disciplinary rehabilitation programme. Disability and Rehabilitation. DOI: 10.1080/09638288.2017.1381184
Publication Year and Month: 2017 10

Abstract: Purpose: Post-polio syndrome refers to a late complication of the poliovirus infection. Management of post-polio syndrome is complex due to the extensive symptomology. European and United Kingdom guidelines have advised the use of rehabilitation programmes to manage post-polio syndrome. There is a paucity of research in relation to the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions. The objective of this study is to explore polio survivor’s perceptions of an in-patient multi-disciplinary rehabilitation programme.

Methods: Semi-structured interviews of community dwelling polio survivors who attended in-patient rehabilitation programme in the United Kingdom. Thematic analysis was used to describe and interpret interview data.

Results: Participants’ experiences were influenced by past experiences of polio and their self-concept. Participants generally had a positive experience and valued being with other polio survivors. Positive strategies, such as pacing and reflection changed their mind-sets into their lives after the programme, though they still faced challenges in daily living. Some participants supported others with post-polio syndrome after completing the programme.

Conclusions: The research identified that participants experienced long term positive benefits from attending a rehabilitation programme. Strategies that users found helpful that explored the effectiveness of interventions to manage polio are not cited within a Cochrane review. If we are to recognise the lived experience and service user empowerment within a model of co- production it is essential that patient preferences are evaluated and used as evidence to justify service provision. Further research is required with polio survivors to explore how best rehabilitation programmes can adopt the principles of co-production.

Implications for Rehabilitation
The patients’ expertise and lived experience must be at the centre of a rehabilitation programme.

Strategies such as pacing and reflection are perceived as important strategies to enable self-management of polio and post-polio syndrome despite the limited evidence base to support these interventions.

Polio rehabilitation programmes should not be time limited and commissioners and therapists need to ensure that follow up support is provided.

When measuring outcomes patient preferences and views must be evaluated.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Quality of Life

Title: Polio survivors' perceptions of the meaning of quality of life and strategies used to promote participation in everyday activities
Author: Atwal A, Spiliotopoulou G, Coleman C, Harding K, Quirke C, Smith N, Osseiran Z, Plastow N, Wilson L
Affiliation: Division of Occupational Therapy, School of Health Sciences and Social Care, Brunel University, Uxbridge, UK
Journal: Health Expectations
Citation: Health Expect. 2014 Jan;doi:10.1111/hex.12152
Publication Year and Month: 2014 01

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The term ‘post-polio syndrome’ (PPS) is used to describe new and late manifestations of poliomyelitis that occur later in life. Research in this area has focused upon health status rather than its effect on quality of life.

AIM: To gain an in-depth understanding of the meaning of quality of life for polio survivors and to determine the type of strategies that are used by people with PPS and the support that they consider as important to facilitate participation in everyday life activities that have an impact on their quality of life.

METHOD: Six focus groups were conducted with 51 participants from two regions in England. Data were audio-taped and analysed using thematic analysis.

RESULTS: Our research found that polio survivors used terms used to describe quality of life which could be associated with that of happiness. Our research has identified resolvable factors that influence quality of life namely inaccessible environments, attitudes of health-care professionals and societal attitudes. Polio survivors have tried alternative therapies, chiefly acupuncture and massage, and found them to be effective in enhancing their quality of life.

Conclusions: It is suggested that health-care professionals should consider factors which influence happiness and implement a person-centred approach with the views of the polio survivor being listened to. The three factors that influenced quality of life could be resolved by health-care professionals and by society. With regard to strategies used, we suggest that polio survivors should have access to the treatments that they perceive as important, although further research is required to design optimal interventions for this client group.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Polio survivors: falls and subsequent injuries
Author: Silver JK, Aiello DD
Affiliation: Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2002 Aug;81(8):567-70
Publication Year and Month: 2002 08

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study examines the frequency of falls in polio survivors and their resulting morbidity.

DESIGN: Two groups, fallers vs. nonfallers, were investigated in this descriptive study. A total of 233 polio survivors volunteered to complete a structured questionnaire on fall history and sequelae.

RESULTS: Of the study participants, 64% had fallen within the previous year, and 61% had falls for which they received medical attention, including 35% who had at least one fracture. There was not a correlation between age and falling, but there was a strong correlation between tripping and falling.

Conclusions: Falls with resultant injuries are a significant issue for polio survivors that warrants further study. Because tripping was predictive of falling in this sample, bracing should be considered as a treatment or preventative measure.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Late Effects of Polio

Title: Polio: long-term problems
Author: Perry J, Fleming C
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1985 Jul; 8(7):877-81
Publication Year and Month: 1985 07

Abstract: The most common long-term problems seen in polio are brace problems, knee recurvatum, increasing weakness due to overuse and ankle equinus. A definite increased incidence of problems is seen after the patient is more than 30 years post-polio. The basis for most of these problems is chronic mechanical strain of weak musculature and substituting ligaments. Overuse can cause increasing weakness resulting in pain and decreasing function. It is therefore important to follow polio patients closely, especially those that are more than 30 years post-polio. If signs of overuse or chronic mechanical strain are noted, treatment should not be delayed.

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Category: Post-Polio Motor Unit

Title: Polioencephalitis and the Brain Fatigue Generator Model of Post-Viral Fatigue Syndromes
Author: Richard L. Bruno, Ph.D., Nancy M. Frick, Lh.D., Susan Creange, M.A., Jerald R. Zimmerman, M.D., and Todd Lewis, Ph.D.


Affiliation: Post-Polio Rehabilitation and Research Service; Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation; UMDNJ/New Jersey Medical School, Harvest Center; Hackensack, New Jersey
Journal:
Citation: Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, 1996; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (in press)
Publication Year and Month: 1996

Abstract: Fatigue is the most commonly reported and most debilitating Post-Polio Sequelae (PPS) affecting millions of polio survivors world-wide. Post-polio fatigue is associated with: 1) subjective reports of difficulty with attention, cognition, word-finding and maintaining wakefulness; 2) clinically significant deficits on neuropsychological tests of information processing speed and attention; 3) gray and white matter hyperintensities in the reticular activating system on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain; 4) neuroendocrine evidence of impaired activation of the HPA axis. Many of these findings are identical to those documented following a variety of viral encephalitides, including acute poliovirus infection, lethargic encephalitis, Iceland Disease, myalgic encephalomyelitis, and, most recently, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. The clinical, historic, neuropsychologic, neuroanatomic and physiologic parallels between poliovirus infection, post-polio fatigue and post-viral fatigue syndromes (PVFS) will be explored in an attempt to describe the pathophysiology of PVFS. The disinhibition of a putative Brain Fatigue Generator will be implicated as a cause of the subjective symptoms and objective signs that accompany PVFS. The results of a pilot placebo-controlled study of a dopamine 2 receptor agonist to treat post-polio fatigue will also be described.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Fatigue

Title: Polioencephalitis, Stress And The Etiology Of Post-Polio Sequelae
Author: Richard L. Bruno, Ph.D., Nancy M. Frick, M.Div., and Jesse Cohen, M.D.


Affiliation: Post-Polio Rehabilitation and Research Service; Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation, Harvest Center; Hackensack, New Jersey, Medical Imaging Center of the Oranges; West Orange, New Jersey
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation:
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Post-mortum neurohistopathology from 158 individuals who contracted polio before 1950 are reviewed that document polio virus-induced lesions in reticular formation, hypothalamic, thalamic, peptidergic and monoaminergic neurons in the brain. This polioencephalitis was found to occur in every case of poliomyelitis, even those without evidence of damage to spinal motor neurons. These findings, in combination with data from the 1990 National Post-Polio Survey and new magnetic resonance imaging studies documenting post-encephalitis-like lesions in the brains of polio survivors, are used to present hypotheses that polioencephalitic damage 1) to aging reticular activating system and monoaminergic neurons is responsible for post-polio fatigue and 2) to enkephalin-producing neurons is responsible for hypersensitivity to pain in polio survivors. Hypotheses are also presented that the anti-metabolic action of glucocorticoids on polio-damaged, metabolically vulnerable neurons is responsible for the fatigue and muscle weakness reported by polio survivors during emotional stress. Suggestions for the treatment of Post-Polio Sequelae based on these hypotheses are also presented.

Conclusions: The ability of the polio virus to produce symptoms by its destruction of neurons outside of the anterior horn has been accepted for more than 100 years. It is only our recent experience with PPS that has forced us to recognize that both the people who survived the original viral onslaught and their central nervous systems have been operating for decades under extreme stress. This stress now may be combining with the aging of an extensively damaged but here-to-fore remarkably functional central nervous system to reveal the previously hidden symptoms of polioencephalitis.

The above-presented hypotheses concerning the etiology of PPS fatigue suggest that reductions in both emotional and physical stress will reduce PPS. This is the experience of post-polio clinics throughout the world (36,54,55,56). As PPS fatigue continues to be treated with stress-management, work simplification and energy conservation (see 36,56), the hypotheses are being tested by studying the neuroanatomy, neuroendocrinology and neuropsychology of PPS fatigue. In addition, pharmacological means for stimulating the RAS that do not further metabolically stress its remaining aging, polio-damaged neurons are being tested.

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Polioencephalitis, stress, and the etiology of post-polio sequelae
Author: Bruno RL, Frick NM, Cohen J
Affiliation: Post-Polio Rehabilitation and Research Service, Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation, East Orange, NJ 07018
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1269-76
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Post-mortem neurohistopathologies that document polio virus-induced lesions in reticular formation and hypothalamic, thalamic, peptidergic, and monoaminergic neurons in the brain are reviewed from 158 individuals who contracted polio before 1950. This polioencephalitis was found to occur in every case of poliomyelitis, even those without evidence of damage to spinal motor neurons. These findings, in combination with data from the 1990 National Post-Polio Survey and new magnetic resonance imaging studies documenting post-encephalitis-like lesions in the brains of polio survivors, are used to present two hypotheses: 1) polioencephalitic damage to aging reticular activating system and monoaminergic neurons is responsible for post-polio fatigue, and 2) polioencephalitic damage to enkephalin-producing neurons is responsible for hypersensitivity to pain in polio survivors. In addition, the antimetabolic action of glucocorticoids on polio-damaged, metabolically vulnerable neurons may be responsible for the fatigue and muscle weakness reported by polio survivors during emotional stress.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Poliomyelitis and Parkinson Disease.
Author: Nielsen NM, Rostgaard K, Hjalgrim H, Aaby P, Askgaard D.
Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology Research, National University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
Journal: The Journal of the American Medical Association
Citation: JAMA. 2002;287(13):1650–1651.
doi:10.1001/jama.287.13.1645
Publication Year and Month: 2002 04

Abstract: Parkinson disease (PD), which is due to loss of dopaminergic neurons in the zona compacta of the substantia nigra,1 may involve both genetic and environmental risk factors.2 Poliovirus is believed to cause neuronal damage in the substantia nigra,3 and thus a history of poliovirus infection may be associated with an increased risk of PD

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Poliomyelitis and the postpolio syndrome
Author: Howard, R.S.
Affiliation: Lane-Fox Unit and Department of Neurology, St Thomas' Hospital, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: British Medical Journal
2005; 330(7503): 1314–1318.
doi: 10.1136/bmj.330.7503.1314
Publication Year and Month: 2005 06

Abstract: Acute poliomyelitis is now rarely encountered in the United Kingdom, but “imported” poliomyelitis still occurs and it is necessary to distinguish acute poliomyelitis from other causes of acute flaccid paralysis. Despite the obvious success of preventive policies, many patients who had poliomyelitis experience late functional deterioration after periods of prolonged stability—the so called postpolio syndrome. The patterns of disability and their management present unique challenges to the multidisciplinary rehabilitation team.

Conclusions: Although some patients who have had poliomyelitis may later develop wasting, pain, and fatigue in isolation, in most there is significant underlying weakness and skeletal deformity predisposing to functional deterioration. The severe physical stresses of postpolio disability contribute to the development of progressive orthopaedic, respiratory, neurological, and general medical abnormalities, often exacerbated by intercurrent events. These abnormalities may present with atypical clinical features because of the extent of underlying atrophy and weakness, but many are potentially treatable and most patients can be helped to understand and manage increasing disability. It is essential to emphasise that the symptoms, disabilities, and impairments of postpolio functional deterioration are often amenable to treatment. It is also important to urge caution before attributing functional deterioration to a primary “postpolio syndrome” or “progressive postpolio muscular atrophy.”

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Respiratory Complications and Management

Title: Poliomyelitis: late respiratory complications and management
Author: Fischer DA
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1985 Jul; 8(7):891-4
Publication Year and Month: 1985 07

Abstract: One hundred forty-six respiratory polios have been reviewed for complications and current respiratory aids. One hundred thirty-eight of these people required respirator assistance at the onset of their poliomyelitis infection. Fifteen patients have kyphoscoliosis. Seventy-five percent of the total patients require some assisted ventilation. Fifty-two percent have tracheostomies. Most of these people have been followed at Rancho Los Amigos Medical Center for many years. The literature regarding late respiratory complications of polio is reviewed.

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Category: Fatigue

Title: Post polio syndrome: fatigued patients a specific subgroup?
Author: Östlund G (1), Wahlin Å, Sunnerhagen KS, Borg K
Affiliation: (1) Divison of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2011 Jan;43(1):39-45. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0634
Publication Year and Month: 2011 01

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the characteristics of fatigued and non-fatigued post-polio patients and to define potential subgroups across the fatigue continuum.

DESIGN: Multi-centre study.

SUBJECTS: A total of 143 post-polio patients were subdivided on the basis of percentile distribution into a fatigue group, a intermediate group, and a non-fatigue group, using the Multi Fatigue Inventory 20 general fatigue ratings.

METHODS: Data on background, quality of life, fatigue and pain were collected. Descriptive statistics and correlations in each group and analysis of variance and χ2 for group comparisons were performed. Non-linear regressions were employed to evaluate differences in the strength of associations between physical and mental fatigue, on the one hand, and vitality on the other.

RESULTS: The fatigued group was younger, had shorter polio duration, more pain, higher body mass index, lower quality of life and was more physically and mentally fatigued. A higher proportion of this group had contracted polio after 1956 and was under 65 years of age. Mental fatigue had a relatively higher explanatory value than physical fatigue for differences in vitality in the fatigued group, whereas reversed patterns were seen in the other groups.

Conclusions: Fatigued post-polio patients can be considered as a subgroup.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Exercise

Title: Post-polio fatigue: a 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigation
Author: Thompson RT, Barton PM, Marsh GD, Cameron MG, Gravelle DG, Hsieh JT, Hayes KC, Driedger AA
Affiliation: Department of Nuclear Medicine, St. Joseph's Health Center, London, Ontario, Canada
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1263-7
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Changes in high energy phosphates (HEP) and intramuscular pH during exercise were measured in 17 patients with post-polio fatigue and in 28 healthy controls using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Subjects performed a dynamic hand grip exercise at low and high intensity. Mean changes in the HEP and pH showed no significant differences between the groups, although the post-polio group's response was highly variable. Six patients showed evidence of a lower lactate accumulation during the high intensity exercise when compared with controls. These data suggest that the whole body fatigue experienced by polio survivors is not related to any systemic metabolic abnormality.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Post-polio sequelae - differential diagnosis and management
Author: Maynard FM
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1985 Jul; 8(7):857-61
Publication Year and Month: 1985 07

Abstract: Forty-two patients with a past history of poliomyelitis were evaluated at a post-polio clinic for new problems or impairments. Evaluation included a complete history, neurological and biomechanical examination and electrodiagnostic studies. Based on this evaluation patients were placed into three groups: 23 patients were considered to have or likely to have Progressive Post-Polio Muscular Atrophy (PPPMA); 17 patients were considered to have other post-polio sequelae; and two patients had problems unrelated to a past history of polio but mistaken for post-polio sequelae. Musculoskeletal pain was a common complaint among all groups of patients. Twenty-two of the 40 patients with post-polio sequelae were advised to alter their method of ambulation and/or decrease their activity pattern in order to decrease strain and/or excessive exertion of involved muscles. The role of chronic overuse and exercise in producing PPPMA or musculoskeletal pain problems is discussed. Characteristic clinical problems and useful management plans are described.

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Category: Psychology

Title: Post-polio sequelae and the psychology of second disability
Author: Frick NM
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1985 Jul; 8(7):851-3
Publication Year and Month: 1985 07

Abstract: Thousands of persons who had poliomyelitis are reporting new physical symptoms that are eroding physical abilities, regained only after strenuous and lengthy rehabilitation, that were thought to have been permanently restored. These symptoms are causing persons to feel they are becoming disabled for a second time by the same disease. These new symptoms are psychologically traumatic also because they are unexpected, their cause is unknown and there is a lack of knowledge and understanding concerning them within the medical community. Society's negative and pejorative attitude toward the disabled is discussed to explain the psychological trauma associated with any first or second disability. Psychological processes that promote acceptance of disability are outlined with special emphasis on the post-polio experience. Post-polio support groups are described as one means to obtain the resources necessary to surmount the physical and psychological difficulties associated with post-polio sequelae.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Post-polio sequelae: physiological and psychological overview
Author: Frick NM, Bruno RL
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: Rehabilitation Literature
Citation: Rehabil Lit. 1986 May-Jun; 47(5-6):106-11
Publication Year and Month: 1986 05

Abstract: When the Salk and Sabin vaccines brought an end to the annual summer nightmare of polio epidemics, most Americans simply forgot about polio. Even many of those who had paralytic poliomyelitis put the disease out of their minds once they had achieved maximum recovery of function. Unfortunately, polio has again forced itself into the nation's consciousness. Over the past five years, many of those who had polio have been experiencing new and unexpected symptoms that range in severity from being merely unpleasant to severely debilitating.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Late Effects of Polio

Title: Post-polio syndrome and risk factors in Korean polio survivors: a baseline survey by telephone interview
Author: Bang H (1), Suh JH (2), Lee SY (3), Kim K (1), Yang EJ (1), Jung SH (1), Jang SN (4), Han SJ (2), Kim WH (5), Oh MG (6), Kim JH (5), Lee SG (7), Lim JY (1)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; (2) Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Ewha Womans University Medical Center, Seoul, Korea; (3) Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon, Korea; (4) Red Cross College of Nursing, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Korea; (5) Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, National Rehabilitation Center, Seoul, Korea; (6) Department of Rehabilitation Medicine and Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, Jinju, Korea; (7) Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Chonnam National University College of Medical School, Gwangju, Korea
Journal: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: Ann Rehabil Med. 2014 Oct;38(5):637-47. doi: 10.5535/arm.2014.38.5.637
Publication Year and Month: 2014 10

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To obtain information on the socioeconomic, medical, and functional status of polio survivors, and to use these results as the preliminary data for establishing the middle-aged cohort of polio survivors.

METHODS: The subjects were recruited based on the medical records of multiple hospitals and centers. They were assessed through a structured questionnaire over the phone. Post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) was identified according to the specified diagnostic criteria. Differences between polio survivors with or without PPS were evaluated, and the risk factors for PPS were analyzed by the odds ratio (OR).

RESULTS: Majority of polio survivors were middle-aged and mean age was 51.2±8.3 years. A total of 188 out of 313 polio survivors met the adopted criteria for PPS based on the symptoms, yielding a prevalence of 61.6%. Mean interval between acute poliomyelitis and the development of PPS was 38.5±11.6 years. Female gender (OR 1.82; confidence interval [CI] 1.09-3.06), the age at onset of poliomyelitis (OR 1.75; CI 1.05-2.94), the use of orthoses or walking aids (OR 2.46; CI 1.44-4.20), and the history of medical treatment for paralysis, pain or gait disturbance (OR 2.62; CI 1.52-4.51) represented independent risk factors for PPS.

Conclusions: We found that the majority of Korean polio survivors entered middle age with many medical, functional, and social problems. Female gender, early age of onset of poliomyelitis, the use of orthoses or walking aids, and the history of medical treatment for paralysis, pain or gait disturbance were identified as the significant risk factors for PPS. A comprehensive and multidisciplinary plan should be prepared to manage polio survivors considering their need for health care services and the risk factors for late effects, such as PPS.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Post-polio syndrome and total health status in a prospective hospital study.
Author: Farbu E, Rekand T, Gilhus NE
Affiliation: Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway
Journal: European Journal of Neurology
Citation: 2003 Jul;10(4):407-13.
Publication Year and Month: 2003 07

Abstract: New loss of function among patients with previous polio is frequently reported and has several causes. All patients referred to the Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, for 13 months during 2000-2001 with diagnosis late effects of polio were examined prospectively to identify their symptoms and loss of function. Eighty-five patients aged 47-91 years with mean of 61 years were included. The most common complaints were pain (44%), muscular weakness (27%), and fatigue (16%). Muscular weakness occurred in lower limbs in 75%, in respiratory muscles in only 5%. Walking in stairs was impaired in 72% and outdoor walking in 65%. Seventeen patients (19%) reported no loss of function. Post-polio syndrome was diagnosed in 26% of the patients. Polio-related loss of function including cervical and lumbosacral radiculopathies, mononeuropathies and degenerative joint disease were found in an additional 53%. Eleven patients (13%) had distinct non-polio-related disorders that caused new loss of function. The remaining 8% had a stable condition.

Conclusions: In conclusion, the majority of polio patients who seek hospital, experience a new loss of function because of polio-related disorders. A careful neurological examination is necessary to identify the correct diagnosis and treatment.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Quality of Life

Title: Post-polio syndrome: impact of hope on quality of life
Author: Shiri S, Wexler ID, Feintuch U, Meiner Z, Schwartz I
Affiliation: Department of Physical and Medical Rehabilitation, Hadassah University Hospital, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem, Israel
Journal: Disability and Rehabilitation
Citation: Disabil Rehabil. 2012;34(10):824-30. doi: 10.3109/09638288.2011.623755. Epub 2011 Dec 10
Publication Year and Month: 2011 12

Abstract: PURPOSE: To determine the effect of future-oriented coping strategies on the quality of life (QOL) of individuals with post-polio syndrome (PPS).

METHODS: A correlative study, in which a cohort of 61 patients was surveyed and a group of 40 healthy, age-matched individuals served as controls. Patients were surveyed as to their QOL, levels of hope and utilization of proactive coping, employment status and degree of functionality.

RESULTS: PPS patients had lower total, physical and mental QOL indices compared to controls. Future-oriented coping strategies associated with hope were positively associated with physical and mental QOL in the PPS group, but not in the controls. In a multivariate analysis, hope and employment status predicted higher QOL among those with PPS.

Conclusions: Future-oriented coping strategies, particularly hope, are distinctively associated with improved QOL benefits in PPS patients. Fostering future-oriented coping related to hope may improve the self-perceived mental and physical status of patients with PPS.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Coping Styles and Strategies

Title: Post-polio syndrome: psychological adjustment to disability.

Author: Hollingsworth L, Didelot MJ, Levington C.
Affiliation: Purdue University-Calumet, School of Education G-5, 2200 169th Street, Hammond, IN 46323-2094, USA.
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2002;23(2):135-56.
Publication Year and Month: 2002 03

Abstract: Although the Pan American Health Organization declared in 1995 that polio had been eliminated in the Western Hemisphere, life-altering effects of the disease continue for many survivors. It is known as Post-Polio Syndrome (PPS). The sheer number of individuals experiencing the symptoms has attracted the attention of the medical community. These physical symptoms are severe enough to change the quality of life and require lifestyle changes for people with PPS to cope with the disease. The psychological implications for individuals who must face the reemergence of a disease they thought they had defeated 30 to 40 years ago are staggering. Thus, there is a crucial need for health care professionals, especially mental health nurses and psychotherapists, to address mental health issues that individuals with PPS experience.

Conclusions: There is a crucial need for health care professionals, especially mental health nurses and psychotherapists, to address mental health issues that individuals with PPS experience.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome


Author: Eric Chun Pu Chu and Kary Ka Wai Lam

Affiliation: New York Chiropractic and Physiotherapy Center, New York Medical Group, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China and Downtown Chiropractic Limited, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: International Medical Case Reports Journal

Publication Year and Month: 2019 08

Abstract: Most developed countries eliminated paralytic poliomyelitis (polio) in the 1970s to 1980s. It was believed that after recovery from acute paralytic poliomyelitis, the physical condition of survivors would remain stable for the rest of their lives. However, the elimination of polio does not equate the end of medical management of polio. Hundreds of thousands of polio survivors worldwide are still at risk of developing the late effects of the disease. Here, we report a case of post-polio syndrome who attended our clinic for the presence of new weakness and neuromuscular problems six decades after recovery from paralytic polio. It is essential that health professionals be aware of these conditions and have an understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of the symptoms.

Conclusions: Post-polio syndrome is related to the exhaustion of the motor units that form decades after the polio attack. This case report describes the effectiveness of manual interventions in assisting our patient in restoring the level of function and alleviating pain. The limitation of the current report is that it is just a single case. Further comparison with more existing therapeutic regimens is warranted to clarify these issues.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome
Author: Trojan DA, Cashman NR
Affiliation: Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3801 rue Université, Montréal, Québec H3A 2B4, Canada – [email protected]
Journal: Muscle & Nerve
Citation: Muscle Nerve. 2005 Jan;31(1):6-19
Publication Year and Month: 2005 01

Abstract: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) is a common neurological disorder that occurs in a large proportion of individuals who have recovered from paralytic poliomyelitis. The main clinical features are new weakness, muscular fatigability, general fatigue, and pain. The primary criteria necessary for the diagnosis of PPS are a history of paralytic poliomyelitis, partial or complete recovery of neurological function followed by a period of stability (usually several decades), persistent new muscle weakness or abnormal muscle fatigability, and the exclusion of other causes of new symptoms. The cause of PPS remains unclear, but is likely due to a distal degeneration of enlarged post-poliomyelitis motor units. Contributing factors to PPS may be aging (with motor neuron loss), overuse, and disuse. PPS is usually a slowly progressive neuromuscular disease. Although there is no specific treatment for PPS, an interdisciplinary management program can be useful in controlling symptoms.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome as a possible viral disease
Author: Baj A (1), Colombo M (1), Headley JL (2), McFarlane JR (3), Liethof MA (4), Toniolo A (5)
Affiliation: (1) Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology, University of Insubria Medical School, Viale Borri 57, 21100 Varese, Italy; (2) Post-Polio Health International, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA; (3) European Polio Union, Huldenberg, Belgium; (4) Polio Australia Incorporated, Kew, Victoria, Australia; (5) Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology, University of Insubria Medical School, Viale Borri 57, 21100 Varese, Italy. Electronic address: [email protected]
Journal: International Journal of Infectious Diseases
Citation: Int J Infect Dis. 2015 May 1;35:107-116. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2015.04.018
Publication Year and Month: 2015 05

Abstract: This review summarizes current concepts on post-polio syndrome (PPS), a condition that may arise in polio survivors after partial or complete functional recovery followed by a prolonged interval of stable neurological function. PPS affects 15-20 million people worldwide. Epidemiological data are reported, together with the pathogenic pathways that possibly lead to the progressive degeneration and loss of neuromuscular motor units. As a consequence of PPS, polio survivors experience new weakness, generalized fatigue, atrophy of previously unaffected muscles, and a physical decline that may culminate in the loss of independent life. Emphasis is given to the possible pathogenic role of persistent poliovirus infection and chronic inflammation. These factors could contribute to the neurological and physical decline in polio survivors. A perspective is then given on novel anti-poliovirus compounds and monoclonal antibodies that have been developed to contribute to the final phases of polio eradication. These agents could also be useful for the treatment or prevention of PPS. Some of these compounds/antibodies are in early clinical development. Finally, current clinical trials for PPS are reported. In this area, the intravenous infusion of normal human immunoglobulins appears both feasible and promising.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Effective.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Postpolio syndrome
Author: Nollet F, de Visser M
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, PO Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam, the Netherlands – [email protected]
Journal: Archives of Neurology
Citation: Arch Neurol. 2004 Jul;61(7):1142-4
Publication Year and Month: 2004 07

Abstract: This paper has no abstract - this is an extract:

Postpolio syndrome (PPS) refers to a decline of muscle function usually occurring 30 to 40 years after the acute polio episode. This syndrome has been widely recognized only during the last decades, when many people affected by the large epidemics of the previous century experienced new muscle weakness as they grew older. However, cases of late-onset weakening following poliomyelitis were already reported at the end of the 19th century.

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Category: Surgery

Title: Postpolio syndrome and anesthesia
Author: Lambert DA, Giannouli E, Schmidt BJ
Affiliation: Department of Anesthesia, University of Manitoba, Canada
Journal: Anesthesiology
Citation: Anesthesiology. 2005 Sep;103(3):638-44
Publication Year and Month: 2005 09

Abstract: The development of polio vaccines 50 years ago essentially halted childhood polio epidemics in the industrialized world. During the past quarter century, a constellation of delayed neuromuscular symptoms, called postpolio syndrome, became recognized among the aging polio survivors. The prevalence of postpolio syndrome in the US population is estimated to be in the hundreds of thousands. The most common symptoms are fatigue, pain, and new onset weakness thought to be related to delayed deterioration of motor neuron function. When a patient with postpolio syndrome presents for surgery, special precautions are warranted, because these patients may have respiratory impairment, sleep apnea, swallowing difficulties, and cold intolerance. This article first reviews clinical features and some pathoetiologic theories of postpolio syndrome and then focuses on anesthetic considerations including the use of common anesthetics, neuromuscular blockade, regional anesthesia, and general anesthetic management strategies.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Exercise

Title: Postpolio syndrome and cardiopulmonary conditioning
Author: Owen RR
Affiliation: Sister Kenny Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55407
Journal: The Western Journal of Medicine
Citation: West J Med. 1991 May;154(5):557-8 (Rehabilitation Medicine - Adding Life to Years [Special Issue])
Publication Year and Month: 1991 05

Abstract: Postpolio syndrome is a group of related signs and symptoms occurring in people who had paralytic poliomyelitis years earlier. New weakness, fatigue, poor endurance, pain, reduced mobility, increased breathing difficulty, intolerance to cold, and sleep disturbance in various degrees and expressions make up the syndrome. The reported incidence is between 25% and 80%. The origins are multifactorial and can be associated with underexertion, overexertion, inactivity due to intercurrent illness or injury, hypo-oxygenation, sleep apnea, deconditioning, and the failure of sprouted, compensatory large motor units. The exercise question in postpolio syndrome is related to the experience of new weakness or loss of muscle function due to overuse, which is often associated with injudicious repeated challenges to weakened musculature. Carefully prescribed exercise can be used for increasing strength and endurance and improving cardiopulmonary conditioning.

Conclusions: Stretching and flexibility exercises are critical physical hygiene measures for the management of pain, instability, and deformity. These exercises should also precede cardiopulmonary conditioning and other vigorous physical pursuits. Muscle training and strengthening when carefully defined and judiciously implemented can safely build force and power. Resistive exercises should be prescribed for specific goals rather than for purposes of general muscle training. An adapted cardiopulmonary conditioning program has been created to provide improved cardiac status without the risk of overuse damage to nerve and muscle.

The management of postpolio syndrome requires applying traditional physical treatment principles with specific attention to the factors of the vulnerability of compensatory mechanisms to injury by overuse, underuse, underoxygenation, and an inefficient use of weakened musculature. Clinicians must provide information and a balanced prescription of exercise, rest, activity, support, and intelligent accommodation to additional disability.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Postpolio syndrome and the late effects of poliomyelitis. Part 1. pathogenesis, biomechanical considerations, diagnosis, and investigations.
Author: Lo JK, Robinson LR.
Affiliation: Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Journal: Muscle & Nerve
Citation: https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.26168
Publication Year and Month: 2018 05

Abstract: Postpolio syndrome (PPS) is characterized by new muscle weakness and/or muscle fatigability that occurs many years after the initial poliomyelitis illness. Many theories exist regarding the pathogenesis of PPS, which remains incompletely understood. In contrast, the late effects of poliomyelitis are often a consequence of biomechanical alterations that occur as a result of polio‐related surgeries, musculoskeletal deformities, or weakness. Osteoporosis and fractures of the polio‐involved limbs are common. A comprehensive clinical evaluation with appropriate investigations is essential to fulfilling the established PPS diagnostic criteria. PPS is a diagnosis of exclusion in which a key clinical feature required for the diagnosis is new muscle weakness and/or muscle fatigability that is persistent for at least 1 year. Electromyographic and muscle biopsy findings including evidence of ongoing denervation cannot reliably distinguish between patients with or without PPS.

Conclusions: Electromyographic and muscle biopsy findings including evidence of ongoing denervation cannot reliably distinguish between patients with or without PPS.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Postpolio syndrome: unanswered questions regarding cause, course, risk factors, and therapies
Author: Nollet F
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: The Lancet Neurology
Citation: Lancet Neurol. 2010 Jun;9(6):561-3 - Comment on: Lancet Neurol. 2010 Jun;9(6):634-42
Publication Year and Month: 2010 06

Abstract: Living with the consequences of poliomyelitis is not recognised as an important health issue at present. However, millions of people worldwide have lasting impairments caused by polio infection, many of whom also had a decline in muscle function and decline in activities of daily living after years of stable functioning.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Psychology

Title: Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome: Assessment of Behavioral Features
Author: Donald L. Freidenberg, David Freeman, Steven J. Huber, Jacquelin Perry, Armin Fischer, Wilfred G. Van Gorp and Jeffrey L. Cummings
Affiliation:
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Behavioral Neurology Vol. 2, No. 4, pp 272-281. 1989
Publication Year and Month: 1989

Abstract: Postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) is an increasingly recognized phenomenon characterized by late-onset weakness, pain, and fatigue. Psychiatric and cognitive disturbances have been noted in postpoliomyelitis patients, but the relationship of these symptoms to PPS is unknown. We examined postpoliomyelitis patients with and without PPS using objective neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric procedures. Our results suggest that disturbances of mood were common and that subtle cognitive deficits also occured in postpoliomyelitis patients. However, patients with PPS did not have greater depression or cognitive deficits compared to postpoliomyelitis patients without PPS. Key Words: Postpoliomyelitis syndrome, Mood disturbances, Cognitive deficits.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Post‐polio syndrome and the late effects of poliomyelitis: Part 2. treatment, management, and prognosis.
Author: Lo JK, Robinson LR.
Affiliation: Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5, Canada
Journal: Muscle & Nerve
Citation: https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.26167
Publication Year and Month: 2018 05

Abstract: Post‐polio syndrome (PPS) is characterized by new muscle weakness and/or muscle fatigability that occurs many years after the initial poliomyelitis illness. An individualized approach to rehabilitation management is critical. Interventions may include rehabilitation management strategies, adaptive equipment, orthotic equipment, gait/mobility aids, and a variety of therapeutic exercises. The progression of muscle weakness in PPS is typically slow and gradual; however, there is also variability in both the natural history of weakness and functional prognosis. Further research is required to determine the effectiveness of selected medical treatment. Muscle Nerve 58:760–769, 2018

Conclusions: The progression of muscle weakness in PPS is typically slow and gradual; however, there is also variability in both the natural history of weakness and functional prognosis.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Acute Flaccid Paralysis

Title: Potential for the Australian and New Zealand paediatric intensive care registry to enhance acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Australia: a data-linkage study
Author: Hobday LK (1), Thorley BR (1), Alexander J (2), Aitken T (1), Massey PD (3,4), Cretikos M (5,6), Slater A (2,7), Durrheim DN (3,8)
Affiliation: (1) National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; (2) Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society, Herston, Queensland, Australia; (3) Hunter New England Population Health, Wallsend, NSW, Australia; (4) School of Health, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, Australia; (5) School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Darlington, NSW, Australia; (6) Centre for Epidemiology and Evidence, NSW Ministry of Health, Sydney, NSW, Australia; (7) Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Royal Children’s Hospital, Herston, Queensland, Australia; (8) Hunter Medical Research Institute, New Lambton, NSW, Australia
Journal: BioMed Central Infectious Diseases
Citation: BMC Infect Dis. 2013 Aug 21;13:384. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-384.
Publication Year and Month: 2013 08

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Australia uses acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance to monitor its polio-free status. The World Health Organization criterion for a sensitive AFP surveillance system is the annual detection of at least one non-polio AFP case per 100,000 children aged less than 15 years, a target Australia has not consistently achieved. Children exhibiting AFP are likely to be hospitalised and may be admitted to an intensive care unit. This provides a potential opportunity for active AFP surveillance.

METHODS: A data-linkage study for the period from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2008 compared 165 non-polio AFP cases classified by the Polio Expert Panel with 880 acute neurological presentations potentially compatible with AFP documented in the Australian and New Zealand Paediatric Intensive Care (ANZPIC) Registry.

RESULTS: Forty-two (25%) AFP cases classified by the Polio Expert Panel were matched to case records in the ANZPIC Registry. Of these, nineteen (45%) cases were classified as Guillain-Barré syndrome on both registries. Ten additional Guillain-Barré syndrome cases recorded in the ANZPIC Registry were not notified to the national AFP surveillance system.

Conclusions: The identification of a further ten AFP cases supports inclusion of intensive care units in national AFP surveillance, particularly specialist paediatric intensive care units, to identify AFP cases that may not otherwise be reported to the national surveillance system.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Pain

Title: Predictive factors and correlates for pain in postpoliomyelitis syndrome patients
Author: Vasiliadis HM, Collet JP, Shapiro S, Venturini A, Trojan DA
Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Que, Canada
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002 Aug;83(8):1109-15
Publication Year and Month: 2002 08

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To identify predictive and associated factors for muscle and joint pain in postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS).

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study design.

SETTING: Postpolio clinics.

PARTICIPANTS: Baseline data on 126 PPS patients entered into a multicentered clinical trial.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adjusted odds ratios were computed by using logistic regression modeling. Patients with or without muscle or joint pain were compared with regard to predictors and associated factors.

RESULTS: In multivariate analyses for muscle pain, significant predictive and associated factors were female gender (P=.0006), longer duration of general fatigue (P=.019), and a lower score on the general health scale (P=.009) of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-From Health Survey (SF-36). In multivariate analyses for joint pain, significant predictive and associated factors were female gender (P<.003), longer latency (duration of stability after polio; P=.008), younger age at interview (P<.002), greater weakness at acute polio (P<.07), weaker lower-extremity muscle strength (P<.04), and a lower SF-36 general health scale score (P<.02).

Conclusions: Women are more likely to report muscle and joint pain in PPS. Greater initial motor unit involvement and lower-extremity weakness may be additional important factors for determining joint pain. Both muscle and joint pain are associated with reductions in quality of life.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Predictive factors for post-poliomyelitis syndrome
Author: Trojan DA, Cashman NR, Shapiro S, Tansey CM, Esdaile JM
Affiliation: Department of Neurology, Montreal Neurological Institute, Quebec, Canada
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1994 Jul;75(7):770-7
Publication Year and Month: 1994 07

Abstract: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) is generally defined as a clinical syndrome of new weakness, fatigue, and pain in individuals who have previously recovered from acute paralytic poliomyelitis. The purpose of this study was to identify, through a case-control study design, factors that predict subsequent PPS in patients with prior paralytic poliomyelitis. Among patients attending a university-affiliated hospital post-polio clinic, "cases" were patients with new weakness and fatigue, and "controls" were patients without these complaints. A chart review of 353 patients identified 127 cases and 39 controls. Logistic regression modeling was used to calculate adjusted and unadjusted odds ratios. In univariate analyses, significant risk factors for PPS were a greater age at time of presentation to clinic (p = 0.01), a longer time since acute polio (p = 0.01), and more weakness at acute polio (p = 0.02). Other significant associated, but not necessarily causal factors were a recent weight gain (p = 0.005), muscle pain (p = 0.01) particularly that associated with exercise (p = 0.005), and joint pain (p = 0.04). Multivariate analyses revealed that a model containing age at presentation to clinic, severity of weakness at acute polio, muscle pain with exercise, recent weight gain, and joint pain best distinguished cases from controls. Age at acute polio, degree of recovery after polio, weakness at best point after polio, physical activity, and sex were not contributing factors. These findings suggest that the degree of initial motor unit involvement as measured by weakness at acute polio, and possibly the aging process and overuse are important in predicting PPS.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Predictive Factors for Post-Poliomyelitis Syndrome
Author: Daria A. Trojan, MD, MSc, Neil R. Cashman, MD, Stanley Shapiro, PhD, Catherine M. Tansey, MSc, John M. Esdaile, MD
Affiliation: From the Department of Neurology (Drs. Trojan, Cashman), Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, the Department of Medicine (Dr. Esdaile), Montreal General Hospital, and the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (Dr. Shapiro, Ms. Tansey), McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 75, July 1994, 770-777
Publication Year and Month: 1994 07

Abstract: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) is generally defined as a clinical syndrome of new weakness, fatigue, and pain in individuals who have previously recovered from acute paralytic poliomyelitis. The purpose of this study was to identify, through a case-control study design, factors that predict subsequent PPS in patients with prior paralytic poliomyelitis. Among patients attending a university-affiliate hospital post-polio clinic, "cases" were patients with new weakness and fatigue, and "controls" were patients without these complaints. A chart review of 353 patients identified 127 cases and 39 controls. Logistic regression modeling was used to calculate adjusted and unadjusted odds ratios. In univariate analyses, significant risk factors for PPS were a greater age at time of presentation to clinic (p = 0.01), a longer time since acute polio (p = 0.01), and more weakness at acute polio (p = 0.02). Other significant associated, but not necessarily causal factors were a recent weight gain (p = 0.005), muscle pain (p = 0.01) particularly that associated with exercise (p = 0.005), and joint pain (p = 0.04). Multivariate analyses revealed that a model containing age at presentation to clinic, severity of weakness at acute polio, muscle pain with exercise, recent weight gain, and joint pain best distinguished cases from controls. Age at acute polio, degree of recovery after polio, weakness at best point after polio, physical activity, and sex were not contributing factors. These findings suggest that the degree of initial motor unit involvement as measured by weakness at acute polio, and possibly the aging process and overuse are important in predicting PPS.

Conclusions: In conclusion, the results from this study provide insight on predictive factors for PPS, and can be applied in the clinical management of patients who have recovered from paralytic poliomyelitis. Our findings support the hypothesis that the severity of initial motor unit involvement as estimated by weakness at acute polio, and possibly the normal ageing process and overuse are important in predicting PPS. Even though patients have no control over the severity of weakness as a result of acute polio, they do have control over some predictive factors for PPS. Patients can be advised that they should avoid gaining weight and exercising to the point of muscle pain because these variables have been found to be strongly associated with PPS. The exact role of physical activity will still need further evaluation; however, the usual recommendations of low-level aerobic exercise with avoidance of muscle pain and fatigue appear valid. Thus, this study can provide the basis for physiologically reasonable and practical advice to post-polio patients to minimize or delay the risk of PPS.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Orthoses

Title: Predictors of changes in gait performance over four years in persons with late effects of polio.
Author: Flansbjer, Lexell, Brogårdh
Affiliation: Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Department of Neurology and Rehabilitation Medicine, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

Department of Health Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
Journal: NeuroRehabilitation
Citation: 2017;41(2):403-411.
Publication Year and Month: 2017

Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Reduced gait performance is common in persons with late effects of polio.

OBJECTIVE:
To identify predictors of change in gait performance over four years in persons with late effects of polio.

METHODS:
Gait performance was assessed annually in 51 ambulatory persons (mean age 64 years, SD 6) by the Timed "Up & Go" (TUG), Comfortable and Fast Gait Speed (CGS, FGS), and 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT). Isokinetic knee extensor and flexor muscle strength was measured with a Biodex dynamometer. Mixed Linear Models were used to analyze changes in gait performance and to identify any predictors of change among the covariates gender, age, body mass index, time with new symptoms, baseline reduction in gait performance and knee muscle strength.

RESULTS:
There were significant linear effects over time (reduction per year) for three gait performance tests; CGS (0.8%; p < 0.05), FGS (1.7%; p < 0.001), and 6MWT (0.7%; p < 0.05) with significant random effects for all tests. The strongest predictor of a change in gait performance was the individual variations in the knee flexor strength (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: CONCLUSION:
The small gradual reduction in gait performance over time in persons with late effects of polio is primarily determined by the individual variations in the knee flexor strength.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Women's Health

Title: Pregnancy following Poliomyelitis
Author: Daw E, Chandler G.
Affiliation: University of Dundee, Scotland
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Postgrad Med J. 1976; 52:492-496
Publication Year and Month: 1981 08

Abstract: A review of forty-nine pregnancies in thirty-seven patients who had previously suffered from poliomyelitis found that obstetric complications were proportional to the clinical disabilities of the patient. A simple test of unilateral weight-bearing gives a good clue as to whether pelvic asymmetry is present.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Women's Health

Title: Pregnancy, delivery and perinatal outcome in female survivors of polio.
Author: Veiby G, Daltveit AK, Gilhus NE.
Affiliation: Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Norway
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
J Neurol Sci. 2007 Jul 15;258(1-2):27-32.
Publication Year and Month: 2007 07

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To investigate possible effects on pregnancy, delivery and perinatal outcome in female survivors of polio.

METHODS:
In a cohort design, data from the national population based Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN) were used to compare all 2495 births recorded 1967-1998 by female survivors of polio with all 1.9 mill non-polio deliveries. The results were adjusted for time period, maternal age, and birth order by unconditional logistic regression, with effects presented as adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) with a corresponding 95% Confidence Interval (CI) and p values.

RESULTS:
Female polio survivors had a higher occurrence of pre-eclampsia (3.4% vs. 2.8%, p=0.003, OR=1.4, CI=1.1-1.7), gestational proteinuria (1.3% vs. 0.5%, p<0.001, OR=2.0, CI=1.4-2.8), renal disease prior to pregnancy (1.4% vs. 0.9%, p=0.001, OR=1.8, CI=1.2-2.5), vaginal bleeding (3.8% vs. 2.0%, p<0.001, OR=1.7, CI=1.4-2.1), and urinary tract infection during pregnancy (3.5% vs. 2.4%, p<0.001, OR=1.7, CI=1.4-2.1). Deliveries complicated by obstruction of the birth process were more common in the polio group (6.1% vs. 2.0%, p<0.001, OR=4.8, CI=4.0-5.6), and cesarean section was performed at a higher rate throughout the time period (13.2% vs. 8.3%, p<0.001, OR=2.7, CI=2.4-3.1). Infants of polio mothers had a lower mean birth weight (3383 g vs. 3483 g, p<0.001), and more often had a birth weight below 2500 g (6.9% vs. 5.2%, p=0.001, OR=1.3, CI=1.1-1.5). There was no difference regarding pregnancy length. The risk of perinatal death was increased (2.1% vs. 1.1%, p=0.05, OR=1.3, CI=1.0-1.7).

CONCLUSION:
Pregnancy in female survivors of polio is associated with an increased risk for complications during pregnancy and delivery, as well as an adverse perinatal outcome. Awareness towards risk factors should improve pre-natal care and possibly prevent complications.

Conclusions: Pregnancy in female survivors of polio is associated with an increased risk for complications during pregnancy and delivery, as well as an adverse perinatal outcome. Awareness towards risk factors should improve pre-natal care and possibly prevent complications.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Polio Immunisation

Title: Preparation for global introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine: safety evidence from the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, 2000–12
Author: Iqbal S (1), Shi J (1), Seib K (2), Lewis P (1), Moro PL (1), Woo EJ (3), Shimabukuro T (1), Orenstein WA (2)
Affiliation: (1) Immunization Safety Office, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; (2) Emory University, School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, USA; (3) Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USA
Journal: The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Citation: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00059-6
Publication Year and Month: 2015 08

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Safety data from countries with experience in the use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) are important for the global polio eradication strategy to introduce IPV into the immunisation schedules of all countries. In the USA, IPV has been included in the routine immunisation schedule since 1997. We aimed to analyse adverse events after IPV administration reported to the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS).

METHODS: We analysed all VAERS data associated with IPV submitted between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2012, either as individual or as combination vaccines, for all age and sex groups. We analysed the number and event type (non-serious, non-fatal serious, and death reports) of individual reports, and explored the most commonly coded event terms to describe the adverse event. We classified death reports according to previously published body-system categories (respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological, gastrointestinal, other infectious, and other non-infectious) and reviewed death reports to identify the cause of death. We classified sudden infant death syndrome as a separate cause of death considering previous concerns about sudden infant syndrome after vaccines. We used empirical Bayesian data mining methods to identify disproportionate reporting of adverse events for IPV compared with other vaccines. Additional VAERS data from 1991 to 2000 were analysed to compare the safety profiles of IPV and oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV).

FINDINGS: Of the 41 792 adverse event reports submitted, 39 568 (95%) were for children younger than 7 years. 38 381 of the reports for children in this age group (97%) were for simultaneous vaccination with IPV and other vaccines (most commonly pneumococcal and acellular pertussis vaccines), whereas standalone IPV vaccines accounted for 0·5% of all reports. 34 880 reports were for non-serious events (88%), 3905 reports were for non-fatal serious events (10%), and 783 reports were death reports (2%). Injection-site erythema was the most commonly coded term for non-serious events (29%), and pyrexia for non-fatal serious events (38%). Most deaths (96%) were in children aged 12 months or younger; most (52%) had sudden infant death syndrome as the reported cause of death. The safely profiles of combined IPV and whole-cell pertussis vaccines, OPV and whole-cell pertussis vaccines, and OPV and acellular pertussis vaccines were similar. We noted no indication of disproportionate reporting of adverse events after immunisation with IPV-containing vaccines compared with other vaccines between 1990 and 2013.

INTERPRETATION: Fairly few adverse events were reported for the more than 250 million IPV doses distributed between 2000 and 2012. Sudden infant death syndrome reports after IPV were consistent with reporting patterns for other vaccines. No new or unexpected vaccine safety problems were identified for fatal, non-fatal serious, and non-serious reports in this assessment of adverse events after IPV.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Psychology

Title: Prevalence and associated features of depression and psychological distress in polio survivors
Author: Tate DG, Forchheimer M, Kirsch N, Maynard F, Roller A
Affiliation: Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1993 Oct;74(10):1056-60
Publication Year and Month: 1993 10

Abstract: This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of psychological distress and depression among 116 polio survivors. It investigates demographic, medical, and coping differences between subjects with (n = 17) and without (n = 99) these symptoms. Subjects were administered the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Coping with Disability Inventory (CDI), and a questionnaire about their polio histories. The BSI provided measures of psychological distress and depression that defined the subgroups. The CDI assessed coping behaviors. BSI scores for the overall sample were within the normal range indicating no major distress, depression, nor elevated somatic complaints. Several significant differences were found between the two subgroups. On average, depressed/distressed subjects reported an increase in pain (p < .01) and further deterioration of their medical status since the time of their physical best subsequent to the onset of polio (p < .01). They consistently rated their health as poorer than did nondepressed/nondistressed subjects (p < .001). They also reported less satisfaction with life and their occupational status (p < .001) and displayed poorer coping behaviors combined (p < .001). Selected variables such as life satisfaction, pain, decrease in activity, and current living situation accounted for 51% of the variance when predicting distress and depression among this group of polio survivors.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Late Effects of Polio

Title: Prevalence and risk factors of post-polio syndrome in a cohort of polio survivors.
Author: Paolo Ragonese, Brigida Fierro, Giuseppe Salemi, Giovanna Randisi, Daniela Buffa, Marco D'Amelio, Antonella Aloisio, Giovanni Savettieri
Affiliation: Dipartimento di Neurologia, Oftalmologia, Otorinolaringoiatria e Psichiatria, Università di Palermo, Italy.
Journal: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Citation: 2005 Sep 15;236(1-2):31-5.
Publication Year and Month: 2005 09

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To investigate frequency and associated factors of post polio syndrome (PPS) in an Italian cohort of people with prior poliomyelitis.

METHODS:
We screened subjects admitted for poliomyelitis at the paediatric hospital of the University of Palermo during the time frame 1945-1960. Patients who developed PPS were identified through a structured questionnaire and a neurologic examination. PPS diagnosis was made according to specified diagnostic criteria. Frequency of PPS was calculated in the selected cohort of polio survivors. The association with the investigated risk factors (sex, age at onset of polio, extension and severity of polio, education, associated diseases, cigarette smoking, trauma, polio vaccination) was analysed by the calculation of the odds ratio.

RESULTS:
Forty-eight participants met the adopted diagnostic criteria for PPS, giving a prevalence of 31.0%. The prevalence rate was significantly higher in women than in men (p=0.02). Logistic regression analyses revealed a significant inverse association with onset of poliomyelitis at over 12 months of age (OR 0.33; CI 0.14-0.79) a higher degree of education (OR 0.20; CI 0.07-0.79), and a significant association with the presence of other diseases (OR 9.86; CI 3.69-26.34).

Conclusions: CONCLUSIONS:
In our survey one-third of patients with prior poliomyelitis had PPS. Higher age at onset of poliomyelitis is inversely associated with PPS. The association with other diseases may indicate that a chronic physical stress, particularly in already weak motor units, can contribute to the development of signs and symptoms of PPS. Our results also suggest the impact of socio-economic conditions on the risk of PPS.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Exercise

Title: Previous Acute Polio and Post-Polio Syndrome: Recognizing the Pathophysiology for the Establishment of Rehabilitation Programs