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Outcomes of Research or Clinical Trials Activity Levels Acute Flaccid Paralysis Ageing Anaerobic Threshold Anaesthesia Assistive Technology Brain Cardiorespiratory Cardiovascular Clinical Evaluation Cold Intolerance Complementary Therapies Continence Coping Styles and Strategies Cultural Context Diagnosis and Management Differential Diagnosis Drugs Dysphagia Dysphonia Epidemiology Exercise Falls Fatigue Fractures Gender Differences Immune Response Inflammation Late Effects of Polio Muscle Strength Muscular Atrophy Orthoses Pain Polio Immunisation Post-Polio Motor Unit Psychology Quality of Life Renal Complications Respiratory Complications and Management Restless Legs Syndrome Sleep Analaysis Surgery Vitality Vocational Implications

Cancer risk in a cohort of polio survivors
Poliomyelitis has hypothetically been associated with an increased risk of central nervous system (CNS) tumors. The present study was performed to examine not only the risk of CNS tumors but also the overall risk of cancer among a cohort of 5,883 polio patients. Patients diagnosed with acute poliomyelitis in the Danish capital, Copenhagen, between 1919 and 1954 were identified and followed with respect to cancer.

Information on vital status and cancer diagnoses was obtained through linkage with the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish Cancer Registry, respectively. The ratio of observed number of cancers to the number expected from population-based incidence rates, i.e., the standardized incidence ratio (SIR), served as measure of the relative cancer risk.

Overall, 717 cases of cancer were observed among 5,883 polio patients during 249,084 person-years of follow-up vs. an expected number of 645 (SIR 5 1.11 [95% confidence
interval 1.03 to 1.20])). The increased risk was restricted to female polio patients (SIR 5 1.18 [1.07 to 1.30]), among whom the risk was particularly high for breast cancer (SIR 5 1.35 [1.12 to 1.61]) and for skin cancer (SIR 5 1.66 [1.32 to 2.07]). The risk of breast cancer was highest among women with a history of paralytic polio (SIR 5 1.62 [1.24 to 2.10]). The observed number of CNS tumors did not exceed the expected (SIR 5 1.09 [0.72 to 1.60]).

Women diagnosed with poliomyelitis, in particular paralytic polio, may be at increased risk of breast cancer. There was no association between malignancies of the CNS and poliomyelitis.
Activity Levels
Energy conservation, occupational therapy, and the treatment of post-polio sequelae
Individuals experiencing post-polio sequelae (PPS) are usually advised to make significant lifestyle changes to lessen symptoms and prevent further decline in function. These individuals have spent most of their lives equating success with over-achievement and find it difficult to implement such recommendations. As specialists in energy conservation and work simplification, occupational therapists increasingly are being called on to evaluate and treat these patients. Over the past 2 years, an occupational therapy educational program has been developed to educate patients about their condition and about ways to implement lifestyle changes while preserving the ability to do valued activities. This article describes the components of a thorough occupational therapy evaluation and the design and functional outcomes of a successful occupational therapy educational program to treat PPS.
Activity Levels
Neuromuscular function in polio survivors
Although there is no documented, objective evidence that symptomatic post-polio subjects are rapidly losing strength, they have a number of neuromuscular deficits related to a more severe poliomyelitis illness that may explain why they complain of problems with strength, endurance, and local muscle fatigue. Symptomatic post-polio subjects were hospitalized longer during the acute poliomyelitis, recovered more slowly, and had electromyographic evidence of greater loss of anterior horn cells. Additionally, recent assessment demonstrated that they were weaker, had a reduced work capacity, and recovered strength less readily after activity in the quadriceps muscles as compared to asymptomatic subjects. Of great clinical importance, rating of perceived exertion in the muscle during exercise was the same in symptomatic and asymptomatic post-polio and control subjects, indicating that symptomatic subjects have a mechanism to monitor local muscle fatigue that could be used to avoid exhaustion. A study of pacing (interspersing activity with rest breaks) showed that symptomatic subjects had less local muscle fatigue and greater strength recovery when they paced their activity than when they worked at a constant rate to exhaustion. We recommend that post-polio individuals pace their daily activity to avoid excessive fatigue.
Activity Levels
Actual and perceived activity levels in polio survivors and older controls: a longitudinal study
OBJECTIVE: To examine factors associated with daily step activity, perceived activity, maximum walking speed, and walking speed reserve over time in polio survivors and older adults with no history of polio.

DESIGN: Longitudinal study.

SETTING: A research clinic and the community.

PARTICIPANTS: Polio survivors (n=96; 65 in postpolio syndrome [PPS] group, 31 in non-PPS group) and older adults (n=112) with no history of polio.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Daily step activity, perceived activity, maximum walking speed, and walking speed reserve.

RESULTS: Results showed decreases in perceived activity over time in the PPS group. However, there was no change in average daily walking activity. Overall, polio survivors walk less and have a smaller walking speed reserve than controls. Knee strength was positively associated with maximum walking speed and walking speed reserve in all groups. Weight and age were associated with daily step activity in controls but not polio survivors.
Activity Levels
Walking in postpoliomyelitis syndrome: the relationships between time‐scored tests, walking in daily life and perceived mobility problems
OBJECTIVE: To compare walking test results with walking in daily life, and to investigate the relationships between walking tests, walking activity in daily life, and perceived mobility problems in patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome.

SUBJECTS: Twenty-four ambulant patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome.

METHODS: Walking tests were performed at self-preferred and maximal speed. Walking activity was measured with an ambulatory activity monitor. Heart rate, step cadence and walking speed in the test and in daily life were compared. Walking speed in daily life was represented by the intensity of walking. Perceived mobility problems were assessed with the Nottingham Health Profile.

RESULTS: Heart rate during walking was lower in the test at self-preferred speed than in daily life (mean difference: 11.3+/-10.4; p=0.001). Self-preferred walking speed in the test and in daily life correlated significantly (r=0.55; p=0.04). In a sub-group with a test performance below the median value, test performance correlated significantly with walking activity. No significant correlation was found between perceived mobility problems and walking activity.
Activity Levels
Change in physical mobility over 10 years in post-polio syndrome
Post-polio syndrome is characterised by progressive muscle weakness and other symptoms which can limit physical mobility. We assessed the rate of decline in mobility over 10 years in relation to strength decline; and investigated potential predictors for the rate of decline of walking capacity, a measure of mobility, in 48 patients with post-polio syndrome and proven quadriceps dysfunction at baseline. Average walking capacity and self-reported physical mobility declined over 10 years, by 6 and 14%, respectively. Concomitantly people lost an average of 15% of isometric quadriceps strength. Significantly more people used walking aids offering greater support at follow-up. Notably, there was much individual variation, with 18% of participants losing a substantial amount of walking capacity (27% decline) and concomitant self-reported physical mobility (38% decline). Loss of quadriceps strength only explained a small proportion of the variance of the decline in walking capacity (R = 11%) and the rate of decline could not be predicted from baseline values for strength, walking capacity, self-reported physical mobility or basic demographics. The individual variability, yet lack of predictive factors, underscores the need for personally tailored care based on actual functional decline in patients with post-polio syndrome.
Activity Levels
Reproducibility of walking at self-preferred and maximal speed in patients with postpoliomyelitis syndrome
To assess the reproducibility of walking performance, heart rate, and perceived exertion at self-preferred speed and maximal walking speed in patients with the postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS).

DESIGN: Repeated measurement at a 3-week interval.

SETTING: University hospital.

PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of 65 patients with PPS.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Walking performance: the distance walked in 2 minutes at a self-preferred speed and the time needed to walk 75 m at maximal speed, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) on an 11-point scale.

RESULTS: Test-retest reliability of walking performance was excellent for both tests (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] range, .94-.97). No systematic differences existed between test and retest. The smallest detectable change for an individual was 15% for both tests. Test-retest reliability for heart rate was good (ICC=.86) but moderate for RPE (Spearman rho range, .67-.70). The smallest detectable change for RPE was between 4 and 6 scale points. The variability in walking performance was significantly correlated with the variability in heart rate at self-preferred speed (r =.36, P <.01) but not with the variability in RPE (r =.20, P =.11).
Activity Levels
A Brief Questionnaire to Assess Post-Exertional Malaise
Post-exertional malaise (PEM) is a key symptom of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Currently, five PEM-items from the DePaul Symptom Questionnaire (DSQ) were recommended as a first step in measuring this symptom for patients with ME and CFS by the National Institutes of Health/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (NIH/CDC) Common Data Elements’ (CDE) working group. The second step in this process, as recommended by the NIH/CDC CDE working group, involves assembling information from various sources to confirm the presence of PEM. There have not been any efforts, to date, to standardize this second-step process in the assessment of PEM. The current study examined whether five supplementary items on the DSQ could be used to operationalize the second step of the recommendations made by the NIH/CDC CDE working group. The five supplementary DSQ PEM duration items correctly categorized patients with ME or CFS 81.7% of the time, while incorrectly categorizing multiple sclerosis (MS) and post-polio syndrome (PPS) as ME or CFS only 16.6% of the time. The findings suggested that a PEM second-step process could be operationalized using supplementary DSQ items.
Activity Levels
Physical activity in persons with late effects of polio: a descriptive study.
To promote a healthy and active lifestyle there is a need to increase our knowledge of the level of physical activity (PA) among people with late effects of polio.

To examine PA in people with late effects of polio and to assess the relationship between PA, life satisfaction and various sociodemographic factors.

PA was assessed in 81 persons with late effects of polio using the Physical Activity and Disability Survey (PADS) and by a pedometer. Life satisfaction was assessed with the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LiSat-11).

The amount of PA varied considerably but on average the participants were physically active almost 3 h per day, mostly in household activities. The mean value of the pedometer counts was 6212 steps per day (SD = 3208). Sixty-nine percent of the participants rated themselves as satisfied with life as a whole. The sum of PADS was positively and significantly related to the number of steps (r = 0.39, p < 0.001), increasing age (r = 0.26, p < 0.05) and to the level of global satisfaction with life (rho = 0.23, p < 0.05). The number of steps was also positively and significantly associated with level of global satisfaction with life (rho = 0.37, p < 0.001).
Activity Levels, Late Effects of Polio, Muscle Strength, Psychology, Quality of Life
Health-related quality of life, self-reported impairments and activities of daily living in relation to muscle function in post-polio syndrome
The symptoms of post-polio syndrome (PPS) and its resulting disabilities can affect quality of life and the ability to perform daily activities. No study has comprehensively analysed how various patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are associated with objectively assessed physical function in patients with PPS.

To investigate health-related quality of life (HRQOL), self-reported impairments and activities of daily living during 6 months and evaluate their association with clinical muscle function outcomes in individuals with PPS.

Twenty-seven patients with PPS were included in the study. At baseline and 6 months, patients were administered PROMs measuring HRQOL (WHOQOL-BREF), self-reported impairments related to PPS (SIPP-RS) and activities of daily living (IBM-FRS). Clinical muscle function outcomes included 6 min walking distance (6MWD) and motor function measure (MFM).

There were no changes in self-reported impairments (25.52 to 24.93, p = 0.40), activities of daily living (33.89 to 33.30, p = 0.20), 6MWD (391.52 to 401.85, p = 0.30) and MFM (83.87 to 85.46, p = 0.14) during 6 months, while the HRQOL psychological health decreased during this period (76.85 to 72.38, p = 0.05). A strong association was found between activities of daily living and clinical muscle function outcomes (6MWD: ß = 0.02, 95% CI: 0.02;0.03, t = 6.88, p < 0.01; MFM: ß = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.17;0.33, t = 6.69, p < 0.01). Self-reported impairments and HRQOL domains were not associated with the clinical muscle outcomes.

Study findings indicate that objectively measured walking and motor abilities do not reflect patient’s perspectives of their HRQOL and impairment due to PPS. More research is needed to assess changes over time and capture clinically meaningful changes in individuals with PPS and to increase the understanding of how the patient’s perspective of disability measured by PROMs is related to objectively measured walking and motor abilities.
Activity Levels, Psychology
Exercise therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy to improve fatigue, daily activity performance and quality of life in postpoliomyelitis syndrome: the protocol of the FACTS-2-PPS trial
BACKGROUND: Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome (PPS) is a complex of late onset neuromuscular symptoms with new or increased muscle weakness and muscle fatigability as key symptoms. Main clinical complaints are severe fatigue, deterioration in functional abilities and health related quality of life. Rehabilitation management is the mainstay of treatment. Two different therapeutic interventions may be prescribed (1) exercise therapy or (2) cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). However, the evidence on the effectiveness of both interventions is limited. The primary aim of the FACTS-2-PPS trial is to study the efficacy of exercise therapy and CBT for reducing fatigue and improving activities and quality of life in patients with PPS. Additionally, the working mechanisms, patients' and therapists' expectations of and experiences with both interventions and cost-effectiveness will be evaluated.

METHODS/DESIGN: A multi-centre, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial will be conducted. A sample of 81 severely fatigued patients with PPS will be recruited from 3 different university hospitals and their affiliate rehabilitation centres. Patients will be randomized to one of three groups i.e. (1) exercise therapy + usual care, (2) CBT + usual care, (3) usual care. At baseline, immediately post-intervention and at 3- and 6-months follow-up, fatigue, activities, quality of life and secondary outcomes will be assessed. Costs will be based on a cost questionnaire, and statistical analyses on GEE (generalized estimated equations). Analysis will also consider mechanisms of change during therapy. A responsive evaluation will be conducted to monitor the implementation process and to investigate the perspectives of patients and therapists on both interventions.

DISCUSSION: A major strength of the FACTS-2-PPS study is the use of a mixed methods design in which a responsive and economic evaluation runs parallel to the trial. The results of this study will generate new evidence for the rehabilitation treatment of persons with PPS.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: Dutch Trial Register NTR1371.
Activity Levels, Psychology,
No reduction of severe fatigue in patients with postpolio syndrome by exercise therapy or cognitive behavioral therapy: results of an RCT
BACKGROUND: People with postpolio syndrome (PPS) commonly experience severe fatigue that persists over time and negatively affects functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQoL).

OBJECTIVES: To study the efficacy of exercise therapy (ET) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on reducing fatigue and improving activities and HRQoL in patients with PPS.

METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Over 4 months, severely fatigued patients with PPS received ET, CBT, or usual care (UC). The primary end point (fatigue) was assessed using the subscale fatigue severity of the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS20-F). Secondary end points included activities and HRQoL, which were assessed with the Sickness Impact Profile and the 36-Item Short-Form, respectively. End points were measured at baseline and at 4, 7, and 10 months.

RESULTS: A total of 68 patients were randomized. No differences were observed between the intervention groups and UC group for fatigue (mean differences in CIS20-F score = 1.47, 95%CI = -2.84 to 5.79, for ET versus UC; and 1.87, 95%CI = -2.24 to 5.98, for CBT versus UC), activities, or HRQoL.
Acute Flaccid Paralysis
Acute Flaccid Paralysis Associated with Novel Enterovirus C105
An outbreak of acute flaccid paralysis among children in the United States during summer 2014 was tentatively associated with enterovirus D68 infection. This syndrome in a child in fall 2014 was associated with enterovirus C105 infection. The presence of this virus strain in North America may pose a diagnostic challenge.
Acute Flaccid Paralysis
Acute Flaccid paralysis in adults: Our experience
Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a complex clinical syndrome with a broad array of potential etiologies that vary with age. We present our experience of acute onset lower motor neuron paralysis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and thirty-three consecutive adult patients presenting with weakness of duration less than four weeks over 12 months period were enrolled. Detailed history, clinical examination, and relevant investigations according to a pre-defined diagnostic algorithm were carried out. The patients were followed through their hospital stay till discharge or death.

RESULTS: The mean age was 33.27 (range 13-89) years with male preponderance (67.7%). The most common etiology was neuroparalytic snake envenomation (51.9%), followed by Guillain Barre syndrome (33.1%), constituting 85% of all patients. Hypokalemic paralysis (7.5%) and acute intermittent porphyria (4.5%) were the other important conditions. We did not encounter any case of acute poliomylitis in adults. In-hospital mortality due to respiratory paralysis was 9%.
Acute Flaccid Paralysis
Potential for the Australian and New Zealand paediatric intensive care registry to enhance acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Australia: a data-linkage study
BACKGROUND: Australia uses acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance to monitor its polio-free status. The World Health Organization criterion for a sensitive AFP surveillance system is the annual detection of at least one non-polio AFP case per 100,000 children aged less than 15 years, a target Australia has not consistently achieved. Children exhibiting AFP are likely to be hospitalised and may be admitted to an intensive care unit. This provides a potential opportunity for active AFP surveillance.

METHODS: A data-linkage study for the period from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2008 compared 165 non-polio AFP cases classified by the Polio Expert Panel with 880 acute neurological presentations potentially compatible with AFP documented in the Australian and New Zealand Paediatric Intensive Care (ANZPIC) Registry.

RESULTS: Forty-two (25%) AFP cases classified by the Polio Expert Panel were matched to case records in the ANZPIC Registry. Of these, nineteen (45%) cases were classified as Guillain-Barré syndrome on both registries. Ten additional Guillain-Barré syndrome cases recorded in the ANZPIC Registry were not notified to the national AFP surveillance system.
Acute Flaccid Paralysis
Human Enteroviruses isolated during acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Ghana: implications for the post eradication era
INTRODUCTION: Surveillance of acute flaccid surveillance (AFP) has been used world-wide to monitor the control and eradication of circulating wild polioviruses. The Polio Laboratory since its accreditation in 1996 has supported the Disease Surveillance Department for AFP surveillance. This study aims to isolate and characterize human enteroviruses from patients with AFP in Ghana.

METHOD: Stool suspension was prepared from 308 samples received in 2009 from the surveillance activities throughout the country and inoculated on both RD and L20B cell lines. Isolates that showed growth on L20B were selected for real-time RT-PCR using degenerate and non-degenerate primers and probes. RD isolates were however characterized by microneutralisation technique with antisera pools from RIVM, The Netherlands and viruses that were untypable subjected to neutralization assay using antibodies specific for E71.

RESULTS: Of the 308 samples processed, 17 (5.5%) grew on both L20B and RD cells while 32 (10.4%) grew on RD only. All 28 isolates from L20B were characterized by rRT-PCR as Sabin-like polioviruses. No wild poliovirus or VDPV was found. However from the microneutralisation assay, six different enteroviruses were characterized. Among these, Coxsackie B viruses were most predominant followed by Echovirus. Three children from whom non-polio enteroviruses were isolated had residual paralysis while one child with VAPP found. The non-polio enteroviruses circulated throughout the country with the majority (20.7%) from Ashanti region.
Acute Flaccid Paralysis
Recent advances on the role of host factors during non-poliovirus enteroviral infections
Non-polio enteroviruses are emerging viruses known to cause outbreaks of polio-like infections in different parts of the world with several cases already reported in Asia Pacific, Europe and in United States of America. These outbreaks normally result in overstretching of health facilities as well as death in children under the age of five. Most of these infections are usually self-limiting except for the neurological complications associated with human enterovirus A 71 (EV-A71). The infection dynamics of these viruses have not been fully understood, with most inferences made from previous studies conducted with poliovirus.

Non-poliovirus enteroviral infections are responsible for major outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) often associated with neurological complications and severe respiratory diseases. The myriad of disease presentations observed so far in children calls for an urgent need to fully elucidate the replication processes of these viruses. There are concerted efforts from different research groups to fully map out the role of human host factors in the replication cycle of these viral infections. Understanding the interaction between viral proteins and human host factors will unravel important insights on the lifecycle of this groups of viruses.

This review provides the latest update on the interplay between human host factors/processes and non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV). We focus on the interactions involved in viral attachment, entry, internalization, uncoating, replication, virion assembly and eventual egress of the NPEV from the infected cells. We emphasize on the virus- human host interplay and highlight existing knowledge gaps that needs further studies. Understanding the NPEV-human host factors interactions will be key in the design and development of vaccines as well as antivirals against enteroviral infections. Dissecting the role of human host factors during NPEV infection cycle will provide a clear picture of how NPEVs usurp the human cellular processes to establish an efficient infection. This will be a boost to the drug and vaccine development against enteroviruses which will be key in control and eventual elimination of the viral infections.
Symptom profiles in individuals aging with post-polio syndrome
This paper does not have an abstract.
Aging and sequelae of poliomyelitis
OBJECTIVE: We estimate that there are about 50,000 persons who survived poliomyelitis in their childhood in France (mean age estimated between 50 and 65 years). After a few decades of stability, 30 to 65% of individuals who had been infected and recovered from polio begin to experience new signs and symptoms.

METHOD: Review of the literature on Pubmed with the following keywords "Poliomyelitis" and "Post-Polio Syndrome (PPS)".

RESULTS: These new signs and symptoms are characterized by muscular atrophy (decreased muscle mass), muscle weakness and fatigue, muscle and/or joint pain. All these symptoms lead to significant changes in mobility with falls and inability to carry on with daily life activities. There are several intricate causes. The normal aging process and weight gain are regularly blamed. Respiratory disorders and sleep disorders must be looked for: respiratory insufficiency, sleep-related breathing disorders such as sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome. Orthopedics complications are quite common: soft-tissue pathologies of the upper limbs, degenerative pathologies of the large joints or spinal cord, fall-related fractures. Finally, the onset of an authentic PPS is possible.
Changes in Post-Polio Survivors Over Five Years: Symptoms and Reactions to Treatments.
A group of 176 people with post-polio syndrome, identified using Ramlow et al's (1992) criteria, took part in a 5 year follow-up survey. Most reported increased muscle weakness (91%), fatigue (91%), muscle pain (80%), joint pain (64%) and changes in walking (60%). Increases in other symptoms occurred in less than half the group. Cramps, sensitivity to cold, muscle atrophy and muscle twitching were the symptoms most likely to have stabilised. The average respondent reported greater difficulty in carrying out 4 of the 8 activities of daily living investigated. Respondents were significantly less anxious and depressed about their condition at follow-up. Degree of post-polio changes reported at the time of the first survey was a better predictor of decline during the five years than were initial polio histories or psycho-social variables. Health practitioners most likely to have been consulted were general practitioners and physiotherapists. Specialists in rehabilitation medicine were rated as providing more beneficial treatment than other medical practitioners. Treatments reported to provide good symptom relief included massage and water activities but not exercise. Life style modifications associated with pacing, reduced activity and rest were particularly effective. Overall 68% of respondents considered there was much they could do to control post-polio symptoms.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy combined with Exercise for Adults with Chronic Diseases: Systematic
Review and Meta-Analysis
Objective. The present meta-analysis aimed to determine the overall effect of cognitive behavior therapy combined with physical exercise (CBTEx) interventions on depression, anxiety, fatigue, and pain in adults with chronic illness; to identify the potential moderators of efficacy; and to compare the efficacy of CBTEx versus each condition alone (CBT and physical exercise).
Methods. Relevant randomized clinical trials, published before July 2017, were identified through database searches in Pubmed, PsycArticles, CINAHL, SportDiscus and the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials.
Results. A total of 30 studies were identified. CBTEx interventions yielded small-to-large effect sizes for depression (SMC = -0.34, 95% CI [-0.53; -0.14]), anxiety (SMC = -0.18, 95% CI [-0.34; -0.03]) and fatigue (SMC = -0.96, 95% CI [-1.43; -0.49]). Moderation analyses revealed that longer intervention was associated with greater effect sizes for depression and anxiety outcomes. Low methodological quality was also associated with increased CBTEx efficacy for depression. When compared directly, CBTEx interventions did not show greater efficacy than CBT alone or physical exercise alone for any of the outcomes.
Currents issues in cardiorespiratory care of patients with post-polio syndrome
Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a condition that affects polio survivors years after recovery from an initial acute attack of the poliomyelitis virus. Most often, polio survivors experience a gradual new weakening in muscles that were previously affected by the polio infection. The actual incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in individuals suffering from PPS is not known. However, there is a reason to suspect that individuals with PPS might be at increased risk.


A search for papers was made in the databases Bireme, Scielo and Pubmed with the following keywords: post polio syndrome, cardiorespiratory and rehabilitation in English, French and Spanish languages. Although we targeted only seek current studies on the topic in question, only the relevant (double-blind, randomized-controlled and consensus articles) were considered.

Results and Discussion

Certain features of PPS such as generalized fatigue, generalized and specific muscle weakness, joint and/or muscle pain may result in physical inactivity deconditioning obesity and dyslipidemia. Respiratory difficulties are common and may result in hypoxemia.
Review of secondary health conditions in postpolio syndrome: prevalence and effects of aging
This study sought to better understand the prevalence and the severity of secondary health conditions in individuals with postpolio syndrome (PPS) as well as the association between these conditions and aging.

A scoping literature review was conducted searching electronic databases for studies published from 1986 to 2011. The scoping review provided information regarding the prevalence and associations of secondary health conditions in PPS with age or other duration-related variables.

The findings indicate that (1) individuals with PPS experience a number of serious secondary health conditions; (2) the most common conditions or symptoms are fatigue, pain, respiratory and sleep complaints, and increased risk for falls; (3) reports of the associations between the frequency or the severity of conditions and age-related factors are variable, perhaps because of methodological inconsistencies between studies; and (4) there is a marked lack of longitudinal research examining the natural course of health conditions in people aging with PPS.
Secondary conditions and life satisfaction among polio survivors.
Persons living with the effects of polio are often at increased risk for the development of secondary conditions and disabilities that can lead to further decline in health status, independence, functional status, life satisfaction, and overall quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore the frequency of selected secondary conditions, factors associated with these conditions, and the relationship between secondary conditions and quality of life among polio survivors. Data from a large convenience sample (N = 2,153) indicate that secondary conditions are prevalent and associated with decreased life satisfaction. Prompt identification and treatment of secondary conditions before they progress to greater impairment and/or disability and attention to an overall healthful lifestyle is important to preserve function and maintain quality of life of polio survivors.
Ageing, Exercise, Falls
Relationship Between Fear of Falling and Physical Activity in People Aging With a Disability
An estimated one billion people worldwide live with some form of disability and may face many challenges as they age, including increased fall risk. Understanding the risk factors linking falls, fear of falling, and activity restriction is critical for developing effective programs to increase activity levels among persons with disabilities.

To determine if differences exist in the level of physical activity in people with different types of conditions associated with disability and to investigate if fear of falling is associated with physical activity in individuals who are aging with a long‐term disability.

Cross‐sectional retrospective design.


A convenience sample of 1812 community‐dwelling individuals who had one of four diagnoses: multiple sclerosis (MS), muscular dystrophy (MD), spinal cord injury (SCI), or post‐polio syndrome (PPS).

Descriptive statistics, chi‐square, and analysis of variance, followed by multivariate linear regression analysis were used to examine the association between physical activity status and fear of falling.

Physical activity volume and fear of falling.

After controlling for age, sex, duration of disability, and mobility level, there was variation across diagnostic groups (P < .001). People with SCI reported greater physical activity (M = 25.19) compared to other groups (MS: M = 18.70; MD: M = 21.83; PPS: M = 15.47). Patients with PPS had the greatest concerns about falling (M = 16.08), and patients with MS had the lowest (M = 13.12). Fear of falling was associated with physical activity (P < .001), which remained significant after controlling for diagnosis type, falls history, and level of mobility.

Level of physical activity appears to vary among disability diagnoses. These results highlight the importance of addressing fear of falling in people with long‐term disability because fear of falling is associated with physical activity.
Ageing, Late Effects of Polio
A Review of Secondary Health Conditions in Post-Polio Syndrome: Prevalence and Effects of Aging
Objective—This study seeks to better understand the prevalence and severity of secondary health conditions in individuals with post-polio syndrome (PPS), and the association between these conditions and aging.

Design—A scoping literature review was conducted searching electronic databases for studies published from 1986 – 2011. The scoping review provided information regarding the prevalence and associations of secondary health conditions in PPS with age or other duration-related variables.

Results—The findings indicate that: (1) individuals with PPS experience a number of serious secondary health conditions; (2) the most common conditions or symptoms are fatigue, pain, respiratory and sleep complaints, and increased risk of falls; (3) reports of the associations between the frequency or severity of conditions and age-related factors are variable, perhaps because of methodological inconsistencies between studies; and (4) there is a marked lack of longitudinal research examining the natural course of health conditions in people aging with PPS.

Conclusions—Longitudinal research is needed to understand the course of health conditions and the impact of multiple secondary conditions in people aging with PPS. Efforts are also needed to develop and test the efficacy of interventions to prevent these health secondary conditions or reduce their negative impact.

Post-Polio Syndrome; Secondary Conditions; Aging; Scoping Review
Anesthetic considerations for patients with postpolio syndrome: a case report.
Postpolio syndrome is a disorder related to the recurrence of neuromuscular symptoms in survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis. A comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology is necessary for the anesthesia provider to develop a safe anesthetic plan. This case report discusses the anesthetic challenges and considerations in patients with postpolio syndrome, focusing on the importance of careful pharmacologic dosing of opioids, and neuromuscular agents as well as perioperative and postoperative issues related to aspiration risks, cold intolerance, and positioning.
Anaesthesia, Surgery
Radiographic and Clinical Outcomes of Surgical Correction of Poliomyelitis-Related Spinal Deformities: A Comparison Among Three Types of Pelvic Instrumentations
We compared the clinical and radiographic outcomes of corrective surgery in patients with poliomyelitis-related spinal deformity (PSD) using 3 types of pelvic fixation and investigated the incidence and risk factors for complications.

We reviewed the data from 42 patients with PSD who had undergone spinopelvic reconstruction at a single institution from 2000 to 2016. Of the 42 patients, 15 had been treated with the Galveston technique, 13 with iliac screw fixation, and 14 with S2-alar-iliac (S2AI) screw fixation. Demographic data, radiographic parameters, and complications were analyzed. Health-related quality of life was determined using Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) 22-item questionnaires and the Oswestry Disability Index scores.

After surgery, the correction rate of the main curve was 51.7%, 57.8%, and 52.1% in the 3 groups, with significant improvement in regional kyphosis, coronal balance, and pelvic obliquity (PO) (P < 0.05). The correction of PO was similar among the 3 types of pelvic fixation; however, the patients treated with S2AI fixation required significantly less operative time (P < 0.05) and blood loss (P < 0.006). The overall complication rate was 40.5%, with a major complication rate of 23.8%. Age at surgery (P = 0.006) and grade >2 SRS-Schwab osteotomy (P = 0.036) were significant risk factors for complications. Significant improvement was found in the SRS-22 and Oswestry Disability Index scores at the final follow-up examination in the 3 groups.
Anaesthesia, Surgery
Outcome of femoral fractures in poliomyelitis patients
Background and purpose
As patients who were afflicted with poliomyelitis during the outbreaks in the past are aging, lower extremity osteoporotic fractures are becoming more frequent. Fixation in deformed, porotic bone, coupled with muscle weakness and imbalance creates a unique challenge when treating these fractures as does their reduced rehabilitation potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcome of femoral fractures in surviving poliomyelitis patients.

Patients and methods
Sixty-five patients with 74 femoral fractures were treated between 1990 and 2014. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Parkland and Palmer mobility score, and quality-of-life was assessed using the SF-12® score.

Some 84% of the fractures were a result of low-energy mechanisms and occurred in the polio-affected limbs, but nonaffected limbs were also injured owing to low-energy mechanisms in all cases. Fifty-seven fractures were treated operatively. There were nine re-operations (16%), including implant removals, nonunion, peri-implant fractures, and malunion. Some 60% of the patients did not regain their previous ambulatory capacity. Post-operative weight-bearing status did not correlate with the final functional outcome.
Anaesthesia, Surgery
Percutaneous Tracheostomy
Tracheostomy is a commonly performed surgical procedure in intensive care units (ICUs). Over the past three decades, there has been a substantial body of evidence to suggest percutaneous tracheostomy (PT) is at least as safe as surgical tracheostomy (ST) in the hands of trained clinicians. In most institutions, PT is more readily performed at bedside than ST in the ICU; hence, PT is an attractive alternative to ST in the ICU. Bedside PT generates significant cost savings by eliminating operating room and anesthesia charges. Bronchoscopy is commonly used as a visual aid during PT. Ultrasound (US)-guided PT is gaining popularity. It can be used as an adjunct or alternative to bronchoscopic-guided PT, especially in hospitals where access to bronchoscopy remains fairly limited and US is more widely available. There are many benefits in converting translaryngeal intubation to tracheostomy. It is widely accepted that tracheostomy is preferred if there is an anticipation of prolonged need for an artificial airway. The timing of this conversion from translaryngeal intubation to tracheostomy remains a subject of controversy. Limited data are available regarding the safety of PT on patients who are on dual antiplatelet therapy or active anticoagulation. Given the heterogeneity of PT techniques, adequate training and experience with the technique, coupled with careful planning are essential in minimizing any potential complication.
Assistive Technology
The extent of using mobility assistive devices can partly explain fatigue among persons with late effects of polio – a retrospective registry study in Sweden
Fatigue is reported as one of the most disabling symptoms and is common among persons living with late effects of polio. Although fatigue has been studied in the context of people living with late effects of polio, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the association of fatigue and variables of importance for participation in daily life. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore possible factors associated with fatigue among persons with late effects of polio in Sweden.

This retrospective registry study consisted of 89 persons with late effects of polio living in Sweden. Fatigue was measured with the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) scale, Swedish version. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to analyse the correlation between the factors and fatigue, and a multiple linear regression was carried out to explore factors for fatigue.

Fatigue statistically significantly correlated with age (r = 0.234, p < 0.05) and the use of mobility assistive devices (r = 0.255, p < 0.05). The multiple linear regression model showed that the factors age (β = 0.304, p < 0.019) and mobility assistive devices (β = 0.262, p < 0.017) were associated with fatigue among persons living with late effects of polio, and the model partly explained 14% of the variation of fatigue.
Assistive Technology
Mobility and participation among ageing powered wheelchair users: using a lifecourse approach
About 65 million people use wheelchairs worldwide. Powered wheelchairs offer independent mobility for those who find it difficult to propel a manual wheelchair. Previous studies have described powered wheelchairs as a mixed blessing for the users in terms of usability, accessibility, safety, cost and stigma; however, few studies have explored their impact on mobility and participation over time. Therefore, as part of a larger longitudinal study, we used a combined retrospective and prospective lifecourse perspective to explore the experiences of older adult powered wheelchair users. Based on the interpretive description approach, 19 participants took part in a series of semi-structured interviews over a two-year period about their mobility, social participation and ageing process. The participants were powered wheelchair users, at least 50 years of age, recruited in Vancouver, Montreal and Quebec City (Canada). We identified three themes that highlighted how the powered wheelchair experience was integrated into the life continuum of the users. ‘It's my legs’ emphasised how powered wheelchairs are a form of mobility that not only enables users to take part in activities, but also impacts their identities, past and present. ‘Wheels of change’ explored the dynamic nature of powered wheelchair use and changes related to ageing. ‘Getting around’ illustrated how users’ mobility was affected by the interaction with their physical and social environments.
Assistive Technology
Evaluation of Motor-Assisted Gloves (SEM Glove) for Patients with Functional Finger Disorders: a clinical pilot study
Summary: The SEM Glove developed by Bioservo Technologies AB is a new device that increases grip and
pinch force. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the device on the grip and pinch
strength of patients with functional disorders of the fingers.
Materials and Method: 30 hospitalized patients with upper limb functional disorder were enrolled. The assistance
of the device for the grip and pinch strength of each subject were assessed by the difference between the measured values with and without the SEM Glove. The 95% confidence interval of the difference was calculated
across the subjects, and statistical significance was defined as when the lower limit was a positive value (corresponding with a paired t-test at a significance level of 0.05). The odds ratio was calculated in the study of subject
adaptation, with statistical significance set using Fisher’s exact test at a significance level of 0.05.
Results: Grip strength significantly decreased (worn-not worn difference (kg): mean = –3.7, CI95 (–5.4, –2.1)).
Pinch strength (thumb - middle finger) significantly increased (worn-not worn difference (N): mean = -4.1, CI95
(1.6, 6.6)). Analysis of factors related to improvement in hand function when wearing the SEM Glove extracted
manual muscle tests (MMTs) of the upper extremity 4 or higher. The odds ratio was 6.11.
Assistive Technology, Late Effects of Polio
Coping with a Second Disability: Implications of the Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Occupational Therapists
The long term effects of many physical disabilities have only recently begun to be appreciated. For people who have lived for years with what they thought to be stable conditions, the onset of secondary disabilities may be associated with considerable problems and distress. A questionnaire survey of 324 people with poliomyelitis revealed the occurrence of late effects in 94% of respondents. The majority reported increased weakness, pain and fatigue, problems in carrying out daily living activities and difficulties in obtaining appropriate health care. Although occupational therapists were less likely to be consulted than other professionals, they received one of the highest satisfaction ratings from clients.
Assistive Technology, Orthoses
Evaluation of gait symmetry in poliomyelitis subjects: Comparison of a conventional knee-ankle-foot orthosis and a new powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis
BACKGROUND: Compared to able-bodied subjects, subjects with post-polio syndrome and poliomyelitis demonstrate a preference for weight-bearing on the non-paretic limb, causing gait asymmetry.

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gait symmetry of the poliomyelitis subjects when ambulating with either a drop-locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis or a newly developed powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis.

STUDY DESIGN: Quasi experimental study.

METHODS: Seven subjects with poliomyelitis who routinely wore conventional knee-ankle-foot orthoses participated in this study and received training to enable them to ambulate with the powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis on level ground, prior to gait analysis.

RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the gait symmetry index of step length (p = 0.085), stance time (p = 0.082), double-limb support time (p = 0.929), or speed of walking (p = 0.325) between the two test conditions. However, using the new powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis improved the symmetry index in step width (p = 0.037), swing time (p = 0.014), stance phase percentage (p = 0.008), and knee flexion during swing phase (p ⩽ 0.001) compared to wearing the drop-locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis.
Assistive Technology, Orthoses
Wearable monitoring devices for assistive technology: case studies in post-polio syndrome
The correct choice and customization of an orthosis are crucial to obtain the best comfort and efficiency. This study explored the feasibility of a multivariate quantitative assessment of the functional efficiency of lower limb orthosis through a novel wearable system. Gait basographic parameters and energetic indexes were analysed during a Six-Minute Walking Test (6-MWT) through a cost-effective, non-invasive polygraph device, with a multichannel wireless transmission, that carried out electro-cardiograph (ECG); impedance-cardiograph (ICG); and lower-limb accelerations detection. Four subjects affected by Post-Polio Syndrome (PPS) were recruited. The wearable device and the semi-automatic post-processing software provided a novel set of objective data to assess the overall efficiency of the patient-orthosis system. Despite the small number of examined subjects, the results obtained with this new approach encourage the application of the method thus enlarging the dataset to validate this promising protocol and measuring system in supporting clinical decisions and out of a laboratory environment.
Assistive Technology, Orthoses
Commonly Used Types and Recent Development of Ankle-Foot Orthosis: A Narrative Review
(1) Background: ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) is the most commonly prescribed orthosis to patients with foot drop, and ankle and foot problems. In this study, we aimed to review the commonly used types of AFO and introduce the recent development of AFO.

(2) Methods: narrative review.

(3) Results: AFO prevents the foot from being dragged, provides a clearance between the foot and the ground in the swinging phase of gait, and maintains a stable posture by allowing heel contact with the ground during the stance phase. In clinical practice, the most commonly used AFO include plastic AFO, walking boot, UD-Flex, and carbon fiber AFO. In addition, for compensating the demerits of these conventional AFOs, new types of AFOs, including AF Servo, TurboMed, three-dimensionally printed AFO, and AFO made from kenaf composites, were developed.

(4) Conclusions: we think that our review can guide clinicians in selecting and prescribing the appropriate AFO for each patient in accordance with their specific physical conditions.

Keywords: ankle-foot orthosis; orthosis; review
Assistive Technology, Quality of Life
Assistive technology and prediction of happiness in people with post-polio syndrome
PURPOSE: To explore the relationship between level of happiness in people with post-polio syndrome (PPS) and assistive technology (AT) by taking into account confounding factors such as age, gender and house composition.

METHOD: Existing data from 218 adults with PPS, who had completed a cross-sectional survey conducted by the British Polio Fellowship in 2007, were used for a secondary quantitative analysis. Ordinal logistic regression was applied to determine whether ownership of or the need for AT predicted happiness in people with PPS.

RESULTS: Ownership of AT did not predict happiness, whereas the perceived need for AT was a significant predictor of feeling less happy (p = 0.028). Among the different types of AT needed, only need of home adaptations combined with major equipment was close to being significantly associated with less happiness (p = 0.078). Being older (p < 0.001) and living with a partner (p < 0.001) significantly increased the likelihood of feeling happier.
Parallels between Post Polio fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome: a common pathophysiology?
Fatigue is the most commonly reported and most debilitating of post-polio sequelae affecting the >1.8 million North American polio survivors. Post-polio fatigue is characterized by subjective reports of difficulty with attention, cognition, and maintaining wakefulness. These symptoms resemble those reported in nearly 2 dozen outbreaks of post-viral fatigue syndromes (PVFS) that have recurred during this century and that are related clinically, historically, anatomically, or physiologically to poliovirus infections. This article reviews recent studies that relate the symptoms of post-polio fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) to clinically significant deficits on neuropsychologic tests of attention, histopathologic and neuroradiologic evidence of brain lesions, impaired activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, increased prolactin secretion, and electroencephalogram (EEG) slow-wave activity. A possible common pathophysiology for post-polio fatigue and CFS, based on the Brain Fatigue Generator Model of PVFS, and a possible pharmacotherapy for PVFS based on replacement of depleted brain dopamine, will be described
Physiology of the motor cortex in polio survivors.
We hypothesized that the corticospinal system undergoes functional changes in long-term polio survivors. Central motor conduction times (CMCTs) to the four limbs were measured in 24 polio survivors using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Resting motor thresholds and CMCTs were normal. In 17 subjects whose legs were affected by polio and 13 healthy controls, single- and paired-pulse TMS was used to assess motor cortex excitability while recording from tibialis anterior (TA) muscles at rest and following maximal contraction until fatigue. In polio survivors the slope of the recruitment curve was normal, but maximal motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were larger than in controls. MEPs were depressed after fatiguing exercise. Three patients with central fatigue by twitch interpolation had a trend toward slower recovery. There was no association with symptoms of post-polio syndrome. These changes occurring after polio may allow the motor cortex to activate a greater proportion of the motor neurons innervating affected muscles.
Cerebral changes in post-polio syndrome: A quantitative MRI study
Post-polio syndrome (PPS) has been traditionally considered a slowly progressive condition that affects polio survivors decades after their initial infection. Cerebral changes in PPS are poorly characterised and the few existing studies are strikingly conflicting.

The overarching aim of this study is the comprehensive characterisation of cerebral grey and white matter alterations in post-polio syndrome with reference to healthy- and disease-controls using quantitative imaging metrics.

Thirty-six patients with PPS, 88 patients with ALS and 117 healthy individuals were recruited in a prospective, single-centre neuroimaging study using uniform MRI acquisition parameters. All participants underwent standardised clinical assessments, T1-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Whole-brain imaging and region-of-interest analyses were undertaken to evaluate patterns of grey matter changes. Tract-based spatial statistics were utilised to assess changes in diffusivity metrics in a study-specific whiter matter skeleton.

In contrast to healthy controls, PPS patients exhibited increased grey matter density in the brainstem, cerebellum and occipital lobe, accompanied by increased FA in the corticospinal tracts, cerebellum, bilateral mesial temporal lobes and inferior frontal tracts. PPS patients exhibited increased integrity metrics in the same anatomical regions where ALS patients showed degenerative changes.

Our findings suggests that PPS is associated with considerable cortical and white matter reorganisation which may be interpreted as compensatory, adaptive change in response to severe lower motor neuron injury in infancy.
Cardiorespiratory, Late Effects of Polio, Respiratory Complications and Management
Obesity and Pulmonary Function in Polio Survivors
To examine the correlation between obesity and pulmonary function in polio survivors.

This study was conducted based on a questionnaire survey and physical examination. The questionnaire included gender, age, paralyzed regions, physical activity levels, and accompanying diseases. The physical examination included measuring body mass index, waist circumference, muscle power, total fat amount, body fat percentage, and lean body mass. In addition, pulmonary function was tested based on forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), ratio of FEV1 to FVC, and chest circumference. Five university hospitals and a local health clinic participated in this study.

Pearson and partial correlation coefficients that used data collected from 73 polio survivors showed that obesity had a negative correlation with pulmonary function.

This study found that pulmonary function has a negative correlation with obesity for polio survivors. Therefore, it is necessary to develop specialized exercise programs to help polio survivors reduce their weight and strengthen their respiratory muscles.
Cardiovascular, Exercise, Late Effects of Polio, Muscle Strength
Effects of muscle strengthening and cardiovascular fitness activities for poliomyelitis survivors: A systematic review and meta-anaylsis.
To evaluate and assess the effectiveness of muscle strengthening and cardiovascular interventions in improving outcomes in poliomyelitis (polio) survivors.

Data sources:
A systematic literature search was conducted in Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for experimental and observational studies.

Study selection and extraction:
Screening, data-extraction, risk of bias and quality assessment were carried out independently by the authors. The quality appraisal and risk of bias were assessed using the Downs and Black Checklist. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was followed to increase clarity of reporting.

Data synthesis:
A total of 21 studies that met all the inclusion criteria were subjected to statistical analyses according to intervention (muscle strengthening or cardiovascular fitness). A random-effects metaanalysis showed a statistically significant effect for the exercise interventions favouring improvement in outcomes according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

This review provides further insight into the effects associated with muscle strengthening and cardiovascular interventions among polio survivors, and helps to further identify the current state of research in this area. Future research is needed, focusing on individualized approaches to exercise with polio survivors and specific exercise prescription recommendations, based on established frameworks, such as the ICF.
Clinical Evaluation, Diagnosis and Management, Late Effects of Polio
Post-polio Syndrome: More Than Just a Lower Motor Neuron Disease
Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a neurological condition that affects polio survivors decades after their initial infection. Despite its high prevalence, the etiology of PPS remains elusive, mechanisms of progression are poorly understood, and the condition is notoriously under-researched. While motor dysfunction is a hallmark feature of the condition, generalized fatigue, sleep disturbance, decreased endurance, neuropsychological deficits, sensory symptoms, and chronic pain are also often reported and have considerable quality of life implications in PPS. The non-motor aspects of PPS are particularly challenging to evaluate, quantify, and treat. Generalized fatigue is one of the most distressing symptoms of PPS and is likely to be multifactorial due to weight-gain, respiratory compromise, poor sleep, and polypharmacy. No validated diagnostic, monitoring, or prognostic markers have been developed in PPS to date and the mainstay of therapy centers on symptomatic relief and individualized rehabilitation strategies such as energy conservation and muscle strengthening exercise regimes. Despite a number of large clinical trials in PPS, no effective disease-modifying pharmacological treatments are currently available.
Complementary Therapies
Myofascial Release: Perspective of an informed consumer.
As the recipient of over 50 myofascial release treatments for my polio-related symptoms administered by Steven Moreau, MS, Pz I want to discuss the
topic from the perspective of an informed consumer.
I have paraphrased and quoted from materials
prepared by Moreau.
Complementary Therapies
Hatha yoga and meditation in patients with post-polio syndrome
This paper does not have an abstract. The following is an extract:
Conemaugh Health System has completed a preliminary outcome study evaluating the benefits of Hatha yoga and meditation in patients with post-polio syndrome (PPS). This research integrates clinical trials investigating the application of Hatha yoga with ongoing patient care and education. The results of this clinical trial will be used to develop a longitudinal data collection effort integrating research and clinical trials investigating the applications of Hatha yoga in ongoing patient care and education.
Complementary Therapies
A randomized controlled trial of coenzyme Q10 for fatigue in the late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis
OBJECTIVE: To determine if coenzyme Q10 alleviates fatigue in the late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis.

DESIGN: Parallel-group, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

BACKGROUND SETTING: Coenzyme Q10 has been shown to boost muscle energy metabolism in post-polio subjects but it does not promote muscle strength, endurance or function in polio survivors with post-poliomyelitis syndrome. However, the collective increased energy metabolism might contribute to a reduction in post-polio fatigue.

PARTICIPANTS: Polio survivors from the Australian post-polio networks in Queensland and New South Wales who attribute a moderate to high level of fatigue to their diagnosed late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis. Those with fatigue-associated comorbidities of diabetes, anaemia, hypothyroidism and fibromyalgia were excluded.

METHOD: Participants were assigned (1:1), with stratification of those who use energy-saving mobility aids, to receive 100 mg coenzyme Q10 or matching placebo daily for 60 days. Participants and investigators were blinded to group allocation. Fatigue was assessed by the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue as the primary outcome and the Fatigue Severity Scale as secondary outcome.

RESULTS: Of 103 participants, 54 were assigned to receive coenzyme Q10 and 49 to receive the placebo. The difference in the mean score reductions between the two groups was not statistically significant for either fatigue measure. Oral supplementation with coenzyme Q10 was safe and well-tolerated.

The registration number for the clinical trial is ACTRN 12612000552886.
Complementary Therapies
Risk assessment and prognostic in patients with post polio syndrome according to systematic tongue analysis adapted from traditional Chinese medicine
Background: The tongue is used in traditional Chinese medicine for prognostic assessment. Muscle weakness, fatigue, pain and other symptoms occur with great variability in post polio syndrome (PPS).

Objective: Identify risk patients in a group with PPS through observation of tongue coating with systematic tongue analysis (STA).
Complementary Therapies
Clinical neurological and tongue inspection according to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) – evaluation of post polio syndrome patients
Objective: To describe tongue characteristics of PPS patients relating to neurology.

89 individuals were evaluated within a 12 month period, 61 (68,5%) females, 28(31,5%)males, aged from 32–57 years old (mean = 46). The most frequent characteristics were: decreased moisture (52.5%); thick whitish coating (60.7%); red color (46,1%), and normal movement (49.4%). The enlarged size (40.4%) prevailed over the small/thin size (15.7%). The presence of “other findings” (OF) was over 70%.
Complementary Therapies
Immediate and Long-Term Effects of Qigong on Cold Intolerance in Patients with Post-Poliomyelitis Syndrome
Post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) is a disorder in individuals who have had poliomyelitis, characterized by new muscle weakness and often associated with other symptoms, including cold intolerance (CI). Qigong is a Traditional Chinese Medicine technique to adjust energy and blood circulation. Objective: To verify the effects and late repercussions of Qigong on CI complaints in PPS patients. Methods: PPS patients (n = 22, 14 females, 8 males; ages 35 - 60) performed Qigong exercises in 40-minute sessions, three times per week, for three consecutive months. They were evaluated at baseline, the end of treatment and every three months for a year using a visual analogue scale adapted for CI (VAS-cold). Results: The systemic VAS-cold scores exhibited significant differences between the baseline, the end of treatment and throughout 12 months of follow-up. Conclusion: The CI scores were low and bearable at the end of intervention and for the following 12 months without activity.
Complementary Therapies
Whole body vibration on people with sequelae of polio
Purpose: The purpose was to explore the feasibility of whole body vibration (WBV) on polio survivors with/without post-polio syndrome (PPS) by studying its effects on walking speed (10-m walk test), endurance (2-min walk test), pain severity/interference (Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]), sleep quality (Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale), leg strength (manual muscle testing and hand-held dynamometry), and muscle cramping (written logs). Methods: Fifteen individuals completed the study, participating in eight sessions in two 4-week blocks. Participants started with ten 1-min vibration bouts/session, increasing to 20 min. Low (amplitude 4.53 mm, g force 2.21) and higher (amplitude 8.82 mm, g force 2.76) intensity blocked intervention occurred in random order crossover design. Blinded testing ensued before/after intervention blocks and at follow-up. Results: No study-related adverse events occurred. Participants starting first with higher intensity intervention improved in walking speed (p = 0.017). BPI pain severity significantly improved (p = 0.049) after higher intensity intervention. No significant changes were found after low intensity vibration or in other outcome measures. Conclusions: WBV appears to be a safe exercise for this population. Long-term use in polio survivors needs to be researched, particularly in reducing barriers to participation to promote the physical aspects of health.
Complementary Therapies
No Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Training on Muscle Strength and Gait Performance in Persons With Late Effects of Polio: A Pilot Study
To evaluate the feasibility and possible effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on muscle strength and gait performance in people with late effects of polio.

A case-controlled pilot study with assessments before and after training.

A university hospital rehabilitation department.

People (N=5; 3 men, 2 women; mean age, 64±6.7y; range, 55−71y) with clinically and electrophysiologically verified late effects of polio.

All participants underwent 10 sessions of supervised WBV training (standing with knees flexed 40°−55° up to 60 seconds per repetition and 10 repetitions per session twice weekly for 5 weeks).

Main Outcome Measures
Isokinetic and isometric knee muscle strength (dynamometer), and gait performance (Timed Up & Go, Comfortable Gait Speed, Fast Gait Speed, and six-minute walk tests).

All participants completed the 5 weeks of WBV training, with no discernible discomfort. No significant changes in knee muscle strength or gait performance were found after the WBV training period.
Complementary Therapies
Efficacy of Oral Care Provided by Interprofessional Collaboration for a Patient with Esophageal Cancer Associated with Post-polio Syndrome during Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.
Preoperative oral care is helpful to prevent postoperative complications in patients who are undergoing esophagectomy. Here, we report the case of an 81-year-old Japanese man with an upper limb disability caused by post-polio syndrome who was receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy for esophageal cancer. He had poor oral health status and developed oral complications as a side effect of chemotherapy. He could not brush his teeth by himself. However, infection control by oral care provided by an interprofessional collaboration successfully improved his oral hygiene, and his follow-up involved no severe complications. Interprofessional collaboration is useful especially for patients with upper limb disability.
Complementary Therapies
Pitting oedema in a polio survivor with lumbar radiculopathy complicated disc herniation
We report a 58-year-old male with sequelae of polio who presented with low back and left buttock pain, and pitting oedema of both legs for four months. The patient had a history of poliomyelitis at the age of 1 year which resulted in bilateral lower leg weakness, particularly on the left side. Magnetic resonance imaging showed cervical spinal stenosis secondary to posterior osteophyte formation, left paracentral disc extrusion at L2/L3 and L3/L4 levels with compression of the traversing L4 nerve root. The findings confirmed a diagnosis of lumbar radiculopathy caused by a herniated disc. The patient subsequently underwent a chiropractic treatment. The painful symptoms and pitting oedema in this case resolved with spinal adjustment in addition to scraping therapy to strengthen bilateral low back and the gluteal muscles. This case provides circumstantial evidence of a scarcely mentioned association between pitting oedema and lumbar radiculopathy caused by disc herniation. The pathophysiological mechanism is elusive, but might involve a complexity of cytokine-mediated inflammation and interconnection between somatic and autonomic nervous systems.
Urologic manifestations of postpolio syndrome
To determine the character and prevalence of bladder dysfunction among persons with a history of polio, we conducted a survey of randomly selected polio survivors. The survey solicited information on the acute episode of polio and the nature of late-onset neurologic symptoms that could be attributed to postpolio syndrome. There were 242 female and 88 male respondents to the study. Symptoms attributable to postpolio syndrome were present in 87.2% of female subjects and 73.9% of male subjects. Respondents with postpolio syndrome had a significantly greater prevalence of urologic symptoms than seen among respondents without postpolio syndrome, although no dominant pattern of voiding dysfunction was noted. The early onset of erectile dysfunction was more common among male subjects with postpolio syndrome than among male subjects without postpolio syndrome. Genuine stress incontinence was seen in 36.3% of the survey population. Sixteen women with postpolio syndrome underwent surgical repair for urinary incontinence, with a success rate of 60.5%. Bladder disorders are common among persons with PPS, but further clinical and urodynamic data are necessary to define the nature and magnitude of this dysfunction.
Bladder symptoms among polio survivors
OBJECTIVE: To describe bladder symptoms among polio survivors and the inconvenience they cause.

DESIGN: A survey using the validated Danish Prostatic Symptom Score questionnaire concerning bladder symptoms.

SUBJECTS: A random age- and gender-stratified sample of polio survivors drawn from members of the Danish Society of Polio and Accident Victims.

METHODS: Eligible subjects were sent the questionnaire by post.

RESULTS: Of 453 eligible subjects 272 responded. Within 2 weeks 87.5% of respondents had experienced at least one bladder symptom, and 76.5% reported that they had been bothered by a bladder symptom. Out of the 12 symptoms in the questionnaire we found a significant gender difference, with straining and weak stream reported more often among men, and urge incontinence reported more often among women. Incontinence occurred significantly more often among women (73.3%) than among men (40.9%). Compared with a similar study of the background population, bladder symptoms overall occurred approximately twice as often among polio survivors.
Pelvic floor and poliomyelitis. Case report
Introduction: Living with polio increases the risk of having bladder dysfunction. Normal pelvic visceral function depends on the complex interactions
of intact somatic and autonomic nervous systems. Tests that are used to investigate the integrity of the somatic innervation of the pelvic floor muscles and urinary and anal sphincters include electromyography (EMG), nerve conduction studies and the evaluation of the sacral reflexes.
Clinical Picture and Investigation: A 53-year-old South-American man who had a history of poliomyelitis which affected his lower right limb
when he was 2 years old. Patient was unable to empty his bladder completely. The aim of this paper is to describe the correlation between pelvic
floor dysfunction, bladder symptoms and neurophysiological tests in poliomyelitis.
Coping Styles and Strategies
Aging With Long-Term Mobility Impairment: Maintaining Activities of Daily Living via Selection, Optimization, and Compensation
There is a growing number of adults with long-term mobility impairment aging into the older adult population. Little is known about the experiences of these individuals in maintaining activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) as they face age-related changes in addition to a pre-existing mobility impairment.

Research Design and Methods
Through in-home interviews with 21 participants (ages 52–86) with long-term mobility impairment, the present study employed a qualitative description design to explore perceptions of how and why select ADL/IADL routines (e.g., bed transfer, toileting) have changed over time. The selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) model was used as a framework to organize participants’ adaptations.

Among the ADL/IADL routine changes mentioned, elective selection strategies, in which a person continues to work at maintaining a task, were more frequently endorsed than loss-based selection strategies, in which a person does a task less or gets help from someone. Findings suggest that this population is actively adapting their routines to preserve their involvement in, and frequency of doing, these ADLs/IADLs. Counter to expectation, perceived age-related changes underlying activity routine changes were subtle and generally did not include sensory and cognitive declines.

Discussion and Implications
Findings provide insights into the difficulties adults with long-term mobility impairment experience as they age, as well as the adaptations they employ to overcome those challenges. Results highlight the need for customizable, mobility supports (e.g., assistive technologies, home modifications) that can adjust to an individual’s changing abilities across the life span.
Coping Styles and Strategies
Post-polio syndrome: psychological adjustment to disability.
Although the Pan American Health Organization declared in 1995 that polio had been eliminated in the Western Hemisphere, life-altering effects of the disease continue for many survivors. It is known as Post-Polio Syndrome (PPS). The sheer number of individuals experiencing the symptoms has attracted the attention of the medical community. These physical symptoms are severe enough to change the quality of life and require lifestyle changes for people with PPS to cope with the disease. The psychological implications for individuals who must face the reemergence of a disease they thought they had defeated 30 to 40 years ago are staggering. Thus, there is a crucial need for health care professionals, especially mental health nurses and psychotherapists, to address mental health issues that individuals with PPS experience.
Cultural Context, Disability Rights, Late Effects of Polio, Quality of Life, Vocational Implications
“The car is my extra legs” – Experiences of outdoor mobility amongst immigrants in Sweden with late effects of polio
The aim of the study was to describe the experience of outdoor mobility among immigrants with late effects of polio living in Sweden. There is a need to understand more about this young group of persons since they often have problems with mobility and gait, but they may also face participation restrictions due to issues associated with integration into a new community and culture.

A total of 14 young immigrants with late effects of polio participated and were interviewed individually. The study used a qualitative method to explore personal experiences and the interviews were analyzed through an inductive approach, using qualitative content analysis.

The analysis led to a major theme; self-image and acceptance, that comprised a changeable process and experiences of cultural, social, and gender-specific barriers, but also of environmental and personal factors that impacted their outdoor mobility. By using a car, the participants felt they could come across as normal which also increased their self-esteem.

Independent mobility is a major enabler for ongoing employment and being able to use a car increases the chances for integration into society for young immigrants with late effects of polio. Public transport is not considered to be adequate or efficient enough due to the participants’ mobility impairments, but driving can prevent involuntary isolation and facilitate participation. A car can increase quality of life but may also be a facilitator for work and reduce the demand for societal support.
Diagnosis and Management
The cultural context of polio biographies
Cultural contexts influence the ways individuals interpret and experience functional losses associated with post-polio sequelae. Using in-depth multiple interview case studies from two National Institute on Aging projects, the concept of “biographies” is presented to place the individuals’ polio-related experiences within the context of their lives. Two major cultural contexts shape the construction of polio biographies: normative life course expectations and developmental tasks; and traditions associated with polio recovery and rehabilitation. The authors identify key dimensions of personal concern among polio survivors that can be used as entrance points for effective clinical intervention and to promote treatment compliance.
Diagnosis and Management
Management of post-polio syndrome (1997)
The management of patients presenting with post-poliomyelitis syndrome is discussed. It is essential to identify and treat other medical and neurological conditions which could produce these symptoms. New weakness can be managed with exercise, avoidance of muscular overuse, weight loss, orthoses and assistive devices. Fatigue can be managed with energy conservation techniques. The management of pain is dependent upon its causes. Treatments are reviewed.
Diagnosis and Management
Post-polio sequelae - differential diagnosis and management
Forty-two patients with a past history of poliomyelitis were evaluated at a post-polio clinic for new problems or impairments. Evaluation included a complete history, neurological and biomechanical examination and electrodiagnostic studies. Based on this evaluation patients were placed into three groups: 23 patients were considered to have or likely to have Progressive Post-Polio Muscular Atrophy (PPPMA); 17 patients were considered to have other post-polio sequelae; and two patients had problems unrelated to a past history of polio but mistaken for post-polio sequelae. Musculoskeletal pain was a common complaint among all groups of patients. Twenty-two of the 40 patients with post-polio sequelae were advised to alter their method of ambulation and/or decrease their activity pattern in order to decrease strain and/or excessive exertion of involved muscles. The role of chronic overuse and exercise in producing PPPMA or musculoskeletal pain problems is discussed. Characteristic clinical problems and useful management plans are described.
Diagnosis and Management
Effect of treatment and noncompliance on post-polio sequelae
In this study of 77 patients with post-polio sequelae (PPS), symptoms and manual test scores on initial evaluation were compared with those at subsequent follow-up evaluations. Patients were divided into three groups based on the degree to which they had complied with clinically recommended interventions: compliers, partial compliers, and noncompliers. At the end of the follow-up period (2.2 +/- 1.2 years), the mean muscle function scores of the entire study group had declined -1.5%, which represented a decline of -0.7% annually. On follow-up evaluations, the complier group had realized an improvement or resolution of post-polio symptoms, and also an improvement in muscle function of +0.6% annually. The partial complier group had realized either no improvement, or improvement in post-polio symptoms, but showed a further decline in muscle function of -3.0%, or an annual decline of -1.3%. The noncomplier group showed either no change, or a worsening of post-polio symptoms, and also showed a further decline in muscle function of -4.1%, which represented an annual decline of -2.0%.
Diagnosis and Management
Polioencephalitis, stress, and the etiology of post-polio sequelae
Post-mortem neurohistopathologies that document polio virus-induced lesions in reticular formation and hypothalamic, thalamic, peptidergic, and monoaminergic neurons in the brain are reviewed from 158 individuals who contracted polio before 1950. This polioencephalitis was found to occur in every case of poliomyelitis, even those without evidence of damage to spinal motor neurons. These findings, in combination with data from the 1990 National Post-Polio Survey and new magnetic resonance imaging studies documenting post-encephalitis-like lesions in the brains of polio survivors, are used to present two hypotheses: 1) polioencephalitic damage to aging reticular activating system and monoaminergic neurons is responsible for post-polio fatigue, and 2) polioencephalitic damage to enkephalin-producing neurons is responsible for hypersensitivity to pain in polio survivors. In addition, the antimetabolic action of glucocorticoids on polio-damaged, metabolically vulnerable neurons may be responsible for the fatigue and muscle weakness reported by polio survivors during emotional stress.
Diagnosis and Management
EFNS guideline on diagnosis and management of post-polio syndrome - report of an EFNS task force
Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is characterized by new or increased muscular weakness, atrophy, muscle pain and fatigue several years after acute polio. The aim of the article is to prepare diagnostic criteria for PPS, and to evaluate the existing evidence for therapeutic interventions. The Medline, EMBASE and ISI databases were searched. Consensus in the group was reached after discussion by e-mail. We recommend Halstead's definition of PPS from 1991 as diagnostic criteria. Supervised, aerobic muscular training, both isokinetic and isometric, is a safe and effective way to prevent further decline for patients with moderate weakness (Level B). Muscular training can also improve muscular fatigue, muscle weakness and pain. Training in a warm climate and non-swimming water exercises are particularly useful (Level B). Respiratory muscle training can improve pulmonary function. Recognition of respiratory impairment and early introduction of non-invasive ventilatory aids prevent or delay further respiratory decline and the need for invasive respiratory aid (Level C). Group training, regular follow-up and patient education are useful for the patients' mental status and well-being. Weight loss, adjustment and introduction of properly fitted assistive devices should be considered (good practice points). A small number of controlled studies of potential-specific treatments for PPS have been completed, but no definitive therapeutic effect has been reported for the agents evaluated (pyridostigmine, corticosteroids, amantadine). Future randomized trials should particularly address the treatment of pain, which is commonly reported by PPS patients. There is also a need for studies evaluating the long-term effects of muscular training.
Diagnosis and Management
Post-polio sequelae: physiological and psychological overview
When the Salk and Sabin vaccines brought an end to the annual summer nightmare of polio epidemics, most Americans simply forgot about polio. Even many of those who had paralytic poliomyelitis put the disease out of their minds once they had achieved maximum recovery of function. Unfortunately, polio has again forced itself into the nation's consciousness. Over the past five years, many of those who had polio have been experiencing new and unexpected symptoms that range in severity from being merely unpleasant to severely debilitating.
Diagnosis and Management
Management of postpolio syndrome (2010)
Postpolio syndrome is characterised by the exacerbation of existing or new health problems, most often muscle weakness and fatigability, general fatigue, and pain, after a period of stability subsequent to acute polio infection. Diagnosis is based on the presence of a lower motor neuron disorder that is supported by neurophysiological findings, with exclusion of other disorders as causes of the new symptoms. The muscle-related effects of postpolio syndrome are possibly associated with an ongoing process of denervation and reinnervation, reaching a point at which denervation is no longer compensated for by reinnervation. The cause of this denervation is unknown, but an inflammatory process is possible. Rehabilitation in patients with postpolio syndrome should take a multiprofessional and multidisciplinary approach, with an emphasis on physiotherapy, including enhanced or individually modified physical activity, and muscle training. Patients with postpolio syndrome should be advised to avoid both inactivity and overuse of weak muscles. Evaluation of the need for orthoses and assistive devices is often required.
Diagnosis and Management
Characteristics and management of postpolio syndrome
Postpolio syndrome (PPS) refers to new, late manifestations occurring many years after acute poliomyelitis infection. Over the last 25 years, PPS has become a relatively common problem encountered by primary care physicians. A 1987 National Health Interview Survey estimated that about half of the 640,000 survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis in the United States had new late manifestations of PPS. Subsequent studies in the 1990s have found the occurrence of PPS among patients with previous poliomyelitis to range from 28.5% to 64%. The average time in various reports from the acute poliomyelitis until the onset of PPS is about 35 years, with a range from 8 to 71 years. However, it is unclear if the occurrence of PPS increases with aging, which may be the case based on the most accepted etiologic hypothesis.
Diagnosis and Management
Postpolio syndrome: unanswered questions regarding cause, course, risk factors, and therapies
Living with the consequences of poliomyelitis is not recognised as an important health issue at present. However, millions of people worldwide have lasting impairments caused by polio infection, many of whom also had a decline in muscle function and decline in activities of daily living after years of stable functioning.
Diagnosis and Management
Postpolio syndrome
This paper has no abstract - this is an extract:

Postpolio syndrome (PPS) refers to a decline of muscle function usually occurring 30 to 40 years after the acute polio episode. This syndrome has been widely recognized only during the last decades, when many people affected by the large epidemics of the previous century experienced new muscle weakness as they grew older. However, cases of late-onset weakening following poliomyelitis were already reported at the end of the 19th century.
Diagnosis and Management
Epidemiology of the post-polio syndrome
A late-onset syndrome, consisting of muscle weakness, muscle pain, and unaccustomed fatigue, has been reported with increasing frequency among former poliomyelitis patients. A population-based cohort of poliomyelitis patients from Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, was traced and surveyed to estimate the prevalence and incidence and to identify determinants of the post-polio syndrome. A questionnaire validated in clinical examinations of 40 cohort members was used in the survey. The prevalence of the post-polio syndrome was 28.5% of all paralytic cases (95% confidence interval 24.4-32.6). The risk of post-polio syndrome was significantly higher among patients who sustained substantial permanent impairment after polio and among females. The incidence did not vary with age at acute onset, acute severity, or level of physical activity after recovery. The strongest determinant of post-polio syndrome onset was the length of the interval following the acute illness, with incidence peaking at 30-34 years. Of all cases of post-polio syndrome, 79% reported no major change in impairment status since onset. This study demonstrates that poliomyelitis patients are not equally susceptible to post-polio syndrome within the interval of 30-40 years after the original illness. For syndrome cases, the onset was associated with new neuromuscular symptoms and functional changes but not with major new impairment.
Diagnosis and Management
Post-poliomyelitis syndrome (2005)
Post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) is a common neurological disorder that occurs in a large proportion of individuals who have recovered from paralytic poliomyelitis. The main clinical features are new weakness, muscular fatigability, general fatigue, and pain. The primary criteria necessary for the diagnosis of PPS are a history of paralytic poliomyelitis, partial or complete recovery of neurological function followed by a period of stability (usually several decades), persistent new muscle weakness or abnormal muscle fatigability, and the exclusion of other causes of new symptoms. The cause of PPS remains unclear, but is likely due to a distal degeneration of enlarged post-poliomyelitis motor units. Contributing factors to PPS may be aging (with motor neuron loss), overuse, and disuse. PPS is usually a slowly progressive neuromuscular disease. Although there is no specific treatment for PPS, an interdisciplinary management program can be useful in controlling symptoms.
Diagnosis and Management
Cardiac risk factors in polio survivors
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of dyslipidemia and other risk factors for coronary heart disease in a sample of polio survivors with and without postpoliomyelitis syndrome.

DESIGN: Retrospective chart review.

SETTING: A multidisciplinary outpatient postpolio clinic.

PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-eight consecutive symptomatic postpolio patients, 50 women (mean age, 59.0y; range, 36-81y) and 38 men (mean age, 61.2y; range, 44-83y).

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence of risk factors for coronary heart disease: clinical atherosclerotic disease, male age >or=45 years or female age >or=55 years, history of hypertension (blood pressure >or=140/90mmHg or on antihypertensive medication), diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) less than 35mg/dL. Obesity (body mass index [BMI], >25kg/m(2)) was assessed as an intervention target. Laboratory values included fasting total cholesterol, HDL, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and glucose.

RESULTS: Of the total sample, 61.3% had dyslipidemia. Average HDL cholesterol ratio was 4.01 (women, 3.68; men, 4.55). Forty-four patients (50%) had a history of hypertension or had elevated blood pressure. Seven patients (8%) had a history of diabetes or had elevated fasting blood glucose (>110). Eighteen patients (20.4%) were smokers or had a history of smoking; 9 continued to smoke and 9 had quit smoking. Twenty-five patients (28.4%) were overweight (BMI, >25kg/m(2)). Forty-one patients (46.5%) had more than 1 risk factor for coronary heart disease. Nine of the total sample (10.2%) had a history of heart disease ranging from atrial fibrillation to angina. Only 19 patients had a previous diagnosis of dyslipidemia and only 12 were on a lipid-lowering medication.
Diagnosis and Management
Update on current and emerging treatment options for post-polio syndrome
Post-polio syndrome (PPS) refers to the clinical deterioration experienced by many polio survivors several decades after their acute illness. The symptoms are new muscle weakness, decreased muscle endurance, fatigue, muscle pain, joint pain, cold intolerance, and this typical clinical entity is reported from different parts of the world. The pathophysiology behind PPS is not fully understood, but a combination of distal degeneration of enlarged motor units caused by increased metabolic demands and the normal aging process, in addition to inflammatory mechanisms, are thought to be involved. There is no diagnostic test for PPS, and the diagnosis is based on a proper clinical workup where all other possible explanations for the new symptoms are ruled out. The basic principle of management of PPS lies in physical activity, individually tailored training programs, and lifestyle modification. Muscle weakness and muscle pain may be helped with specific training programs, in which training in warm water seems to be particularly helpful. Properly fitted orthoses can improve the biomechanical movement pattern and be energy-saving. Fatigue can be relieved with lifestyle changes, assistive devices, and training programs. Respiratory insufficiency can be controlled with noninvasive respiratory aids including biphasic positive pressure ventilators. Pharmacologic agents like prednisone, amantadine, pyridostigmine, and coenzyme Q10 are of no benefit in PPS. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been tried in three studies, all having positive results. IVIG could probably be a therapeutic alternative, but the potential benefit is modest, and some important questions are still unanswered, in particular to which patients this treatment is useful, the dose, and the therapeutic interval.
Diagnosis and Management
Physiotherapy for poliomyelitis: a descriptive study in the Republic of Congo
BACKGROUND: A large poliomyelitis outbreak occurred in 2010 in the Republic of Congo. This paper describes the demographic and clinical characteristics of poliomyelitis cases and their outcomes following physiotherapy.

FINDINGS: Demographic and clinical data were collected on 126 individuals between November 23, 2010 and March 23, 2011. The male/female ratio was 2.5 and the median age was 19 years (IQR: 13.5-23). The most severe forms of the disease were more common in older patients, 81 of the 126 patients (64.3%) had multiple evaluations of muscle strength. Among patients with multiple evaluations, 38.1% had improved strength at final evaluation, 48.3% were stable and 13.6% had decreased strength.
Diagnosis and Management
Post-poliomyelitis syndrome as a possible viral disease
This review summarizes current concepts on post-polio syndrome (PPS), a condition that may arise in polio survivors after partial or complete functional recovery followed by a prolonged interval of stable neurological function. PPS affects 15-20 million people worldwide. Epidemiological data are reported, together with the pathogenic pathways that possibly lead to the progressive degeneration and loss of neuromuscular motor units. As a consequence of PPS, polio survivors experience new weakness, generalized fatigue, atrophy of previously unaffected muscles, and a physical decline that may culminate in the loss of independent life. Emphasis is given to the possible pathogenic role of persistent poliovirus infection and chronic inflammation. These factors could contribute to the neurological and physical decline in polio survivors. A perspective is then given on novel anti-poliovirus compounds and monoclonal antibodies that have been developed to contribute to the final phases of polio eradication. These agents could also be useful for the treatment or prevention of PPS. Some of these compounds/antibodies are in early clinical development. Finally, current clinical trials for PPS are reported. In this area, the intravenous infusion of normal human immunoglobulins appears both feasible and promising.
Diagnosis and Management
Treatment for postpolio syndrome
BACKGROUND: Postpolio syndrome (PPS) may affect survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis and is characterised by a complex of neuromuscular symptoms leading to a decline in physical functioning. The effectiveness of pharmacological treatment and rehabilitation management in PPS is not yet established. This is an update of a review first published in 2011.

OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the evidence from randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials for the effect of any pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment for PPS compared to placebo, usual care or no treatment.

SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases on 21 July 2014: Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL Plus. We also checked reference lists of all relevant articles, searched the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database and trial registers and contacted investigators known to be involved in research in this area.

SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of any form of pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment for people with PPS. The primary outcome was self perceived activity limitations and secondary outcomes were muscle strength, muscle endurance, fatigue, pain and adverse events.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration.

MAIN RESULTS: We included 10 pharmacological (modafinil, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), pyridostigmine, lamotrigine, amantadine, prednisone) and three non-pharmacological (muscle strengthening, rehabilitation in a warm climate (that is temperature ± 25°C, dry and sunny) and a cold climate (that is temperature ± 0°C, rainy or snowy), static magnetic fields) studies with a total of 675 participants with PPS in this review. None of the included studies were completely free from any risk of bias, the most prevalent risk of bias being lack of blinding.There was moderate- and low-quality evidence that IVIg has no beneficial effect on activity limitations in the short term and long term, respectively, and inconsistency in the evidence for effectiveness on muscle strength. IVIg caused minor adverse events in a substantial proportion of the participants. Results of one trial provided very low-quality evidence that lamotrigine might be effective in reducing pain and fatigue, resulting in fewer activity limitations without generating adverse events. Data from two single trials suggested that muscle strengthening of thumb muscles (very low-quality evidence) and static magnetic fields (moderate-quality evidence) are safe and beneficial for improving muscle strength and pain, respectively, with unknown effects on activity limitations. Finally, there was evidence varying from very low quality to high quality that modafinil, pyridostigmine, amantadine, prednisone and rehabilitation in a warm or cold climate are not beneficial in PPS.
Diagnosis and Management
Unraveling the transmission ecology of polio
Sustained and coordinated vaccination efforts have brought polio eradication within reach. Anticipating the eradication of wild poliovirus (WPV) and the subsequent challenges in preventing its re-emergence, we look to the past to identify why polio rose to epidemic levels in the mid-20th century, and how WPV persisted over large geographic scales. We analyzed an extensive epidemiological dataset, spanning the 1930s to the 1950s and spatially replicated across each state in the United States, to glean insight into the drivers of polio’s historical expansion and the ecological mode of its persistence prior to vaccine introduction. We document a latitudinal gradient in polio’s seasonality. Additionally, we fitted and validated mechanistic transmission models to data from each US state independently. The fitted models revealed that: (1) polio persistence was the product of a dynamic mosaic of source and sink populations; (2) geographic heterogeneity of seasonal transmission conditions account for the latitudinal structure of polio epidemics; (3) contrary to the prevailing “disease of development” hypothesis, our analyses demonstrate that polio’s historical expansion was straightforwardly explained by demographic trends rather than improvements in sanitation and hygiene; and (4) the absence of clinical disease is not a reliable indicator of polio transmission, because widespread polio transmission was likely in the multiyear absence of clinical disease. As the world edges closer to global polio eradication and continues the strategic withdrawal of the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV), the regular identification of, and rapid response to, these silent chains of transmission is of the utmost importance.
Diagnosis and Management
Nonparalytic polio and postpolio syndrome
We describe four cases of postpolio syndrome with typical histories, physical examination results, and electrodiagnostic evidence of extensive anterior horn cell disease, as well as the putative pathophysiology of postpolio syndrome in persons with histories of nonparalytic polio and the diagnostic implications for individuals older than 40 yr of age who are experiencing unexplained new weakness, fatigue, and muscle or joint pain. Although the diagnosis of postpolio syndrome traditionally has required a remote history of paralytic polio, many persons such as the ones described here with typical symptoms of postpolio syndrome have no clear history of paralytic disease and are being misdiagnosed. With this in mind, we believe that the diagnostic criteria for postpolio syndrome should be modified to include the following: a history of remote paralytic polio or findings on history, physical examination results, and laboratory studies compatible with poliovirus damage of the central nervous system earlier in life.
Diagnosis and Management
Paralytic vs "nonparalytic" polio: distinction without a difference?
Nonparalytic polio (NPP) is commonly thought to be synonymous with "abortive polio," in which the poliovirus neither entered the central nervous system nor damaged neurons. Described are two epidemic illness-"The Summer Grippe" and Iceland disease-apparently caused by a low virulence but neuropathic type 2 poliovirus. Studies show that neuronal lesions in the brain and spinal cord and muscle weakness were common in NPP, and epidemiologic studies document late-onset weakness and fatigue in 14% to 42% of NPP survivors. These findings indicate that clinicians should not require a history of paralytic polio, electromyographic evidence of denervation, and new muscle weakness for the diagnosis of "Postpolio Syndrome" but should be aware that NPP, and possibly even poliovirus-induced "minor illnesses," can be associated with acute central nervous system damage and late-onset muscle weakness and fatigue.
Diagnosis and Management
Frequency and clinical manifestations of post-poliomyelitis syndrome in a Brazilian tertiary care center
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and clinical manifestations of patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) in a Brazilian division of neuromuscular disorders.

METHODS: A total of 167 patients with prior history of paralytic poliomyelitis was investigated for PPS, based on international diagnostic criteria. Other variables analyzed were: gender, race, age at poliomyelitis infection, age at PPS onset, and PPS symptoms.

RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-nine patients presented PPS, corresponding to 77.2% of the studied population. 62.8% were women and 37.2% were men. Mean age of patients with PPS at onset of PPS symptoms was 39.9±9.69 years. Their main clinical manifestations were: new weakness in the previously affected limbs (69%) and in the apparently not affected limbs (31%); joint pain (79.8%); fatigue (77.5%); muscle pain (76%); and cold intolerance (69.8%).
Diagnosis and Management
A positive turning point in life -- how persons with late effects of polio experience the influence of an interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme
OBJECTIVE: To describe and enhance our understanding of how persons with late effects of polio experience the influence of an interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme.

PARTICIPANTS: Twelve persons with clinically verified late effects of polio who had participated in an individualized, goal-oriented, comprehensive interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme.

METHODS: Qualitative research interviews analysed using the constant comparative method of grounded theory.

RESULTS: The rehabilitation programme was experienced as a turning point in the participants' lives. Before rehabilitation they felt they were on a downward slope without control. Rehabilitation was the start of a process of change whereby they acquired new skills, which, over time, contributed to a different but good life. After approximately a year, they had a sense of control and had accepted life with late effects of polio. They had also established new habits, taken on a changed valued self and could look to the future with confidence.
Diagnosis and Management
The post-polio syndrome as an evolved clinical entity. Definition and clinical description.
Post-polio syndrome (PPS) refers to the new neuromuscular symptoms that occur at least 15 years after stability in patients with prior acute paralytic polio-myelitis. They include: (1) new muscle weakness and atrophy in the limbs, the bulbar or the respiratory muscles [post-poliomyelitis muscular atrophy (PPMA)] and (2) excessive muscle fatigue and diminished physical endurance. PPS is a clinical diagnosis that requires exclusion of all other medical, neurological, orthopedic or psychiatric diseases that could explain the cause of the new symptoms. Routine electromyography is useful to confirm chronic and ongoing denervation and exclude neuropathies. Muscle biopsy, single fiber electromyography (EMG), macro-EMG, serum antibody titers to polio virus, and spinal fluid studies are very useful research tools but they are rarely needed to establish the clinical diagnosis. PPS is a slowly progressive phenomenon with periods of stability that vary from 3 to 10 years. Current evidence indicates that PPS is the evolution of a subclinically ongoing motor neuron dysfunction that begins after the time of the acute polio. It is clinically manifested as PPS when the well-compensated reinnervating process crosses a critical threshold beyond which the remaining motor neurons cannot maintain the innervation to all the muscle fibers within their motor unit territory.
Diagnosis and Management
Predictive Factors for Post-Poliomyelitis Syndrome
Post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) is generally defined as a clinical syndrome of new weakness, fatigue, and pain in individuals who have previously recovered from acute paralytic poliomyelitis. The purpose of this study was to identify, through a case-control study design, factors that predict subsequent PPS in patients with prior paralytic poliomyelitis. Among patients attending a university-affiliate hospital post-polio clinic, "cases" were patients with new weakness and fatigue, and "controls" were patients without these complaints. A chart review of 353 patients identified 127 cases and 39 controls. Logistic regression modeling was used to calculate adjusted and unadjusted odds ratios. In univariate analyses, significant risk factors for PPS were a greater age at time of presentation to clinic (p = 0.01), a longer time since acute polio (p = 0.01), and more weakness at acute polio (p = 0.02). Other significant associated, but not necessarily causal factors were a recent weight gain (p = 0.005), muscle pain (p = 0.01) particularly that associated with exercise (p = 0.005), and joint pain (p = 0.04). Multivariate analyses revealed that a model containing age at presentation to clinic, severity of weakness at acute polio, muscle pain with exercise, recent weight gain, and joint pain best distinguished cases from controls. Age at acute polio, degree of recovery after polio, weakness at best point after polio, physical activity, and sex were not contributing factors. These findings suggest that the degree of initial motor unit involvement as measured by weakness at acute polio, and possibly the aging process and overuse are important in predicting PPS.
Diagnosis and Management
National Rehabilitation Hospital Limb Classification for Exercise, Research, and Clinical Trials in Post-Polio Patients
Diagnosis and Management
Polio survivors perceptions of a multi-disciplinary rehabilitation programme
Purpose: Post-polio syndrome refers to a late complication of the poliovirus infection. Management of post-polio syndrome is complex due to the extensive symptomology. European and United Kingdom guidelines have advised the use of rehabilitation programmes to manage post-polio syndrome. There is a paucity of research in relation to the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions. The objective of this study is to explore polio survivor’s perceptions of an in-patient multi-disciplinary rehabilitation programme.

Methods: Semi-structured interviews of community dwelling polio survivors who attended in-patient rehabilitation programme in the United Kingdom. Thematic analysis was used to describe and interpret interview data.

Results: Participants’ experiences were influenced by past experiences of polio and their self-concept. Participants generally had a positive experience and valued being with other polio survivors. Positive strategies, such as pacing and reflection changed their mind-sets into their lives after the programme, though they still faced challenges in daily living. Some participants supported others with post-polio syndrome after completing the programme.

Diagnosis and Management
Characteristics of Patients at First Visit to a Polio Clinic in Sweden
Describe polio patients visiting a polio clinic in Sweden, a country where vaccination was introduced in 1957.

A consecutive cohort study.

Prior polio patients.

All patients (n = 865) visiting the polio clinic at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg Sweden, between 1994 and 2012 were included in this study. Data at first visit regarding patient characteristics, polio classification, data of electromyography, origin, assistive devices and gait speed as well as muscle strength were collected for these patients. Twenty-three patients were excluded because no polio diagnosis could be established. A total of 842 patients with confirmed polio remained in the study.

More than twenty percent of the patients were from countries outside the Nordic region and considerably younger than those from the Nordic region. The majority of the emigrants were from Asia and Africa followed by Europe (outside the Nordic region). Of all patients included ninety-seven percent (n = 817) had polio in the lower extremity and almost 53% (n = 444) had polio in the upper extremity while 28% (n = 238) had polio in the trunk, according to clinical classification of polio. Compared with a sample of the normal population, the polio patients walked 61–71% slower, and were 53–77% weaker in muscle strength of the knee and foot as well as grip strength.

The younger patients with polio emigrating from countries with different cultures may lead to a challenge for the multi professional teams working with post-polio rehabilitation and are of importance when planning for the care of polio patients the coming years.
Diagnosis and Management
Histopathologic Basis of Clinical Findings in Poliomyelitis
1. Experimental evidence indicates that the onset of CNS pathologic changes occurs in the preparalytic period and is closely associated with the earliest evidence of virus activity in any particular region involved.
2. The earliest cytopathologic changes are diffuse chromatolysis of Nissl substance in the cytoplasm of nerve cells and mild cellular exudate consisting of polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes.
3. Nerve cell changes may be present in the earliest stages without inflammatory reaction in the vicinity and therefore are not necessarily the result of the latter, but rather the result of direct virus action.
4. Nerve cell changes either lead to rapid destruction of the cell or to arrest in the stage of cytoplasmic chromatolysis, following which complete morphologic recovery of the cell generally occurs over a period of about a month or less, depending upon the severity of injury.
5. Virus activity, nerve cell changes and inflammatory reaction are localized only in certain susceptible regions of the CNS, largely due to specific differences of susceptibility of nerve cells. The intensity of the inflammatory reaction, however, may be quite variable in different susceptible centers and in different individuals. Severe inflammatory reaction is usually but not always associated with extensive nerve cell destruction. Severe nerve cell damage may occur without extensive cellular infiltration in the cord.
6. Lesions in the cerebral cortex are usually confined to the motor area of the precentral gyrus and even here the lesions are rarely severe enough to suggest that they may produce clinical symptoms.
7. “Encephalitic” symptoms such as restlessness, stupor, disorientation and coma are associated with severe inflammatory reaction in the brainstem and often with small softenings in this region. They are not associated with unusual involvement of the cerebral cortex.
8. Brainstem centers principally involved in most instances are the reticular formation of the hind-brain, the vestibular nuclei and the roof nuclei of the cerebellum. Resulting functional disturbances are discussed.
9. Widespread dissemination of virus among most motor nerve cells in spinal cord enlargements occurs in experimental poliomyelitis as early as the first day of paralysis. Motor nerve cells which are affected either are destroyed very quickly during the first few days of the disease or undergo slower recovery changes leading to complete morphologic recovery within about a month. After this time it can be shown that the degree of paralysis and atrophy are closely correlated with the number of motor nerve cells destroyed. In the acute stage, however, this correlation is not as high and other factors must also play a role in producing paralysis. An important factor is the reversible injury of motor nerve cells. Less complete evidence from human material suggests that a similar situation obtains in human poliomyelitis.
10. Experimental work suggests three possible factors which may determine the variation in severity of infection. These are, first, variations due to difference in strains of the virus, second, reduction of severity due to previous paralytic or non-paralytic infection, and third, host variation unrelated to previous immunizing experience with the virus.
Diagnosis and Management
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment of post polio syndrome
Post polio syndrome is a rare disease that occurs decades after polio virus infection. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a treatment option with proved effectiveness in drug resistant depression. Possibly it can be helpful in therapy of other neurological diseases including post polio syndrome.
Diagnosis and Management
Poliomyelitis and the postpolio syndrome
Acute poliomyelitis is now rarely encountered in the United Kingdom, but “imported” poliomyelitis still occurs and it is necessary to distinguish acute poliomyelitis from other causes of acute flaccid paralysis. Despite the obvious success of preventive policies, many patients who had poliomyelitis experience late functional deterioration after periods of prolonged stability—the so called postpolio syndrome. The patterns of disability and their management present unique challenges to the multidisciplinary rehabilitation team.
Diagnosis and Management
Life-Long Morbidity Among Danes With Poliomyelitis
To estimate long-term morbidity in a cohort of Danish poliomyelitis patients.

A historical prospective cohort study of 27,047 persons.


A total of 5421 persons hospitalized for poliomyelitis between 1919 to 1954 in Copenhagen, Denmark, and 21,626 age- and gender-matched Danes. Participants were followed up on average for 20.6 years, yielding a total of 555,884 person-years of follow-up.

Not applicable.

The exposed (poliomyelitis) cohort and the unexposed (control) cohort were followed up for somatic hospitalization from 1977 to 1999 in the Danish Hospital Discharge Register. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) was calculated as the ratio between the incidence rate of disease in the exposed and unexposed cohorts.

Overall, polio patients had a 1.2- to 1.3-fold increased risk of being hospitalized with pulmonary diseases, heart diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, or diseases of the locomotive apparatus. Among paralytic polio patients, long-term morbidity seems to be associated with the acute severity of poliomyelitis, as well as young age at infection. Paralytic patients, who contracted respiratory polio under the age of 5, had the highest risk of being hospitalized with lung diseases (IRR=7.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.06-18.33), diseases of the locomotive apparatus (IRR=4.05; 95% CI, 1.66-9.86), heart diseases (IRR=1.70; 95% CI, 0.65-3.98), and diseases of the digestive system (IRR= 2.23; 95% CI, 1.03-4.62). Surprisingly, patients without paralyses, especially women, also had an increased morbidity.

Overall, a history of poliomyelitis was associated with a slightly increased morbidity measured by hospitalizations. Long-term morbidity was highest among respiratory polio patients; however, patients presumably left without any residual symptoms also had an increased morbidity.
Diagnosis and Management
Multiple sclerosis and poliomyelitis. A Danish historical cohort study.
To evaluate whether persons with a history of poliomyelitis are at an increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS).

All patients diagnosed with acute poliomyelitis in the greater capital area of Copenhagen, Denmark, between 1919 and 1954 were identified and followed with respect to MS. Information on vital status and diagnosis of sclerosis was obtained through linkage with the Danish Civil Registration System and The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry, respectively. Follow-up started on the date of the establishment of the Danish Civil Registration System (April 1, 1968) until death, emigration or December 31, 1996, whichever came first. The observed incidence of MS among polio patients was compared with the expected incidence calculated according to national gender, age and period specific rates of MS.

During 149,364 years of follow-up, 19 cases of multiple sclerosis were observed among 5652 polio patients compared with 11.0 expected (SIR = 1.73 (1.04-2.74)). The increased risk of MS was most pronounced in polio patients hospitalized during adolescence. Neither gender nor the acute severity of poliomyelitis modified the risk of MS.

Our results are based on small numbers of events, however the findings suggest that the polio patients might be at an increased risk of MS.
Diagnosis and Management
Motoneuron Disease and Past Poliomyelitis in England and Wales
Past notification rates for poliomyelitis show a close geographical relation with current mortality from motoneuron disease in England and Wales. The increasing rate of poliomyelitis during the first half of this century and its predilection for affluent places and families were unique amongst infectious diseases. The unusual epidemiology of poliomyelitis is now being paralleled by motoneuron disease. These observations provide new evidence for a causal connection between the two conditions.
Diagnosis and Management
Poliomyelitis and Parkinson Disease.
Parkinson disease (PD), which is due to loss of dopaminergic neurons in the zona compacta of the substantia nigra,1 may involve both genetic and environmental risk factors.2 Poliovirus is believed to cause neuronal damage in the substantia nigra,3 and thus a history of poliovirus infection may be associated with an increased risk of PD
Diagnosis and Management
Stroke Risk in Poliomyelitis Survivors: A Nationwide Population-Based Study
To assess the prevalence and risk of stroke among adults with polio and controls.

A prospective, probability-sampling, 6-year population-based cohort study.

A National Health Insurance Research Database consisting of 316,355 randomly selected enrollees. The database is related to a National Health Insurance program with more than 22 million participants.

After excluding patients under 40 years of age, polio patients (N=212) (mean age ± SD, 54.0±10.2y; 57.1% men) were identified from the database from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2008. For each polio patient, 2 age- and sex-matched patients were recruited as controls. Control patients did not have any neuromuscular diseases commonly found in childhood. The frequencies of patients with potential risk factors for stroke were assessed.


Main Outcome Measure
The prevalence and the adjusted odds ratio of ischemic stroke among polio patients and the controls were estimated.

Polio patients had a higher prevalence of stroke (10.8% vs 2.4%, P<.001) than the controls. Polio patients with hypertension had a much higher prevalence of stroke (23.0%). The risk of stroke was higher for polio patients compared with the controls, yielding an adjusted odds ratio of 4.17 (95% confidence interval, 1.84–9.45, P<.001). Polio was a significant risk factor for stroke independent from hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and cardiac diseases.

Adults with polio had a high prevalence of ischemic stroke. Polio was an additional risk factor for stroke. Polio patients with hypertension might potentiate the risk of stroke. Developing a health promotion program, suitable for polio patients, to increase participation in activities and exercises may be essential, especially for polio patients with hypertension.
Diagnosis and Management
Physical therapy management of the patient with post-polio syndrome. A case report.
This case report documents the treatment of a patient who experienced progressive muscle weakness and a decrease in function over time that did not appear to be related to any secondary neuromuscular disease. We discuss the relationship between age and maximal muscle function in addition to some general guidelines for rehabilitation. This type of patient can represent a challenge for the physical therapist. This case report, however, illustrates the degree of muscular and functional recovery that can result with a physical therapy program aimed at reducing levels and intensity of exercise, daily activity, and stress.
Diagnosis and Management
Post-polio syndrome and total health status in a prospective hospital study.
New loss of function among patients with previous polio is frequently reported and has several causes. All patients referred to the Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, for 13 months during 2000-2001 with diagnosis late effects of polio were examined prospectively to identify their symptoms and loss of function. Eighty-five patients aged 47-91 years with mean of 61 years were included. The most common complaints were pain (44%), muscular weakness (27%), and fatigue (16%). Muscular weakness occurred in lower limbs in 75%, in respiratory muscles in only 5%. Walking in stairs was impaired in 72% and outdoor walking in 65%. Seventeen patients (19%) reported no loss of function. Post-polio syndrome was diagnosed in 26% of the patients. Polio-related loss of function including cervical and lumbosacral radiculopathies, mononeuropathies and degenerative joint disease were found in an additional 53%. Eleven patients (13%) had distinct non-polio-related disorders that caused new loss of function. The remaining 8% had a stable condition.
Diagnosis and Management
Pathogenetic mechanisms of post-polio syndrome: morphological, electrophysiological, virological, and immunological correlations.
To understand the mechanism of post-poliomyelitis muscular atrophy (PPMA) and the post-polio syndrome (PPS) in general, we performed the following studies: (1) histopathology in spinal cord sections from patients who died 9 days to 44 years after acute paralytic poliomyelitis; (2) enzyme histochemistry, immunocytochemistry (for lymphocyte subsets, MHC antigens and N-CAM) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for poliovirus RNA in the muscle biopsies from symptomatic or asymptomatic muscles of post-polio patients; (3) determination of lymphocyte subsets and circulating IgG or IgM antibodies against GM1 and poliovirus; (4) virological studies in the spinal fluid for oligoclonal bands and search for poliovirus genome with PCR; (5) electrophysiological studies including single fiber EMG, fiber density and macro-EMG; and (6) [31P] exercise MRS spectroscopy on previously affected muscles to search for a metabolic correlate of fatigue. These studies concluded that in PPS a continuing dysfunction is present in the spinal cord motor neurons, resulting in ongoing muscle denervation and reinnervation first evident at the axonal branch points. Symptoms are related to attrition of the oversprouting motor neurons which after a period of time cannot support all their axonal sprouts, resulting in failure of re-reinnervation. In some patients with PPS there is also an ongoing immune activation and presence of defective viral particles in the spinal fluid. However, their role in the pathogenesis of PPS is presently unknown.
Diagnosis and Management
Sense of Coherence in persons with late effects of polio
BACKGROUND:Sense of Coherence (SOC) is important for successful adaptation and mental well-being in people with life-long medical conditions. Late effects of polio (LEoP) often lead to a life-long disability, but no study has assessed SOC in this population. OBJECTIVE:To assess SOC in persons with LEoP and to explore the association between SOC, demographics (age, gender, marital status and level of education) and variables related to LEoP (age at polio onset, number of years from polio until onset of LEoP and self-rated disability). METHOD:Ninety-three community-dwelling persons with clinically verified LEoP responded to a postal survey with the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to explore the associations with SOC. RESULTS:SOC varied considerably among the participants. The mean and median SOC-13 total sum score was 71.8 and 76 points, which is similar to age-matched non-disabled people. The number of years before onset of LEoP and self-rated disability together with the participants’ marital status and level of education explained 37% (p < 0.001) of the variance in SOC.
Diagnosis and Management
The split hand syndrome in ALS and post-polio-syndrome
Electrodiagnostic evaluation for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) relies on extensive measurements. As one diagnostic clue, the split-hand-index (SHI) was proposed. It compares the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle with the CMAP of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscle.

In ALS, asymmetric atrophy of APB and ADM results in the index being reduced compared to the healthy population. This holds true despite the fact, that there is the same segmental innervation C8 for both examined muscles, as was previously discussed. Several studies have shown a diagnostic value in differentiating ALS from other motorneuron-diseases by means of the SHI, claiming a specific form of neurodegeneration in ALS, which is less marked for example in lower motor neuron disease (LMND), spinal muscle atrophy (SMA) or Hirayama disease.

In our study, we aimed to compare the SHI of ALS-patients with our cohort of patients with post-polio-syndrome (PPS) to find out, whether it has a discriminative value in these patients too and to add knowledge to the proposed neuroscientific explanations of asymmetric thenar/hypothenar-atrophy.

We conducted a retrospective analysis of our post-polio cohort since 1997. All patients were screened whether CMAPs of APB and ADM were collected. For comparison, we screened electrodiagnostic reports of all patients with a diagnosis of ALS for collected CMAPs of APB and ADM. We excluded patients with neuropathy of the median nerve (NMN) by means of a prolonged distal motoric latency (>4,4 ms). Finally we randomly chose the same number of patients from our reports in that time period with normal results (NR), by excluding diagnosis of NMN, acute polyneuropathies and radiculo- and plexopathies of the arm. We calculated the SHI by dividing the CMAP of APB by the CMAP of ADM.

We found a significant difference (p = 0,01) of the SHI between ALS patients (0,97 ± 0,84) and the NR-group (1,26 ± 0,72). The SHI of the PPS-group (0,91 ± 0,55) was not significantly different compared to the NR group (p = 0,08), but showed a trend. Comparing the ALS-group with the PPS-patients, we found no statistically relevant difference (p = 0,83).
Diagnosis and Management
Estimation of the Direct Cost of Poliomyelitis Rehabilitation Treatment to Pakistani Patients: A 53-Year Retrospective Study
Pakistan is one of the last few countries in which poliomyelitis is endemic. Evidence indicates that out-of-pocket expenditures are a barrier to polio rehabilitation treatment, yet there are no reported figures related to the financial burden of this disease on patients in a recently polio-endemic country.

This study investigated direct costs attributed to rehabilitation treatment of poliomyelitis among Pakistani patients and reported its duration along with the socioeconomic status of poliomyelitis survivors.
Diagnosis and Management
Inverse Relationship Between Polio Incidence in the US and Colorectal Cancer.
Polio is predominantly an enteric viral infection that was progressively eradicated in the United States after the introduction of polio vaccine in the early 1950s. U.S. colorectal cancer rates have dropped steadily for individuals born between 1890 and 1950, but have been increasing for every generation born since 1950. Moreover, the lowest worldwide age adjusted rates of colorectal cancer in 2012 were in sub-Saharan Africa, Gambia and Mozambique, where polio has not been eradicated. In the current study, poliomyelitis incidence in US states before the introduction of polio vaccine was analyzed.

Reported cases of poliomyelitis per 100,000 population by state 1932-1951 were from Centers for Disease Control. Colorectal cancer deaths per 100,000 in men (2005-2009) by US State are from the American Cancer Society. US state overweight and obesity data are from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Smoking data are from the CDC.

By US state, colorectal cancer incidence per 100,000 in men for 2005-2009 was inversely correlated with reported cases of poliomyelitis per 100,000 for 1932-1951 (r=-0.311, p=0.032). Colorectal cancer deaths per 100,000 in men in 2005-2009 were also inversely correlated with reported cases of poliomyelitis per 100,000 by state for 1932-1951 (r=-0.493, p<0.001). The relationship between colorectal cancer deaths and polio incidence was significant (β=-0.196, p=0.028) and independent of the effects of smoking (β=0.289, p=0.012) and overweight (β=0.547, p<0.001). The relationship in females with colorectal cancer was identical.
Diagnosis and Management
Risk factors for post-polio syndrome among an Italian population: a case-control study.
Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a clinical syndrome of new weakness, fatigue and musculoskeletal pain occurring in a variable proportion of polio survivors decades after acute disease. To date, several risk factors for PPS development have been reported, although the etiology of this disorder remains elusive. Using a case-control design, we aimed to assess risk indicators for PPS in a group of Italian polio survivors. Subjects with prior poliomyelitis attending the rehabilitation hospital of Malcesine, Italy, were the target population. Patients with PPS, diagnosed according to the European Federation of Neurological Societies criteria, served as cases, while patients not meeting diagnostic criteria for PPS were used as controls. All subjects were assessed through a structured questionnaire made of 82 questions and neurological examination. The association with investigated risk factors (sex, age at polio onset, age at onset of symptoms, extension and severity of polio, employment) was analyzed by the calculation of the odds ratio. A total of 161 out of 391 eligible patients met the adopted diagnostic criteria for PPS, giving a frequency of 41.2%. Symptoms most frequently complained by PPS patients were loss of muscle strength, loss of resistance, loss of muscle volume and generalized fatigue. Female gender, the presence of respiratory disturbance during the acute phase of polio and the use of orthoses and aids during the recovery and stabilization represented independent risk factors for PPS in the studied population.
Diagnosis and Management
Safety and feasibility of transcranial direct current stimulation for patients with post-polio syndrome
Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is generally defined as a clinical syndrome consisting of new muscle weakness, fatigue, and pain in poliomyelitis survivors. In PPS, there is no definitively validated treatment option, although Acler M et al. reported that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over pre-motor cortex for 15 days improved sleep and fatigue symptoms in patients with PPS. tDCS may be a valuable, non-invasive new tool for managing patients with PPS.
Diagnosis and Management
Identification of targets for improving access to care in persons with long term physical disabilities
People with long-term physical disability (LTPD) continue to experience difficulties in accessing health care despite the focus of highlighting disparities in the last two decades.

To describe health care utilization, accommodations and barriers experienced while accessing health care, and reasons why individuals delay or skip health care among people with LTPD.

The current study was a part of a larger longitudinal survey administered to individuals with physical disability associated with one of four long-term conditions (MS; SCI; PPS; MD). Measures included demographics, health care utilization, barriers to health care, and reasons for delaying or skipping medical care from the sixth wave of data from 2015 to 2016.

Roughly 90% of all participants (N = 1159) saw at least one medical provider within 12 months. The most encountered barrier participants reported experiencing within that time was an office that did not have a safe transfer device to move them to an exam table (69%). Participants’ physical function, quality of life, status of living with a spouse, diagnostic condition, and sex (male) were significantly associated with endorsing a barrier in accessing health care. The inability to afford out of pocket expenses was the highest reported reason for delaying health care.
Diagnosis and Management
Neurological Symptoms in Danes with a History of Poliomyelitis: Lifelong Follow-Up of Late Symptoms, their Association with Initial Symptoms of Polio, and Presence of Postpolio Syndrome
Background: Previous studies suggest that patients with a history of poliomyelitis (PM) later in life experience a variety of symptoms. These studies were carried out in patients who later in life were admitted to hospital or became members of polio societies and may therefore not be representative of all polio patients. Little data have been published concerning patients actually discharged from hospital with a diagnosis of acute paralytic PM. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of late symptoms in individuals with a history of paralytic PM with that of controls, and to study whether late symptoms in individuals with a history of PM were associated with symptoms at the acute stage of polio, and finally to compare the prevalence of symptoms in polio patients with postpolio syndrome (PPS) with the prevalence of symptoms in polio patients without PPS. Methods: A questionnaire concerning various symptoms was sent to a previously established cohort of patients, who during the polio epidemics were discharged from the Department of Infectious Disease at Blegdamshospitalet, Copenhagen, with a diagnosis of paralytic PM, and to age- and gender-matched controls without PM. Information about symptoms at the acute stage of disease was obtained from hospital records. Logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age and gender was applied to compare the occurrence of late symptoms in cases and controls and within the above-mentioned groups of individuals with a history of PM. Results: (i) Compared with controls, individuals with a history of polio significantly more often reported muscle symptoms, pain, neuropathic sensory symptoms, and bulbar symptoms; (ii) the occurrence of symptoms did not seem to be related to symptoms of the initial PM; and (iii) symptom prevalence was significantly higher in individuals with a history of polio who reported PPS as compared with those who did not.
Diagnosis and Management
The treatment of fatigue by non-invasive brain stimulation.
The use of non-invasive brain neurostimulation (NIBS) techniques to treat neurological or psychiatric diseases is currently under development. Fatigue is a commonly observed symptom in the field of potentially treatable pathologies by NIBS, yet very little data has been published regarding its treatment. We conducted a review of the literature until the end of February 2017 to analyze all the studies that reported a clinical assessment of the effects of NIBS techniques on fatigue. We have limited our analysis to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We found only 15 studies on this subject, including 8 tDCS studies and 7 rTMS studies. Of the tDCS studies, 6 concerned patients with multiple sclerosis while 6 rTMS studies concerned fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue syndrome. The remaining 3 studies included patients with post-polio syndrome, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Three cortical regions were targeted: the primary sensorimotor cortex, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the posterior parietal cortex. In all cases, tDCS protocols were performed according to a bipolar montage with the anode over the cortical target. On the other hand, rTMS protocols consisted of either high-frequency phasic stimulation or low-frequency tonic stimulation. The results available to date are still too few, partial and heterogeneous as to the methods applied, the clinical profile of the patients and the variables studied (different fatigue scores) in order to draw any conclusion. However, the effects obtained, especially in multiple sclerosis and fibromyalgia, are really carriers of therapeutic hope.
Diagnosis and Management
Cognitive behavioural therapy for reducing fatigue in post-polio syndrome and in facioscapulohumeral dystrophy: A comparison
Post-polio syndrome (PPS) and facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) are two different neuromuscular disorders. Fatigue is a frequent complaint in both disorders. A recent study showed that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), which is a type of psychotherapy that helps patients to identify and reshape thoughts and behavior patterns that contribute to the fatigue was effective in alleviating fatigue in FSHD but not in PPS. In this study we investigated whether this difference in effectiveness might be explained by dissimilar fatigue-related thoughts (for example focusing on fatigue) in both conditions. We used questionnaires to measure the fatigue-related thoughts in 21 patients with PPS and 24 patients with FSHD . It appeared that fatigue-related thoughts in PPS were similar to those in FSHD and thus do not explain the difference in effectiveness of CBT.
Diagnosis and Management
Outcome of physiotherapy as part of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation in an unselected polio population with one-year follow-up: an uncontrolled study.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of physiotherapy as part of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation.

Prospective uncontrolled intervention study.

Fifty patients with late effects of polio, first time referred to physiotherapy at the Danish Society of Polio and Accident Victims (PTU) Rehabilitation Centre.

The intervention was physiotherapy as an essential part of an individually planned multidisciplinary rehabilitation. The outcome measures Six-Minute Walk Test and Timed-Stands Test were used to assess the functional capacity. Quality of life was evaluated by Medical Outcome Survey Short Form (SF-36) and fatigue by Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20). Patients were tested at baseline; 3 months after the start of rehabilitation and at one-year follow-up.

The patients showed significantly better functional capacity on all measurements 3 months after start of intervention and at one-year follow-up. The patients showed significant improvement in 3 of the SF-36 dimensions regarding quality of life, but only the improvement in "general health" remained after one year.
Diagnosis and Management
Postpolio syndrome and the late effects of poliomyelitis. Part 1. pathogenesis, biomechanical considerations, diagnosis, and investigations.
Postpolio syndrome (PPS) is characterized by new muscle weakness and/or muscle fatigability that occurs many years after the initial poliomyelitis illness. Many theories exist regarding the pathogenesis of PPS, which remains incompletely understood. In contrast, the late effects of poliomyelitis are often a consequence of biomechanical alterations that occur as a result of polio‐related surgeries, musculoskeletal deformities, or weakness. Osteoporosis and fractures of the polio‐involved limbs are common. A comprehensive clinical evaluation with appropriate investigations is essential to fulfilling the established PPS diagnostic criteria. PPS is a diagnosis of exclusion in which a key clinical feature required for the diagnosis is new muscle weakness and/or muscle fatigability that is persistent for at least 1 year. Electromyographic and muscle biopsy findings including evidence of ongoing denervation cannot reliably distinguish between patients with or without PPS.
Diagnosis and Management
Post‐polio syndrome and the late effects of poliomyelitis: Part 2. treatment, management, and prognosis.
Post‐polio syndrome (PPS) is characterized by new muscle weakness and/or muscle fatigability that occurs many years after the initial poliomyelitis illness. An individualized approach to rehabilitation management is critical. Interventions may include rehabilitation management strategies, adaptive equipment, orthotic equipment, gait/mobility aids, and a variety of therapeutic exercises. The progression of muscle weakness in PPS is typically slow and gradual; however, there is also variability in both the natural history of weakness and functional prognosis. Further research is required to determine the effectiveness of selected medical treatment. Muscle Nerve 58:760–769, 2018
Diagnosis and Management, Differential Diagnosis, Gender Differences, Late Effects of Polio
Postpolio Syndrome: A Review of Lived Experiences of Patients
Postpolio syndrome (PPS) refers to a group of conditions that are present in patients, years after recovery from initial acute paralytic poliomyelitis. About 15%–80% of 20 million polio survivors worldwide will experience exacerbation of symptoms which typically appear 15–30 years after the resolution of initial poliomyelitis. Symptoms include new muscle weakness, fatigue, myalgia, joint pain, dysphagia, and difficulty breathing. Other reported symptoms include cold intolerance, sleep disorder, dysphonia, loss of stamina, musculoskeletal deformities, cardiovascular disorders, psychosocial problems, and restless legs syndrome. These symptoms are attributed to the superimposed neuronal loss of aging with inflammatory mechanisms, but without any convincing evidence of viral reactivation. Risk factors include female gender, respiratory symptoms, normal aging, permanent disability caused by motor neuron damage, muscle overuse and disuse, aging, and immunologic mechanisms. Hypothyroidism-induced myopathy and fibromyalgia are a differential diagnosis for PPS, and exclusion diagnosis is required as confirmatory criteria for PPS. The symptoms of PPS presented determine the course of management.

Keywords: Fatigue, muscle weakness, myalgia, poliomyelitis, postpolio syndrome
Diagnosis and Management, Late Effects of Polio
Post-poliomyelitis syndrome (2019)
Most developed countries eliminated paralytic poliomyelitis (polio) in the 1970s to 1980s. It was believed that after recovery from acute paralytic poliomyelitis, the physical condition of survivors would remain stable for the rest of their lives. However, the elimination of polio does not equate the end of medical management of polio. Hundreds of thousands of polio survivors worldwide are still at risk of developing the late effects of the disease. Here, we report a case of post-polio syndrome who attended our clinic for the presence of new weakness and neuromuscular problems six decades after recovery from paralytic polio. It is essential that health professionals be aware of these conditions and have an understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of the symptoms.
Differential Diagnosis
Diagnosing Post-Polio Syndrome in the Elderly, a Case Report
Poliomyelitis is a disorder of the nervous system caused by an enterovirus. There are many survivors who, years later, develop a little-understood condition called Post-polio syndrome. Post-polio syndrome is a group of delayed sequalae of polio infection that can cause paralysis and bulbar symptoms in patients with a history of polio infection who have had a prolonged symptom-free period, often greater than two decades. Diagnosis of post-polio syndrome is difficult in the geriatric population because many of the symptoms overlap with other disease processes affecting older individuals. An extensive workup is necessary to exclude more concerning etiologies. Furthermore, several symptoms can be attributed to normal ageing. We present the case of an elderly patient with a history of poliomyelitis and multiple comorbidities who presented with complaints of weakness and fatigue.
Differential Diagnosis
Health and Social Considerations in Norwegian Polio Survivors: A 20-Year Follow-up Study
Objective: To explore the physical and social situation of the Norwegian polio population in 2014, and to compare the status of this population in 2014 with the results of a similar survey carried out 20 years previously, in 1994.

Design: The study was based on a questionnaire covering demographics, polio history, and current medical, psychological and social conditions.

Subjects: The questionnaire was prepared in cooperation with the National Society of Polio Survivors and others with known polio (n = 1,968). A total of 1,408 persons responded (72%), mean age 70 years (range 28–98 years).

Results: The most frequent health problems reported were muscle and joint pain, cold intolerance and insomnia. New muscle weakness and loss of muscle volume were reported more frequently in 2014 than in the 1994 study. The use of orthopaedic aids, assistive devices, ventilators and other respiratory aids had increased significantly, but 83% reported that they still had no home care or nursing services support. The 2014 polio population reported only minor subjective worsening of health and well-being compared with the 1994 cohort.

Conclusion: The present study indicates that the elderly polio population are experiencing new muscle weakness and increasing health problems, but that the deterioration occurs slowly and with fewer consequences for the subjective experience of general health and well-being, indicating that the patients are adapting to their life situation. However, subgroups of the elderly polio population are in need of special care.
Prior poliomyelitis – IVIg treatment reduces proinflammatory cytokine production
The postpolio syndrome (PPS) is characterized by progressive disabilities decades after recovery from the acute paralytic disease. There are reports on intrathecal inflammatory reactions in PPS, including increased expression of cytokines by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) mononuclear cells (CSF-MC). This is potentially of relevance for the clinical condition. We here explored if cytokine expression in the CSF of PPS patients could be modulated by high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins (IvIg). The expression of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-10 and IL-4 mRNAs was measured by real-time RT-PCR in CSF and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 16 PPS patients before, and 6-8 weeks after IvIg treatment, and in 26 patients with noninflammatory other neurological diseases (OND). TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and IL-10 CSF mRNA levels were elevated in samples from untreated persons with PPS compared to OND. Upon IvIg treatment, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha mRNA levels were dramatically reduced, while IL-10 remained unchanged. Placebo-controlled studies are now warranted to evaluate if IvIg treatment also has any effects on the clinical manifestations of PPS.
Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment of the post-polio syndrome: sustained effects on quality of life variables and cytokine expression after one year follow up
BACKGROUND: Expression of inflammatory cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has led to the hypothesis of intrathecal chronic inflammation to explain the denervation observed in post-polio syndrome (PPS). It has been shown that therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) improves physical performance and dampens down the inflammatory process at 6 months in PPS patients. We here examined the effects of IVIG on cytokine expression and clinical outcome one year after IVIG treatment.

METHODS: From a previous study with 135 PPS patients included, 41 patients were further evaluated before un-blinding for one year (21 placebo and 20 treated with IVIG, Xepol® 50 mg/ml), and were assessed for clinical variables by performing the Short Form-36 survey (SF-36) questionnaire assessment, the 6 minute walk distance test (6MWT) and registering pain level by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) after IVIG treatment. A separate cohort of 37 PPS patients went through lumbar puncture (LP) at baseline and 20 patients, treated with IVIG, repeated the LP one year later. Thirty patients affected with other neurological diseases (OND) were used as control group. Inflammatory cytokines TNF, TGFβ, IFNγ, IL-23, IL-13 and IL-10 were measured in blood cells and CSF cells with RT-PCR.

RESULTS: Scores of the physical components of SF-36 were significantly higher at the one year follow up time-point in the IVIG-treated patients when compared to baseline as well as to the control subjects. Pain VAS score and 6MWT improved significantly in the IVIG-treated patients when compared with baseline Relative expression of TNF and IFN-γ in both PBMCs and CSF from PPS patients were increased compared to OND subjects at baseline (p < 0.05). One year after IVIG-treatment a decreased expression of IFN-γ and IL23 was found in CSF of PPS patients, while anti-inflammatory IL-13 was increased (p < 0.05).
Pyridostigmine in postpolio syndrome: no decline in fatigue and limited functional improvement
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of pyridostigmine on fatigue, physical performance, and muscle function in subjects with postpoliomyelitis syndrome.

METHODS: 67 subjects with increased fatigue and new weakness in one quadriceps muscle showing neuromuscular transmission defects, were included in a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial of 60 mg pyridostigmine four times a day for 14 weeks. Primary outcome was fatigue (on the "energy" category of the Nottingham health profile). Secondary outcomes included two minute walking distance and quadriceps strength and jitter. Motor unit size of the quadriceps was studied as a potential effect modifier. The primary data analysis compared the changes from baseline in the outcomes in the last week of treatment between groups.

RESULTS: 31 subjects treated with pyridostigmine and 31 subjects treated with placebo completed the trial. No significant effect of pyridostigmine was found on fatigue. The walking distance improved more in the pyridostigmine group than in the placebo group (by 7.2 m (6.0%); p<0.01). Subgroup analysis showed that a significant improvement in walking performance was only found in subjects with normal sized motor units. Quadriceps strength improved more in the pyridostigmine group than in the placebo group (by 6.7 Nm (7.2%); p = 0.15). No effect of pyridostigmine was found on jitter.
Effect of intravenous immunoglobulin on pain in patients with post-polio syndrome
OBJECTIVE: Pain is a common symptom that affects quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome. An increase in cytokine in the cerebrospinal fluid suggests that inflammation is pathophysiologically important in post-polio syndrome. Intravenous immunoglobulin might therefore be a therapeutic option. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of intravenous immunoglobulin treatment on pain in post-polio syndrome.

METHODS: An uncontrolled clinical study. Patients with post-polio syndrome and pain (n = 45) underwent a neurological examination and were interviewed about pain before and 6 months after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. Pain intensity was measured on a visual analogue scale. The pain was classified according to the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria as neuropathic when it occurred in an area with decreased sensibility, or nociceptive when signs of inflammation and/or painful joints movements were present.

RESULTS: After treatment 31/45 (69%) patients were improved, with a mean visual analogue scale decrease from 53 to 42 (p = 0.001). Eighteen patients (40%) had a decrease of 20 or more points on the visual analogue scale. The effect of treatment did not differ regarding age, gender and severity of disability.
Efficacy of Modafinil on fatigue and excessive daytime sleepiness associated with neurological disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND: Modafinil is a novel wake-promoting agent approved by the FDA ameliorating excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in three disorders: narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder and obstructive sleep apnea. Existing trials of modafinil for fatigue and EDS associated with neurological disorders provided inconsistent results. This meta-analysis was aimed to assess drug safety and effects of modafinil on fatigue and EDS associated with neurological disorders.

METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was conducted in order to identify published studies assessing the effects of modafinil on fatigue and EDS associated with neurological disorders. Primary outcomes included fatigue and EDS. Secondary outcomes included depression and adverse effects.

FINDINGS: Ten randomized controlled trials were identified including 4 studies of Parkinson's disease (PD), 3 of multiple sclerosis (MS), 2 of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 1 of post-polio syndrome (PPS). A total of 535 patients were enrolled. Our results suggested a therapeutic effect of modafinil on fatigue in TBI (MD -0.82 95% CI -1.54 - -0.11 p=0.02, I(2)=0%), while a beneficial effect of modafinil on fatigue was not confirmed in the pooled studies of PD or MS. Treatment results demonstrated a clear beneficial effect of modafinil on EDS in patients with PD (MD -2.45 95% CI -4.00 - -0.91 p=0.002 I(2)=14%), but not with MS and TBI. No difference was seen between modafinil and placebo treatments in patients with PPS. Modafinil seemed to have no therapeutic effect on depression. Adverse events were similar between modafinil and placebo groups except that more patients were found with insomnia and nausea in modafinil group.
Effect of intravenous immunoglobulin in patients with post-polio syndrome - an uncontrolled pilot study
OBJECTIVE: To analyse changes in muscle strength, physical performance and quality of life during intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment in patients with post-polio syndrome.

DESIGN: Open clinical trial.

PATIENTS: A total of 14 patients (6 women, 8 men; mean age 57 years, range 43-67 years) were included in the study.

INTERVENTION: Treatment with 90 g IVIg (30 g daily for 3 days).

MAIN OUTCOME: Muscle strength, measured with dynamic dynamometry, muscle function, by means of performing the 6-minute walk test, and quality of life, analysed by means of the SF-36 questionnaire, were performed before and after treatment.

RESULTS: For quality of life there was a statistically significant improvement for all but one of the 8 multi-item scales of SF-36 when comparing data before and after treatment with IVIg. The multi-item scale most improved was Vitality. There was no significant increase in muscle strength and physical performance.
Response of postpoliomyelitis patients to bisphosphonate treatment
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate (1) the rate of change of bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip in postpolio patients treated with bisphosphonates compared with the rate of change in BMD in (a) postpolio patients not treated with bisphosphonates and (b) non-postpolio patients treated with bisphosphonates; and (2) to compare the fracture rate in postpolio patients before and after treatment.

DESIGN: Retrospective chart review.

SETTING: University-affiliated hospital postpolio clinic and bone metabolism clinic.

PARTICIPANTS: Patients with at least 2 BMD assessments. We included 144 postpolio patients and 112 non-postpolio patients. For the fracture analysis, 32 postpolio patients with a history of fractures and treatment with bisphosphonates were included.

METHODS: The effect of treatment on BMD in postpolio patients was analyzed with use of a multiple linear regression model and a mixed effects model, with the rate of change in hip BMD and the change in BMD from baseline, respectively, as the dependent variables. The effect of treatment on occurrence of fractures in postpolio patients was analyzed with use of conditional logistic regression and Poisson regression.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: BMD measurements at the femoral neck (g/cm²) and occurrence of fractures before and after initiation of treatment.

RESULTS: In an adjusted model, postpolio patients treated with bisphosphonates (54/144) had a greater rate of change in BMD (0.031 g/cm²/year; 95% confidence interval 0.010-0.052) compared with nontreated postpolio patients. The effect of treatment in postpolio patients was similar to that in non-postpolio patients. Evidence indicated that treated postpolio patients have a lower risk of fracture after treatment (odds ratio 0.3, P = .046; rate ratio 0.4, P = .183).
Intravenous immunoglobulin for postpolio syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND: Postpolio syndrome (PPS) is characterized by progressive disabilities that develop decades after prior paralytic poliomyelitis. Because chronic inflammation may be the process underlying the development of PPS, immunomodulatory management, such as intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) administration, may be beneficial.

METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective studies that evaluated the efficacy of IVIg in managing PPS. Electronic databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, were searched for articles on PPS published before December 2014. The primary outcomes were pain severity, fatigue scores, and muscle strength. The secondary outcomes were physical performance, quality of life (QoL), and cytokine expression levels.

RESULTS: We identified 3 RCTs involving 241 patients and 5 prospective studies involving 267 patients. The meta-analysis of pain severity (weighted mean difference [WMD] = −1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −2.51 to 0.47), fatigue scores (WMD = 0.28, 95% CI −0.56 to 1.12), and muscle strength revealed no significant differences between the IVIg and the placebo group. Regarding QoL, the RCTs yielded controversial outcomes, with improvement in only certain domains of the Short Form 36 (SF-36). Moreover, one prospective study reported significant improvement on SF-36, particularly in patients aged younger than 65 years, those with paresis of the lower limbs, and high pain intensity.
Immunoglobulin treatment in post-polio syndrome: Identification of responders and non-responders
OBJECTIVE: To define and characterize responders and non-responders in a group of 124 patients with post-polio syndrome who received a single treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin.

DESIGN: Open trial, prospective follow-up study.

METHODS: Clinical examination and data from medical records. Short Form 36 (SF-36), Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) and visual analogue scale (VAS) measured quality of life, physical activity and intensity of pain, respectively. Data were obtained before treatment and at 6-month follow-up.

RESULTS: Two responder groups were identified with the outcome SF-36 Vitality and 3 with Bodily pain, respectively. Forty-five percent were positive-responders, identified before treatment by reduced physical function, muscle atrophy in the lower extremities, higher levels of fatigue and pain, and a VAS pain score above 20. Negative-responders were identified by good physical function and mental health, lesser muscle atrophy in the lower extremities, and low levels of fatigue and pain.
IVIG treatment in post-polio patients: evaluation of responders
The aim of this work is to evaluate the outcome of IVIG treatment in patients with post-polio syndrome (PPS) and to identify responders. The study included 113 PPS patients who had received one IVIG treatment in an open trial, prospective follow-up study. Clinical examination was performed and clinical data were retrieved from medical records. The short form 36 (SF-36), physical activity scale for the elderly (PASE), and the visual analogue scale (VAS) were used as measurements of quality of life, physical activity, and the intensity of pain. Data before treatment and at 6-month follow-up were collected. Analysis was performed in subgroups based on demographic and medical parameters. A statistically significant increase of the SF-36 sub domains bodily pain, vitality, social function, role emotional, and the mental compound score (MCS) was found at the 6-month follow-up. A significant decrease of pain was found in patients who reported pain intensity over VAS of 20 mm, in patients younger than 65 years of age and in patients who had paresis in the lower extremities. A trend was found in patients with PPS as the only diagnosis. IVIG leads to increase of quality of life at 6-month follow-up for SF-36 regarding sub domains of bodily pain, vitality, social function, role emotional, as well as for pain. Age below 65 years, paresis in the lower extremities, and lack of concomitant disorders may be the main indicators for a future identification of responders.
Immunoglobulin g for the treatment of chronic pain: report of an expert workshop
BACKGROUND: The treatment of chronic pain is still unsatisfactory. Despite the availability of different drugs, most patients with chronic pain do not receive satisfactory pain relief or report side effects. Converging evidence implicates involvement of the immune system in the pathogenesis of different types of nociceptive and neuropathic chronic pain.

DESIGN: At a workshop in Liverpool, UK (October 2012), experts presented evidence suggesting immunological involvement in chronic pain and recent data supporting the concept that the established immune-modulating drug, polyvalent immunoglobulin G (IgG), either given intravenously (IVIg) or subcutaneously (SCIg), may reduce pain in some peripheral neuropathies and a range of other pain disorders. Workshop's attendees discussed the practicalities of using IVIg and SCIg in these disorders, including indications, cost-effectiveness, and side effects.

RESULTS: IgG may reduce pain in a range of nociceptive and neuropathic chronic pain conditions, including diabetes mellitus, Sjögren's syndrome, fibromyalgia, complex regional pain syndrome, post-polio syndrome, and pain secondary to pathological autoantibodies.
Anticholinesterase-responsive neuromuscular junction transmission defects in post-poliomyelitis fatigue
Disabling generalized fatigue and muscle fatiguability are common features of post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS). In 17 fatigued PPS patients, we measured jitter on stimulation single-fiber electromyography (S-SFEMG) for at least 3.5 min before and after i.v. injection of 10 mg edrophonium. We observed reduction in jitter (defined as a significant difference in jitter means before and after edrophonium, unpaired t-test P < 0.05) in 7 patients, no change in 8, and a significant increase in 2 patients. Blinded to their edrophonium results, the 17 patients were treated with pyridostigmine 180 mg/day for 1 month, with a subjective improvement of fatigue in 9 patients, and with a significant reduction in mean Hare fatigue scores in the entire group of 17 patients (pre = 2.71, and post = 1.71; Wilcoxan signed rank sum test, P < 0.05). Edrophonium-induced reduction of jitter on S-SFEMG was significantly associated with pyridostigmine-induced subjective improvement of fatigue (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.04). A significant reduction in fatigue with pyridostigmine was observed only in the 7 patients who experienced a significant reduction in jitter with edrophonium (Wilcoxan signed rank sum test, P = 0.03). In addition, the 9 pyridostigmine responders experienced a significant reduction in jitter means pre- and post-edrophonium (100% vs. 88%, Bonferroni corrected, P < 0.01). We conclude that neuromuscular transmission as measured by jitter on S-SFEMG can improve with edrophonium in a proportion of PPS patients, and that generalized fatigue and muscle fatiguability in some patients with PPS may be due to anticholinesterase-responsive NMJ transmission defects.
Anticholinesterases in Post-Poliomyelitis Syndrome
New weakness, fatigue, and pain after decades of functional stability in those who have recovered from acute paralytic poliomyelitis constitutes post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS).[1-7] The cause of PPS is unknown, but it is thought to be due to a distal degeneration of enlarged post-polio motor units produced by terminal axonal sprouting during the recovery process after acute polio.[8,9] The symptoms of weakness and fatigue may be a direct result of this distal motor unit degeneration;[2,7-13] however, it is presently unclear how pain relates to disease of the motor unit. PPS is a slowly progressive motor neuron disease for which there is currently no specific treatment.[4]
An Open Trial of Pyridostigmine in Post-poliomyelitis Syndrome

Background: One of the major symptoms of postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) is disabling generalized fatigue. Subjects with PPS also report muscle fatiguability and display electrophysiologic evidence of anticholinesterase-responsive neuromuscular junction transmission defects, suggesting that anticholinesterase therapy may be useful in the management of disabling fatigue. Methods: We initiated an open trial of the oral anticholinesterase pyridostigmine, up to 180 mg per day, in 27 PPS patients with generalized fatigue and muscle fatiguability. Response to Pyridostigmine was assessed with the Hare fatigue scale, the modified Barthel index for activities of daily living, and a modified Klingman mobility index. Results: Two patients could not tolerate the medication. After one month of therapy, 16 patients (64%) reported a reduction in fatigue on the Hare fatigue scale; three of 16 showed improvement on the modified Barthel index for activities of daily living, and two of 16 experienced improvement on a modified Klingman mobility index. Pyridostigmine responders were significantly more fatigued than non-responders on the pre-treatment Hare score, but were not significantly different with regard to age, sex, age at acute poliomyelitis, or severity of acute poliomyelitis. Conclusions: Pyridostigmine may be useful in the management of fatigue in selected patients with PPS. Response to pyridostigmine may be predicted by severity of pre-treatment fatigue.
Bromocriptine In The Treatment Of Post-Polio Fatigue: A pilot study with implications for the pathophysiology of fatigue
Objective: Determine the effectiveness of bromocriptine in the treatment of severe and disabling post-polio fatigue.
Design: Placebo-controlled drug trial in a pilot series of patients.
Setting: Outpatient rehabilitation hospital.
Patients: Of 83 patients without comorbidities who completed treatment with the Post-Polio Service, 5 of 8 patients who had paralytic polio and continued to report moderate to severe daily fatigue after complying with conservative treatments for post-polio fatigue agreed to be studied.
Intervention: Placebo was given for four weeks followed by increasing doses of bromocriptine mesylate (Parlodel®) administered at noon for 28 days reaching a total dose of 12.5 mg/day.
Main Outcome Measures: Daily logs of subjective fatigue and cognitive difficulties.
Results: Three of the subjects reported symptom improvement on bromocriptine but not on placebo. However, all subjects experienced nausea on bromocriptine, likely eliminating blinding. Drug responders had clinically impaired performance on neuropsychological tests of attention and information processing speed. Logged daily difficulty with attention, cognition, word finding memory, staying awake and fatigue on awakening were significantly negatively correlated with days on bromocriptine, but not with days on placebo, in drug responders.
Conclusions: A double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study will be needed to confirm bromocriptine's effectiveness in treating attentionally-impaired polio survivors whose severe and disabling fatigue does not responded to conservative treatment.
Beneficial Effect of Medical Cannabis in the Treatment of a Pharmacoresistant Nausea Associated with a Somatoform Disorder in a Patient with Post-Polio Syndrome
We report a 79-year-old patient with post-polio syndrome (PPS). In the course of this disease, recurrent upper abdominal pain and a therapy-resistant nausea developed without vomiting. In addition, the patient was limited by the combination of muscular weakness, obesity, dietary-treated diabetes and a degenerative spinal cord injury significantly in its mobility and physical capacity.

Despite extensive diagnostics, no somatic cause could be found neither for the nausea nor for the upper abdominal pain. Due to the psychological stress within the scope of the PPS, the development of a somatoform autonomic function disorder of the upper gastrointestinal tract may have occurred.

Even under combination therapy of antiemetic and pain-modulating drugs, no adequate symptom control could be achieved. In the absence of therapy alternatives and increasing psychological strain the patient was prescribed medical cannabis. Under the therapy there was a relief of the nausea symptoms and decreased pain.
Dysphagia, Dysphonia, Late Effects of Polio
Pharyngolaryngeal manifestations of post-polio syndrome (Manifestações faringo-laríngeas da síndrome pós-poliomielite)
INTRODUCTION: The post-polio syndrome (PPS) is characterized by a new episod of atrophy or muscle weakness in individuals previously affected by poliomyelitis. The symptoms start from an extended period of clinical stability ranging from 20 to 40 years, after the initial chart of polio. Among the pathophysiological mechanisms, the most likely is that the syndrome represents a process of attrition and neuronal metabolic exhaustion due to a continuous process of denervation reinnervation which begins after the initial acute.

OBJECTIVE: Review the clinical characteristics and pathophysiological of PPS,as well as present the approach in cases with pharyngolaryngeal manifestations.

CASE REPORT: We present the clinical case of a male patient with 48 years old, with main complaints of dysphonia, dysphagia and previous history of polio. The patient underwent a diagnostic investigation, in which the voice psychoacoustic findings are described. Laringoscopic, electromyographic and the videoendoscopy of swallowing compatible with PPS. The treatment consisted in phonotherapy in a total of 11 weekly sessions and guidelines for swallowing, with satisfactory improvement of the symptoms.

FINAL COMMENTS: The pharyngolaryngeal manifestations of PPS are susceptible to treatment, obtaining satisfactory results, with improvement of life quality of the patients.

KEYWORDS: poliomyelitis, post-polio syndrome, neuromuscular diseases, larynx diseases, voice disorders.
A systematic review of the worldwide
prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis
reported in 31 studies
Accurate prevalence figures estimating the number of survivors of poliomyelitis (disease causing acute flaccid paralysis) following poliovirus infection are not available. We aim to undertake a systematic review of all literature concerning the prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis.

Electronic databases were searched from 1900 up to May 2016 for peer-reviewed studies using a population-based approach witha defined denominator and some form of diagnostic or clinical verification of polio. Exclusion criteria were any prevalence data that were unable to be extracted or calculated and studies reporting on incidence only. The quality of each included study was assessed using an existing tool modified for use in prevalence studies. Average crude prevalence rates were used to calculate worldwide estimates.

Thirty-one studies met criteria with 90% of studies conducted in low-income to lower middle-income countries. Significant variability in the prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis was revealed, in low- income to lower middle-income (15 per 100 000 in Nigeria to 1733 in India) and upper-middle to high-income countries (24 (Japan) to 380 per 100 000 (Brazil). The total combined prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis for those studies at low to moderate risk of bias ranged from 165 (high-income countries) to 425 (low-income to lower middle-income countries) per 100 000 person-years. Historical lameness surveys of children predominated, with wide variation in case definition and assessment criteria, and limited relevance to current prevalence given the lack of incidence of poliovirus infection in the ensuing years.

These results highlight the need for future epidemiological studies of poliomyelitis to examine nationally representative samples, including all ages and greater focus on high-income countries. Such efforts will improve capacity to provide reliable and more robust worldwide prevalence estimates.
Epidemiology, Late Effects of Polio
Epidemic poliomyelitis, post-poliomyelitis sequelae and the eradication program
Epidemics of paralytic poliomyelitis (polio) first emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the United States and the Scandinavian countries. They continued through the first half of the 20th century becoming global. A major epidemic occurred in Australia in 1951 but significant outbreaks were reported from the late 1930s to 1954. The poliovirus is an enterovirus that is usually transmitted by the faecal–oral route but only one in about 150 infections results in paralysis when the central nervous system is invaded. The Salk inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) became available in Australia in 1956 and the Sabin live attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) was introduced in 1966. After decades of stability, many survivors of the earlier epidemics experience late-onset sequelae including post-polio syndrome. The World Health Organization launched the global polio eradication initiative (GPEI) in 1988 based on the easily administered OPV. The GPEI has resulted in a dramatic decrease in cases of wild polio so that only Pakistan and Afghanistan report such cases in 2020. However, a major challenge to eradication is the reversion of OPV to neurovirulent mutants resulting in circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV). A novel, genetically stabilised OPV has been developed recently to stop the emergence and spread of cVDPV and OPV is being replaced by IPV in immunisation programs worldwide. Eradication of poliomyelitis is near to achievement and the expectation is that poliomyelitis will join smallpox as dreaded epidemic diseases of the past that will be consigned to history.
Polio residuals clinic: conditioning exercise program
The additional disability experienced by individuals who had poliomyelitis many years earlier has a variety of expressions and a variety of interacting origins. Undertraining and deconditioning are addressed in this article. Weakened musculature often fatigues before a conditioning level of activity is reached. An adapted exercise program for cardiac endurance will reduce symptoms of fatigue and pain. An intentional training program for muscles weakened further by disuse or underutilization will supplement the conditioning program. The clinical assessment and exercise prescription is described.
The use of strengthening exercises in post-polio sequelae - methods and results
Some individuals who had poliomyelitis 20 to 30 years ago are now reporting a recurrence of symptoms of weakness in the same muscle groups that were weakened during the initial onset of the disease. Electrophysiological findings on EMG and repetitive stimulation studies identify changes peculiar to this disease. Non-fatiguing progressive resistive exercises have been used to strengthen muscle groups demonstrating this secondary weakness after the muscles have been identified by electrophysiological studies. Favorable results are reported after non-fatiguing exercises which, combined with Occupational Therapy and appropriate orthotic management, have resulted in improvement in function of ambulation and activities of daily living. The causes of muscle atrophy and pain seen in these individuals are also discussed.
Effect of modified aerobic training on movement energetics in polio survivors
Given that individuals with disabilities may be unable to achieve maximal oxygen uptake in an exercise test and that maximal exercise testing may cause increased fatigue, pain, and muscle weakness, we examined the role of submaximal exercise testing and training based on objective as well as subjective parameters in polio survivors. Experimental (N = 7) and control subjects (N = 13) were tested before and after a 6-week period. The experimental subjects participated in a 6-week exercise training program for 30 to 40 minutes, three times a week. The program consisted of treadmill walking at 55% to 70% of age-predicted maximum heart rates; however, exercise intensity was modified to minimize discomfort/pain and fatigue. Neither objective nor subjective exercise responses were significantly different in the control group over the 6 weeks. No change was observed in cardiorespiratory conditioning in the experimental group. However, movement economy, which is related to the energy cost of walking, was significantly improved; and walking duration was significantly increased at the end of training. Modified aerobic training may have a role in enhancing endurance and reducing fatigue during activities of daily living in polio survivors.
The effects of long-term non-fatiguing resistance exercise in subjects with post-polio syndrome
Measures of torque were used to evaluate changes in muscle strength and endurance in 17 patients with post-polio syndrome who did prescribed resistance exercise for up to 2 years. Exercise compliance averaged 75%, with 16 subjects increasing the weight lifted in training. Maximum torque was significantly increased in the exercised muscle compared to the control muscle; no difference was seen in muscle endurance. Individuals with post-polio syndrome can increase muscle strength by doing non-fatiguing resistance exercise, but they should undergo quantitative testing of muscle strength a minimum of every 3 months to guard against overwork weakness.
Post-polio fatigue: a 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigation
Changes in high energy phosphates (HEP) and intramuscular pH during exercise were measured in 17 patients with post-polio fatigue and in 28 healthy controls using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Subjects performed a dynamic hand grip exercise at low and high intensity. Mean changes in the HEP and pH showed no significant differences between the groups, although the post-polio group's response was highly variable. Six patients showed evidence of a lower lactate accumulation during the high intensity exercise when compared with controls. These data suggest that the whole body fatigue experienced by polio survivors is not related to any systemic metabolic abnormality.
Cardiorespiratory responses to aerobic training by patients with postpoliomyelitis sequelae
We examined the cardiorespiratory responses of 16 patients with postpoliomyelitis sequelae to a 16-week aerobic exercise program. The patients exercised at 70% of maximal heart rate. Dependent variables were resting and maximal heart rates, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, maximum oxygen consumption, maximum carbon dioxide consumption, respiratory quotient, and maximum expired volume per unit time. The exercise group was superior to the control group in watts, exercise time, maximum expired volume per unit time, and maximum oxygen consumption. No untoward events or loss of leg strength occurred as a result of the exercise regimen. We conclude that the aerobic training program employed in this study is a safe, short-term procedure and that patients with postpolio sequelae respond to training in a manner similar to healthy adults.
Gait characteristics and influence of fatigue during the 6-minute walk test in patients with post-polio syndrome
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate gait in patients with post-polio syndrome, using the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) combined with three-dimensional kinematic analysis.

DESIGN: Descriptive study.

SUBJECTS: Eighteen patients and 11 healthy controls.

METHODS: Kinematic data were obtained during a 6MWT by a Vicon motion capture system. Distance, heart rate, leg tiredness, dyspnoea and exertion were also recorded.

RESULTS: Patients with post-polio syndrome showed larger increases in leg tiredness (p < 0.001) and dyspnoea (p < 0.05) as a result of the 6MWT than did controls. Walking speed decreased by 14.1% in patients vs 4.7% in controls (p < 0.05). Fourteen out of 18 patients displayed plantar-flexed ankle at initial contact (1/11 controls). At foot-off, the patients had a flexed hip (extended in controls) and a more flexed knee. Walking speed in patients correlated with hip angle at footoff, at the start (r = –0.60, p < 0.001) and the end of the 6MWT (r = –0.74, p < 0.001), being higher the more the hip was extended.

CONCLUSION: The 6MWT is fatiguing for patients with post polio syndrome, and this was reflected in the kinematic data. Walking speed was negatively correlated with the increased hip flexion, but not with the ankle plantar-flexion at foot-off in the patients with post-polio syndrome. The three-dimensional results underscore the importance of hip function in this patient group.
Postpolio syndrome and cardiopulmonary conditioning
Postpolio syndrome is a group of related signs and symptoms occurring in people who had paralytic poliomyelitis years earlier. New weakness, fatigue, poor endurance, pain, reduced mobility, increased breathing difficulty, intolerance to cold, and sleep disturbance in various degrees and expressions make up the syndrome. The reported incidence is between 25% and 80%. The origins are multifactorial and can be associated with underexertion, overexertion, inactivity due to intercurrent illness or injury, hypo-oxygenation, sleep apnea, deconditioning, and the failure of sprouted, compensatory large motor units. The exercise question in postpolio syndrome is related to the experience of new weakness or loss of muscle function due to overuse, which is often associated with injudicious repeated challenges to weakened musculature. Carefully prescribed exercise can be used for increasing strength and endurance and improving cardiopulmonary conditioning.
Dynamic water exercise in individuals with late poliomyelitis
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the specific effects of general dynamic water exercise in individuals with late effects of poliomyelitis.

DESIGN: Before-after tests.

SETTING: A university hospital department.

PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-eight individuals with late effects of polio, 15 assigned to the training group (TG) and 13 to the control group (CG).

INTERVENTION: The TG completed a 40-minute general fitness training session in warm water twice weekly. Assessment instruments included the bicycle ergometer test, isokinetic muscle strength, a 30-meter walk indoors, Berg balance scale, a pain drawing, a visual analog scale, the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, and the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Peak load, peak work load, peak oxygen uptake, peak heart rate (HR), muscle function in knee extensors and flexors, and pain dimension of the NHP.

RESULTS: The average training period was 5 months; compliance was 75% (range, 55-98). No negative effects were seen. The exercise did not influence the peak work load, peak oxygen uptake, or muscle function in knee extensors compared with the controls. However, a decreased HR at the same individual work load was seen, as well as a significantly lower distress in the dimension pain of the NHP. Qualitative aspects such as increased well-being, pain relief, and increased physical fitness were reported.
Determining the anaerobic threshold in postpolio syndrome: comparison with current guidelines for training intensity prescription
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the anaerobic threshold (AT) can be identified in individuals with postpolio syndrome (PPS) using submaximal incremental exercise testing, and to compare current guidelines for intensity prescription in PPS with the AT.

DESIGN: Cohort study.

SETTING: Research laboratory.

PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with PPS (N=82).

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Power output, gas exchange variables, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured in an incremental submaximal cycle ergometry test. Two independent observers identified the AT. Comparison of current guidelines for training intensity prescription in PPS (40%-60% heart rate reserve [HRR] or RPE of 12) with the AT was based on correlations between recommended heart rate and the heart rate at the AT. In addition, we determined the proportion of individuals that would have been recommended to train at an intensity corresponding to their AT.

RESULTS: The AT was identified in 63 (77%) of the participants. Pearson correlation coefficients between the recommended heart rate and the heart rate at the AT were lower in cases of 40% HRR (r=.56) and 60% HRR (r=.50) than in cases of prescription based on the RPE (r=.86). Based on the RPE, 55% of the individuals would have been recommended to train at an intensity corresponding to their AT. This proportion was higher compared with 40% HRR (41%) or 60% HRR (18%) as criterion.
Submaximal exercise capacity and maximal power output in polio subjects
OBJECTIVES: To compare the submaximal exercise capacity of polio subjects with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) and without (non-PPS) with that of healthy control subjects, to investigate the relationship of this capacity with maximal short-term power and quadriceps strength, and to evaluate movement economy.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey.

SETTING: University hospital.

PARTICIPANTS: Forty-three polio subjects (25 PPS, 18 non-PPS) and 12 control subjects.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Power output, oxygen uptake, and heart rate were measured in an incremental submaximal cycle ergometry test. Maximal short-term power was measured in 5-second all-out efforts. Knee extensor strength was measured on a chair dynamometer.

RESULTS: The mean submaximal power +/- standard deviation at 80% of heart rate reserve of 83.8 +/- 29.9 watts in the polio subjects was significantly less than the mean submaximal power of 142.1 +/- 30.4 watts in the control group. However, expressed as a percentage of the maximal short-term power, submaximal power did not differ between the groups. Strength and maximal short-term power correlated significantly (p < .005) with submaximal power (r = .64 and .76, respectively). The oxygen uptake was higher than theoretically expected for the given submaximal power output in polio subjects, and appeared to increase with increasing asymmetry in strength and power between legs. No differences were found between PPS and non-PPS subjects.
Previous Acute Polio and Post-Polio Syndrome: Recognizing the Pathophysiology for the Establishment of Rehabilitation Programs
Previous acute poliomyelitis (PAP) can be defined as an endemic human disease caused by an enterovirus of worldwide distribution, which compromises the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord. Poliovirus has infected and victimized thousands of people all over the world. Only after the development of the inactivated virus vaccine by Jonas Salk, in 1955, and then with the attenuated virus vaccine, by Albert Bruce Sabin, in 1961, we saw a reduction in the number of poliomyelitis cases in the world.

The patients present clinical status characterized by muscle atrophy and paresis, especially in the lower limbs, under asymmetrical and disproportional form. There is a second form, bulbar, which compromises the motor neurons of the medulla, resulting in impairments in speech, swallowing and breathing. The purpose of this letter to the Editor is to alert readers about the risks of therapeutic exercise for this group of patients.
Endurance Training Effect on Individuals With Postpoliomyelitis
Objective: To determine the effects of an endurance training program on the exercise capacity and muscle structure and function in individuals with postpolio syndrome.

Design: Preexercise and postexercise testing was performed with muscle strength evaluations using isokinetic testing as well as hand-held Myometer. Muscle fatigue was determined by use of isokinetic testing, and endurance was determined by exercise testing. Enzymatic evaluation was performed with muscle biopsies taken at the same site; preexercise and postexercise muscle cross-sectional area was measured by computed tomography. Disability and psychosocial evaluation was performed by a Functional Status Questionnaire.

Setting: A university.

Subjects: Seventeen postpolio subjects ranging in age from 39 to 49 years volunteered for a 6-month combined endurance and strength training program. They had a history of acute poliomyelitis at least 25 years earlier and were able to walk with or without aid.

Intervention: Twelve of the subjects (mean age 42 years) completed the program, attending an average of 29 sessions, which were offered for 60 minutes twice a week.

Main Outcome Measures: Strength, endurance, enzymatic activity, and cross-sectional area were measured 3 months before the beginning of training, just before training, and at the completion of the exercise program.
Comparison of two 6-minute walk tests to assess walking capacity in polio survivors
Objective: To compare walking dynamics and test-retest reliability for 2 frequently applied walk tests in polio survivors: the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) to walk as far as possible; and the 6-minute walking energy cost test (WECT) at comfortable speed.

Design: Observational study.

Participants: Thirty-three polio survivors, able to walk ≥ 150 m.

Methods: On the same day participants performed a 6MWT and a WECT, which were repeated 1–3 weeks later. For each test, distance walked, heart rate and reduction in speed were assessed.

Results: The mean distance walked and mean heart rate were significantly higher in the 6MWT (441 m (standard deviation) (SD 79.7); 118 bpm (SD 19.2)) compared with the WECT (366 m (SD 67.3); 103 bpm (SD 14.3)); p < 0.001. Furthermore, during the 6MWT, patients continuously slowed down (–6%), while during the WECT speed dropped only slightly during the first 2 min, by –1.8% in total. Test-retest reliability of both tests was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) ≥ 0.95; lower bound 95% confidence interval (95% CI) ≥ 0.87). The smallest detectable change for the walked distance was 42 m (9.7% change from the mean) and 50 m (13.7%) on the 6MWT and WECT, respectively.

Conclusion: Both the 6MWT and the WECT are reliable to assess walking capacity in polio survivors, with slightly superior sensitivity to detect change for the 6MWT. Differences in walking dynamics confirm that the tests cannot be used interchangeably. The 6MWT is recommended for measuring maximal walking capacity and the WECT for measuring submaximal walking capacity.
Cardiorespiratory responses to upper extremity aerobic training by postpolio subjects
The cardiorespiratory responses of ten postpolio subjects participating in a 16-week upper extremity aerobic exercise program were compared to ten non-exercised controls. The subjects trained three times a week for 20 minutes per session. Exercise intensity was prescribed at 70% to 75% of heart rate reserve plus resting heart rate. Dependent variables were resting heart rate, maximal heart rate, resting and immediate-post-exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressures, maximal oxygen consumption, maximal carbon dioxide production, minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, power, and exercise time. After training, the exercise group was superior to the control group in oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, minute ventilation, power, and exercise time. There was no reported loss of muscle strength. It was concluded that postpolio subjects can safely achieve an increase in aerobic capacity with a properly modified upper extremity exercise program. This improvement is comparable to that demonstrated by able-bodied adults.
Effect of aquatic exercise training in persons with poliomyelitis disability
Aquatic exercise, including swimming, reduces the effect of body weight on limbs and joints. A combination of swimming and specific activities involving resistive devices was used in an attempt to improve strength in persons who had symptomatic weakness related to poliomyelitis. Dynamic muscular force application in selected limb movements and range of motion were measured before and after an 8‐week aquatic exercise intervention. Peak (PF) and average force (AF) were determined in the water using a differential pressure transducer attached to either the hand, foot, or a resistive device. Arm flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and horizontal adduction and abduction along with combined hip flexion and knee extension were tested for both PF and AF Subjects were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups; complete data were available on nine experimental and four control subjects. PF and AF changes were greater (p ≤ 0.05) for experimental compared with control for right arm flexion (PF, 96 versus 6%) and extension (PR 105 versus ‐15%; AF, 76 versus ‐30%), respectively. Changes were greater (p ≤0.05) in experimental than control for left arm extension (PF, 88% versus 19%) and horizontal abduction (PF, 127% versus ‐21%; AF, 122% versus ‐17%). Aquatic exercise training in subjects with poliomyelitis disability resulted in significant dynamic strength changes of the upper body while appearing not to exacerbate symptomatic fatigue or pain.
Low-intensity, alternate-day exercise improves muscle performance without apparent adverse affect in postpolio patients.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a low-intensity, alternate-day, 12 wk quadriceps muscle-strengthening exercise program on muscle strength and muscle and motor unit integrity in 12 postpolio patients. Patients performed six to ten repetitions of a 5-s duration knee extension exercise with ankle weights. After completing six repetitions, patients rated the perceived exertion (RPE) in the exercised muscle. The patient continued repetitions until RPE was >/= 17 or ten repetitions were performed. The weight was increased the next exercise day whenever the RPE was < 17 after ten repetitions. Before and after the training program, median macroamplitude as well as jitter and blocking were determined electromyographically (EMG), serum creatine kinase (CK) was measured, and quadriceps muscle strength was assessed. The ankle weight lifted after 2 wk of training and at the end of the program were also recorded. Although the ankle weight lifted at the end of the program significantly (P < 0.05) increased from a mean +/- SD of 7.1 +/- 2.7 to 11.2 +/- 4.7 kg, the dynametrically determined muscle strength measures did not significantly (P > 0.05) increase. The EMG and the serum CK variables also did not significantly (P >0.05) change as a result of the exercise program. We conclude that performance was improved, as demonstrated by an increase in the amount of weight the patients lifted in the exercise program. No evidence was found to show that this program adversely affected the motor units or the muscle as the EMG and CK did not change.
Daily Well-Being Benefits of Physical Activity in Older Adults: Does Time or Type Matter?
There is little debate that maintaining some level of physical activity in later life conveys positive benefits both physically and psychologically. What is less understood is the extent to which the type of activity or the length of time spent doing it matters when it comes to these benefits on the daily level. Here, we investigated (a) whether the presence of daily purposeful exercise (Exercise) or non-exercise physical activity (Activity) is sufficient for experiencing day-level benefits, or if time spent matters, and (b) whether there are differential well-being benefits of Exercise and Activity on the daily level.

Older adults (N = 127; aged 60-95, Mage = 79.4) filled out surveys for 14 days, reporting daily Exercise and Activity behaviors as well as Positive and Negative Affect (PA/NA), Perceived Stress (PS), Perceived Health (PH), and Sleep Quality (SQ).

Multilevel regression models showed that for purposeful exercise, more time spent was beneficial for PA, NA, and PH, but for PS, only the presence of exercise was important (time did not matter). For non-exercise activity, time did not have as great an influence as presence-doing any form of activity was beneficial for both PA and SQ. Exercise and Activity had largely independent (additive) effects.

Short-term effects of aerobic exercise on functional capacity, fatigue, and quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome.
To investigate and compare the impact of hospital and home exercise programmes on aerobic capacity, fatigue, and quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome.

A prospective, randomized controlled trial.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University Hospital.

Thirty-two patients were divided into two groups for either hospital- or home-based aerobic exercise programme.

Patients were assessed before and after the rehabilitation programme, with respect to functional capacity (pVo2), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale, Fatigue Impact Scale) and quality of life (Nottingham Heath Profile).

After the exercise programme, improvement was observed in the hospital exercise group compared to a pre-exercise period in all Nottingham Heath Profile scores (except sleep scores), pVo2, Fatigue Severity Scale and Fatigue Impact Scale (cognitive, physical, psychosocial, total) (P<0.05). In contrast, in the home exercise group a decrease was observed in pVo2 scores after the rehabilitation programme, compared to a pre-rehabilitation period (P<0.05). In addition, a significant improvement was observed in the home exercise group after the rehabilitation programme in all parameters excluding Fatigue Impact Scale-physical, Fatigue Impact Scale-psychosocial, and Nottingham Heath Profile-sleep (P<0.05). When the two exercise groups were compared, improvement was observed in the hospital exercise group compared to the home exercise group in pVo2 and Fatigue Severity Scale-total, Fatigue Impact Scale-physical, Fatigue Impact Scale-psychosocial, Fatigue Impact Scale-total, and Nottingham Heath Profile-energy scores (P<0.05).
The development of an instrument to assess post-exertional malaise in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome
Post-exertional malaise, or a variation of this term, is a key symptom of myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome, as this symptom is mentioned in almost all myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome case definitions. Until now there has not been a comprehensive questionnaire to assess post-exertional malaise. To rectify this situation, in this article we describe the development of a new questionnaire, called the DePaul Post-Exertional Malaise Questionnaire, which was based on input from hundreds of patients. Preliminary validation was provided by the findings of significant and predictable relationships between different domains of this post-exertional malaise questionnaire and physical functioning.
Whole Body Vibration Methods with Survivors of Polio
The purpose of the original study was to examine the use of whole body vibration (WBV) on polio survivors with and without post-polio syndrome as a form of weight bearing exercise. The goal of this article is to highlight the strengths, limitations, and applications of the method used.
Fifteen participants completed two intervention blocks with a wash-out period in between the blocks. Each block consisted of twice a week (four weeks) WBV interventions, progressing from 10 to 20 min per session. Low intensity (peak to peak displacement 4.53 mm, frequency 24 Hz,
g force 2.21) and higher intensity (peak to peak displacement 8.82 mm, frequency 35 Hz, g force 2.76) WBV blocks were used. Pain severity significantly improved in both groups following higher intensity vibration. Walking speed significantly improved in the group who participated
in higher intensity intervention first. No study-related adverse events occurred. Even though this population can be at risk of developing overuse-related muscle weakness, fatigue, or pain from excessive physical activity or exercise, the vibration intensity levels utilized did not
cause significant muscle weakness, pain, fatigue, or sleep disturbances. Therefore, WBV appears to provide a safe method of weight bearing exercise for this population. Limitations included the lack of measurement of reflexes, muscular activity, or circulation, the difficulty in participant
recruitment, and insufficient strength of some participants to stand in recommended position. Strengths included a standard, safe protocol with intentional monitoring of symptoms and the heterogeneity of the participants in their physical abilities. An application of the methods is the home use of WBV to reduce the barriers associated with going to a facility for weight bearing exercise for longer term interventions, and benefits for conditions such as osteoporosis, particularly for aging adults with mobility difficulties due to paralysis or weakness. Presented method may serve as a starting point in future studies.
Effects of resistance training in combination with coenzyme Q10 supplementation in patients with post-polio: a pilot study.
Coenzyme Q10 supplementation leads to increased muscle metabolism in patients with post-polio syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training in combination with oral supplementation with coenzyme Q10 in patients with post-polio syndrome regarding muscle strength and endurance as well as functional capacity and health-related quality of life.

Parallel randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study.

A total of 14 patients (8 women and 6 men) with post-polio syndrome participated in a 12-week muscular resistance training, 3 days/week. The patients were randomized for oral supplementation with coenzyme Q10, 200 mg/day, or placebo. Measurements used were: sit-stand-sit test, timed up & go test, 6-minute walk test, muscle strength measurement by means of dynamic dynamometer and short-form (SF)-36 questionnaire.

Muscle strength, muscle endurance and quality of life regarding mental health increased statistically significantly in all 14 patients. There was no significant difference between the coenzyme Q10 and placebo groups regarding muscle strength, muscle endurance and quality of life.

Effort-limited treadmill walk test: reliability and validity in subjects with postpolio syndrome.
To determine the reliability and construct validity of an effort-limited treadmill walk test to measure functional ability in subjects with postpolio syndrome in an outpatient postpolio clinic.

Functioning and distance walked on a treadmill to a Borg "hard" effort level were measured three times, a week apart, by two blinded raters in 15 subjects with postpolio syndrome, aged 37-67 yrs, with new weakness, fatigue, and pain but with no other cause of symptomatology or condition-limiting walking. One rater tested them twice. Fatigue activity level, mobility, and health-related quality of life (Medical Outcome Study Short Form Health Survey [SF-36]) defined functioning. Generalizability correlation coefficients determined intrarater, test-retest and interrater reliability. The correlations relating the distance walked and functioning determined construct validity.

Reliability for generalizability correlation coefficients were: intrarater, 0.91; test-retest, 0.85; and interrater, 0.58. Interrater reliability improved to 0.91 with adherence to a standardized protocol. Validity was established with correlations between the distance walked and SF-36 physical component score (0.66), physical role (0.60), bodily pain (0.60), and vitality (0.55).
Assessment of subjective and motor fatigue in Polio survivors, attending a Postpolio clinic, comparison with healthy controls and an exploration of clinical correlates.
Polio survivors experience declining mobility, pain and fatigue. The extent of motor fatigue and its impact on mobility and quality of life, in addition to other commonly reported impairments requires evaluation.

An observational, case-control, cross-sectional design was used to assess 30 Polio survivors and 30 age- and sex-matched controls. Muscle strength and motor fatigue were assessed using fixed dynamometry. Fatigue, pain and quality of life were assessed using the Piper Fatigue Scale, the Fatigue Severity Scale, visual analogue scales and the RAND Short Form-36, respectively. An 8-min walking test, including physiological cost index (PCI), evaluated mobility.

A significant difference in motor fatigue was identified only in hand grip (p = 0.03). Polio survivors were significantly weaker (p < 0.001) and more fatigued (p < 0.001) than controls. Motor fatigue was not related to subjective fatigue, mobility or quality of life. Muscle strength predicted mobility. Pain and fatigue were associated with lower mental quality of life, while PCI was associated with physical quality of life.
Aerobic exercise in adult neuromuscular rehabilitation: A survey of healthcare professionals
Objective: To evaluate the current application of
aerobic exercise in adult neuromuscular rehabilitation.
Design: Cross-sectional survey.
Participants: Dutch rehabilitation specialists and physical therapists in specialized centres for slowly progressive neuromuscular diseases and in primary care.
Methods: Participants received a self-designed, web-based, questionnaire, including 27 close-ended questions covering 4 categories: respondent profile, application of aerobic exercise, barriers to prescribing aerobic exercise, and need for support to improve the application of aerobic exercise.
Results: All respondents (n = 52) prescribed aerobic exercise and in a wide variety of neuromuscular diseases, mostly applying sessions of more than 20 min, 2 days per week, over a period of 9–16 weeks, using different exercise modes and methods to target intensity. The majority (81%) agreed that aerobic exercise should be incorporated into neuromuscular
rehabilitation. However, all respondents perceived barriers to the application of aerobic exercise
in one or more domains, and 77% of the respondents indicated needing support to improve application of this type of training, mostly with respect to screening procedures (54%) and dosing of exercise programmes (48%).
Conclusion: Aerobic exercise is widely applied, yet our results raise awareness of the necessity of more evidence based knowledge, in order to develop and implement guidelines in adult neuromuscular rehabilitation.
Exercise, Activity Levels
The Postpolio Syndrome: An Overuse Phenomenon

Persons with good recovery of function following their initial poliomyelitis are now, more than 30 years later, experiencing new weakness, fatigue, and muscle pain. The likelihood of muscle overuse being the cause of this late functional loss was investigated by dynamic electromyography (EMG) and foot-switch stride analysis in 34 symptomatic patients. Manual testing grouped the muscles, with strong (S) encompassing Grades Good (G) and Normal (N) while weak (W) included Fair plus (F+) to zero (0). After testing quadriceps and calf strength, the patients fell into one of four classes: strong quadriceps and calf (SQ/SC) strong quadriceps and weak calf (SQ/WC) weak quadriceps and strong calf (WQ/SC) or combined weak quadriceps and calf (WQ/WC). Quantified EMG; (normalized by the manual muscle test EMG) defined the mean duration and intensity of the quadriceps soleus, lower gluteus maximus, and long head of the biceps femoris during walking. Overuse was defined as values greater than the laboratory normal (mean·+ 1 SD). Each muscle exhibited instances of overuse, normalcy, and sparing. The biceps femoris was the only muscle with dominant overuse (82%). Quadriceps overuse was next in frequency (53%). Soleus activity infrequently exceeded normal function (34%), but this still represented more than twice the intensity and duration of the other muscles. Gluteus maximus action was also seldom excessive (34%). The patients averaged two muscles with excessive use during walking. Gait velocity of the SQ/SC strong group was highest (71% of normal) while the three categories that included weak muscles had walking speeds in the range of 50% of normal. The finding of muscle overuse during a single free-speed walking test that does not attain normal velocity supports the concept of muscle overuse being the cause of the patient's dysfunction.
Relationship of depression and medications on incidence of falls
among people with late effects of polio
The purpose of this study was to determine if falls in polio survivors, with or without post-polio syndrome (PPS), are related to number of medications taken, use of anti-depressant or psychoactive medications, or self-report of depression. A survey was sent to 300 members of a regional polio support group, asking them to document their fall history, medications used, and the presence of depression. Depression was measured by self-report and with the Geriatric Depression Scale, short form (GDS-15). One hundred and seventy-two usable surveys were returned with 146 of those completing the medication list. Sixty-two percent reported at least one fall in the past year. The multiple logistic regression was significant (p = 0.023), and it indicated depression to be a significant predictor (p = 0.012) of falls in polio survivors with and without PPS. The number of total medications or anti-depressant or psychoactive medications used was not related to fall incidence.
Fear of falling, balance confidence and health-related quality of life in individuals with postpolio syndrome.
The purposes of this study were to examine prevalence of fear of falling (FOF) and decreased balance confidence in individuals with postpolio syndrome (PPS) and to determine whether balance confidence was correlated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in this population. A survey, which included demographic questions, the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale, and the MOS SF-36v2, was made available by mail and electronically to individuals with PPS. Descriptive and correlation statistics were used to analyze the responses. Fear of falling was reported in 95% of respondents, with 80% indicating that FOF affected their quality of life. Median ABC score (42 of 100), physical component score (27 of 100), and mental component score (47 of 100) were below average compared with the general population. A moderate correlation (r = 0.4; p < 0.001) was found between balance confidence and the physical component score of HRQOL in PPS.
Falls and Bone Density
Fractures in an aging population of poliomyelitis survivors: a community-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of fractures in a cohort of survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis (“polio”).

DESIGN: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, who had an initial diagnosis of polio between 1935 and 1959 and survived the acute illness.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive medical records-linkage system was used to retrieve all diagnoses of poliomyelitis in residents of the county for the specified 25-year period. For the 277 study subjects, the medical records were searched for the occurrence of fracture from the time of initial diagnosis of polio until death or the most recent clinical contact. All fractures were classified on the basis of type of associated injury and skeletal site of involvement. The influence of polio on the incidence of fractures was evaluated by estimating the cumulative incidence of new fractures after the diagnosis of polio and the standardized morbidity ratio. The relative influence of various factors on the risk of fracture was determined.

RESULTS: Of the 277 Olmsted County residents with polio, 87 experienced 161 fractures, and the estimated cumulative incidence of any fracture after 40 years was 48%. The cumulative incidence of any limb fracture was 41% and was less than the expected value of 44% (P = 0.001). Only the risk of distal femoral and proximal humeral fractures was significantly higher than that among Olmsted County residents in general. The increased risk seemed to be associated with weakness and disuse of the involved limbs rather than with generalized osteoporosis. Theoretically, a greater capacity for bone remodeling in response to changes in muscle use might have protected patients with polio in childhood, but such persons were as likely to sustain a fracture as those with adult-onset poliomyelitis.
Falls and Bone Density
High incidence of osteoporosis and fractures in an aging post-polio population
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Since the polio epidemic in Ireland in the 1950s, most polio survivors are approaching into the 6th and 7th decade of their lives. There is little data about bone density and risk of fractures in these patients. In 2006, we undertook an audit of post-polio patients attending rheumatology and neurology outpatient clinics in a university teaching hospital. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis (OP), falls and fractures and to evaluate the association of bone density with other potential contributing factors to OP.

METHODS: Over a 6-month period, 50 post-polio patients attending outpatient clinics completed a questionnaire, and subsequently their medical records were reviewed. Demographic data and details of treatment were extracted. The patients underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning to quantify bone mineral density. Results: Thirty subjects (60%) were females (26 were postmenopausal). The average age of females was 60 ± 13.4 years and of men 59 ± 16.8 years. Overall, 41 (82%) of the patients had experienced falls in the last 5 years and 32 (64%) in the last 6 months. Nineteen (38%) of the patients had experienced a bone fracture in the last 5 years. Based on the bone mineral density data, 28 (56%) of the patients were diagnosed with OP and 20 (40%) had osteopenia, but only 8 (16%) received anti-resorptive therapy. Of the 19 patients who had a fracture, 14 (74%) had OP and 5 (26%) had osteopenia, of whom only 6 (32%) received anti-resorptive therapy. Eight out of 9 fractures of the neck of femur occurred in the weaker leg.
Falls and Bone Density
Circumstances and consequences of falls in polio survivors
OBJECTIVES: Many polio survivors have symptoms that are known risk factors for falls in elderly people. This study aims to determine the: (i) frequency; (ii) consequences; (iii) circumstances; and (iv) factors associated with falls in polio survivors.

METHODS: A survey was conducted among 376 polio survivors. Participants completed a falls history questionnaire and additional information was obtained from their medical files.

RESULTS: Of the 305 respondents, 74% reported at least one fall in the past year and 60% two or more. Sixteen percent of fallers described a major injury after a fall in the last year and 69% reported fear of falling. One-third of fallers had reduced the amount they walked because of their fear of falling. Most reported falls in a familiar environment (86%), during ambulation (72%) and in the afternoon (50%). Quadriceps weakness of the weakest leg (Medical Research Council (MRC) ≤ 3), fear of falling and complaints of problems maintaining balance were independently associated with both falls and recurrent falls, while increasing age and medication use were not.
Falls and Bone Density
Polio survivors: falls and subsequent injuries
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the frequency of falls in polio survivors and their resulting morbidity.

DESIGN: Two groups, fallers vs. nonfallers, were investigated in this descriptive study. A total of 233 polio survivors volunteered to complete a structured questionnaire on fall history and sequelae.

RESULTS: Of the study participants, 64% had fallen within the previous year, and 61% had falls for which they received medical attention, including 35% who had at least one fracture. There was not a correlation between age and falling, but there was a strong correlation between tripping and falling.
Falls and Bone Density
Falls among adults aging with disability
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for falling among individuals aging with multiple sclerosis (MS), muscular dystrophy (MD), postpolio syndrome (PPS), and spinal cord injury (SCI).

DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey data from 2009 to 2010 were analyzed. We used forward logistic regression models to examine whether risk factors such as age, sex, mobility level, years since diagnosis, vision, balance, weakness, number of comorbid conditions, and physical activity could distinguish participants who reported falling from those who did not.

SETTING: Surveys were mailed to community-dwelling individuals who had 1 of 4 diagnoses (MS, MD, PPS, or SCI). The survey response rate was 91%.

PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of community-dwelling individuals (N=1862; age, 18-94y) with MS, MD, PPS, or SCI in the United States.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Self-reported fall within the last 6 months.

RESULTS: Fall prevalence for people with MS (54%), MD (70%), PPS (55%), and SCI (40%). Across all 4 groups, fall rates peaked in middle age (45-64y) and among people with moderate mobility limitations. Seven risk factors differentiated participants who fell from those who did not: mobility level, imbalance, age, curvilinear age (age(2)), number of comorbid conditions, duration of diagnosis, and sex. The models differed across diagnostic groups.
Falls and Bone Density
Osteoporosis in a postpolio clinic population
OBJECTIVES: To determine (1) the frequency of osteoporosis at the hip and lumbar spine in a postpolio clinic population and (2) the association of lower-extremity muscle strength and other potential contributing factors to osteoporosis with bone density measured at the hip.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study involving a chart review.

SETTING: A university-affiliated hospital postpolio clinic.

PARTICIPANTS: Patient charts (N=379) were reviewed; 164 (26%) were included, and 215 (74%) were not included primarily (74%) because of the unavailability of bone density results.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Bone density (in g/cm(2)) and T score were assessed at the femoral neck and lumbar spine. Muscle strength was evaluated by manual muscle testing in 7 bilateral lower-extremity muscles.

RESULTS: The occurrence of osteoporosis at the hip and lumbar spine was 20 (32%) of 62 and 6 (10%) of 61 in men, 3 (9%) of 33 and 2 (6%) of 32 in premenopausal women, and 18 (27%) of 67 and 7 (11%) of 65 in postmenopausal women, respectively. In a logistic regression model, the presence of osteoporosis at the hip was significantly associated with strength sum score in the same extremity in which the bone density was performed after adjusting for other important risk factors (age, body mass index, time since polio).
Falls and Bone Density
Bone Mineral Density Among Individuals With Residual Lower Limb Weakness After Polio
Literature indicates that individuals with long-term residual lower extremity (LE) weakness after polio have decreased bone mineral density (BMD) deficiencies related to muscle weakness. Where weakness is asymmetrical, bone densitometry (BDt) measured only on the stronger LE may misclassify BMD.

To determine (1) whether femoral neck BMD differed from side to side in individuals with asymmetrical LE muscle weakness, and (2) the proportion of individuals at risk for underdiagnosis of low bone density or osteoporosis given unilateral assessment of the femoral neck.

Retrospective study.

Outpatient postpolio center.

Patients >18 years old with complete relevant data.

Main Outcome Measures
BDt T scores, BMD categories based on standard T-score ranges, and side of LE weakness determined by a strength score.

Forty-three subjects had at least 1 femoral neck T score and bilateral LE strength scores. Fourteen (32.5%) had BDt only on their weaker LE and 14 (32.5%) had BDt only on their stronger LE. Of the 15 subjects with BDt done on both femoral necks, T scores (mean [standard deviation]) were lower in the weaker LE (–1.73 [1.09]) than the stronger LE (–0.88 [1.0]) (P = .001). Classification of low bone density or osteoporosis was more frequent based on T scores taken on a weaker LE (48.3% and 24.1%, respectively) than from T scores from a stronger LE (41.4% and 6.9%, respectively).
Falls and Bone Density
Lower-limb muscle strength, static and dynamic postural stabilities, risk of falling and fear of falling in polio survivors and healthy subjects
Introduction: This study investigated the association between preserved lower-limb muscle strength, dynamic and static postural stability, risk of falling, and fear of falling in polio survivors. We also investigated whether these clinical features differ between polio survivors and healthy controls. Methods: This quasi-experimental study enrolled 16 polio survivors (13 underwent a complete-case analysis) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Participants were assessed by the manual muscle test, Berg Balance Scale, force platform posturography, and Falls Efficacy Scale. Between-group mean differences with confidence intervals (MD, CI 95%) and Spearman’s ρ are reported. Results: Compared to healthy controls, polio survivors presented reduced muscle strength (MD = –13, CI 95% −16 to −9 points), lower dynamic postural stability (MD = –14, CI 95% −19 to −8 points), and increased fear of falling (MD = 14, CI 95% 10–18 points) (all P < 0.001). In polio survivors, lower-limb muscle strength was correlated with dynamic (ρ = 0.760) and static postural stability (ρ = 0.738–0.351), risk of falling (ρ = −0.746), and fear of falling (ρ = −0.432). Dynamic postural stability was correlated with risk of falling (ρ = −0.841), fear of falling (ρ = −0.277), and static postural stability (ρ = −0.869 to −0.435; ρ = −0.361 to −0.200, respectively). Risk and fear of falling were also correlated (ρ = 0.464). Discussion: Polio survivors exhibited impaired dynamic postural stability but preserved static stability and increased risk of falling and fear of falling. Preserved lower-limb muscle strength, postural stability, fear of falling, and risk of falling are associated clinical features in this population.
Falls and Bone Density
Participation in Two Evidence-Based Falls Prevention Programs by Adults Aging With a Long-Term Disability: Case-Control Study of Reach and Effectiveness
Objective: Adults aging with a long-term disability (LTD) are at an increased risk for falls. The Older Americans Act Title III-D and Prevention and Public Health Fund (PPHF) support several organizations to deliver falls prevention evidence-based programs designed to reduce risk factors; however, little is understood about the reach and effectiveness of these fall prevention programs for those with LTD compared to those without LTD. This study compared the reach and effectiveness of two evidence-based falls prevention programs between older adults with and without LTD. Method: Using a matched case-control design, 105 LTD older adults enrolled in A Matter of Balance (AMOB) or Stepping On were matched to 315 non-LTD older adults on age, sex, race, and education. Results: On average, LTD older adults attended a higher number of class sessions and were significantly more likely to complete the program compared with the matched-sample of non-LTD older adults. LTD older adults were equally likely as non-LTD older adults to report significant reductions in self-reported fear of falling, falls-related activity restriction, and improvement in falls self-efficacy following completion of the programs.
Falls, Fractures and Osteoporosis, Surgery
Total Hip Arthroplasty in Patients With Postpolio Residual Paralysis: A Systematic Review
Patients with postpolio residual paralysis can develop disabling hip arthritis in paralytic as well as a nonparalytic limb, warranting total hip arthroplasty (THA). Limited literature is available on the results of THA among these patients in the form of small series or case reports. We have undertaken a systematic review to evaluate the clinical outcome of THA in patients with poliomyelitis with hip pathologies.

A systematic search of electronic databases of PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science pertaining to English literature was undertaken from 1945 to August 2020 to assess the results of THA in patients with poliomyelitis. Information was gathered about demographics, indication, clinical course, complications, functional outcome, survival, and need for any revision surgery in these patients.

The literature search revealed 81 articles. Finally, after deduplication and manual selection, 16 relevant articles (128 hips) were included for evaluation. There is a paucity of literature evaluating THA in patients with poliomyelitis over the last 2 decades. The principal reason for arthroplasty was osteoarthritis of the hip in the ipsilateral (paralyzed) limb. A combination of cemented, uncemented, and hybrid implant fixation system was found to be used by surgeons. Addressing instability and perioperative management of limb length discrepancy were found to be challenging propositions.

THA remains an effective intervention to relieve pain and improve quality of life in patients of poliomyelitis afflicted with either primary or secondary arthritis of the hip. The use of uncemented nonconstrained hip implant designs appears to demonstrate better results than constrained implants.
Falls, Late Effects of Polio
Polio survivors have poorer walking adaptability than healthy individuals
Falling is a major health problem in polio survivors, often occurring as a result of tripping, slipping or misplaced steps. Therefore, reduced walking adaptability possibly plays an important role.

Research question:
Does walking adaptability, assessed on an interactive treadmill, differ between polio survivors and healthy individuals?

In this cross-sectional study, 48 polio survivors with at least one reported fall in the past year and/or fear of falling and 25 healthy individuals of similar age walked at self-selected comfortable fixed speed on an instrumented treadmill. Walking adaptability was measured as i) target-stepping accuracy (determined as variable error [VE] in mm independent of speed) in three conditions; 0%, 20% and 30% variation in step length and width, and ii) anticipatory and reactive obstacle avoidance (ObA and ObR, in percentage successfully avoided). All trials were checked for valid step detection.

46 polio survivors (mean ± SD age: 63.2 ± 8.7 years) and 25 healthy individuals (64.3 ± 6.6 years, p = 0.585) showed valid step detection. Compared to healthy individuals (mean±SE VE: 30.6±1.2mm), polio survivors stepped less accurately onto targets (36.4±0.9mm, p = 0.001), especially with their least-affected leg. Polio survivors avoided fewer obstacles successfully (mean±SE ObA: 83±3%, ObR: 59±4%) than healthy individuals (100±0.3%, p < 0.001 and 94±3%, p < 0.001, respectively), with a stronger decline in success rates from anticipatory to reactive obstacle avoidance for polio survivors (p < 0.001).

Polio survivors reporting falls and/or fear of falling had a demonstrably reduced walking adaptability, especially so for reactive obstacle avoidance which requires step adjustments under high time-pressure demands. Future research should study the merit of walking-adaptability assessment to currently used clinical methods of fall-risk assessment within this population.

CoP: Center of Pressure

CWS: Comfortable Walking Speed

ObA: Obstacle Avoidance Anticipatory

ObR: Obstacle Avoidance Reactive

ST0: Stepping Targets, 0% variation in step length and width relative to normal walking

ST20: Stepping Targets, 20% variation in step length and width relative to normal walking

ST30: Stepping Targets, 30% variation in step length and width relative to normal walking

VE: Variable stepping Error

%GDS: Percentage successful goal-directed steps

Poliomyelitis, walking adaptability, falling, fall, risk, C-Mill, muscle, weakness
Falls, Late Effects of Polio
Fall-Related Activity Avoidance among Persons with Late Effects of Polio and Its Influence on Daily Life: A Mixed-Methods Study
Falls are common among persons with late effects of polio (LEoP), which may lead to fear of falling and activity avoidance in everyday life. Here, we assessed the occurrence of fall-related activity avoidance among persons with LEoP and explored how these experiences influenced daily life. Fourteen ambulatory persons (seven women; mean age 70 years) with LEoP participated. They responded to the modified Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the Elderly (mSAFFE) and participated in individual interviews, which were analysed by systematic text condensation. Each quotation was deductively analysed from its representation with regard to mSAFFE. We found that many persons often avoided activities related to standing and walking, for example, taking a bath, performing household chores, walking outdoors, attending social events if there were stairs in the building and travelling by public transport, due to fear of falling, increased pain and fatigability. To facilitate the performance of daily activities participants expressed that strategic thinking and aids were important to use. In conclusion, fall-related activity avoidance is common in persons with LEoP, which negatively influence daily life and social participation. To increase daily functioning in this population, fall-related activity avoidance should be included in a multifaceted fall management program.

Keywords: activities of daily living; fear of falling; postpoliomyelitis syndrome; qualitative research
Activity and post-polio fatigue
Fatigue was studied in 12 subjects with post-polio sequelae (PPS). Results of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) demonstrated a mean score of 4.8 +/- 1.6 (non-disabled scores = 2.3 +/- 0.7). The Human Activity Profile (HAP) was not sensitive enough to measure fatigue. Fifty percent of subjects scored below the first percentile based on age and sex matched norms. The Activity Record (ACTRE) results revealed that subjects spent 5% of their time resting and 1% in planning or preparation activities. Fatigue peaked in the late morning or early afternoon and was relieved by rest periods. Use of energy conservation and work simplification skills along with frequent rest periods was suggested as a possible method for managing PPS fatigue.
Cognitive functioning in post‐polio patients with and without general fatigue
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: This study examined 2 main hypotheses. First, whether patients with post-polio suffering from general fatigue (n=10) demonstrate cognitive deficits compared with patients with post-polio without general fatigue (n=10). Secondly, by systematically varied test order administration we examined whether such differences varied as a function of increasing cognitive load during cognitive testing.

SUBJECTS: Twenty patients diagnosed with post-polio syndrome, 10 with general fatigue and 10 without fatigue.

RESULTS: Neither of the 2 hypotheses were confirmed. The group with general fatigue reported elevated levels of depression. However, no systematic association between level of depression and cognitive performance could be detected.
Multidimensional fatigue inventory and post-polio syndrome - a Rasch analysis
BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a common symptom in post-polio syndrome (PPS) and can have a substantial impact on patients. There is a need for validated questionnaires to assess fatigue in PPS for use in clinical practice and research. The aim with this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Swedish version of Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) in patients with PPS using the Rasch model.

METHODS: A total of 231 patients diagnosed with PPS completed the Swedish MFI-20 questionnaire at post-polio out-patient clinics in Sweden. The mean age of participants was 62 years and 61% were females. Data were tested against assumptions of the Rasch measurement model (i.e. unidimensionality of the scale, good item fit, independency of items and absence of differential item functioning). Reliability was tested with the person separation index (PSI). A transformation of the ordinal total scale scores into an interval scale for use in parametric analysis was performed. Dummy cases with minimum and maximum scoring were used for the transformation table to achieve interval scores between 20 and 100, which are comprehensive limits for the MFI-20 scale.

RESULTS: An initial Rasch analysis of the full scale with 20 items showed misfit to the Rasch model (p < 0.001). Seven items showed slightly disordered thresholds and person estimates were not significantly improved by rescoring items. Analysis of MFI-20 scale with the 5 MFI-20 subscales as testlets showed good fit with a non-significant x (2) value (p = 0.089). PSI for the testlet solution was 0.86. Local dependency was present in all subscales and fit to the Rasch model was solved with testlets within each subscale. PSI ranged from 0.52 to 0.82 in the subscales.
Circadian fatigue or unrecognized restless legs syndrome? The post-polio syndrome model
This paper does not have an abstract.
Vitality among Swedish patients with post-polio: a physiological phenomenon
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate vitality and fatigue in post-polio patients, and the relative contributions of physiological and psychological parameters to the level of vitality.

DESIGN: Multi-centre study.

SUBJECTS: One hundred and forty-three patients with post-polio syndrome.

METHODS: Inventories of background, quality of life, fatigue and sleep quality were used. Pain was evaluated using a visual analogue scale. Descriptive statistics and correlations were used for all selected parameters. Hierarchical regression models were constructed to examine predictors of variations in vitality, pain, reduced activity and physical fatigue.

RESULTS: General fatigue accounted for 68% of the variation in vitality. Of this, 91% was accounted for by physiological indicators. After controlling for age, physiological para notmeters accounted for 56.6% and 25%, if entered before and after the psychological parameters, respectively. The impact of the psychological parameters decreased after accounting for the physiological parameters. Physical fatigue, age and sleep quality were associated with variation in pain. Body mass index, pain and sleep quality accounted for differences in reduced activity and physical fatigue.
Measuring fatigue in polio survivors: content comparison and reliability of the Fatigue Severity Scale and the Checklist Individual Strength
OBJECTIVES: To compare the content of the Fatigue Severity Scale and the subscale "subjective experience of fatigue" of the Checklist Individual Strength, and to assess the reliability of both questionnaires in polio survivors.

DESIGN: Repeated-measures at a 3-week interval.

SUBJECTS: Consecutive series of 61 polio survivors.

METHODS: Concepts contained in the questionnaire items were linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), using standardized linking rules. Reliability analyses included tests of internal consistency, test-retest reliability and measurement error.

RESULTS: Questionnaires differed in the extent to which they measured other than fatigue-related aspects of functioning (represented ICF components: "Body functions": 50% and 80%, "Activities and Participation": 30% and 0%, for the Fatigue Severity Scale and Checklist Individual Strength, respectively). Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were considered acceptable, while measurement error was large (Cronbach's α: 0.90 and 0.93, intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.80 and 0.85, smallest detectable change: 28.7% and 29.4% for the Fatigue Severity Scale and Checklist Individual Strength, respectively).
Brain volume and fatigue in patients with postpoliomyelitis syndrome
BACKGROUND: Acute paralytic poliomyelitis is associated with encephalitis. Early brain inflammation may produce permanent neuronal injury with brain atrophy, which may result in symptoms such as fatigue. Brain volume has not been assessed in postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS).

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether brain volume is decreased compared with that in normal controls, and whether brain volume is associated with fatigue in patients with PPS.

DESIGN: A cross-sectional study.

SETTING: Tertiary university-affiliated hospital postpolio and multiple sclerosis (MS) clinics.

PARTICIPANTS: Forty-nine ambulatory patients with PPS, 28 normal controls, and 53 ambulatory patients with MS.

METHODS: We studied the brains of all study subjects with magnetic resonance imaging by using a 1.5 T Siemens Sonata machine. The subjects completed the Fatigue Severity Scale. Multivariable linear regression models were computed to evaluate the contribution of PPS and MS compared with controls to explain brain volume.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Normalized brain volume (NBV) was assessed with the automated program Structured Image Evaluation, using Normalization, of Atrophy method from the acquired magnetic resonance images. This method may miss brainstem atrophy.

RESULTS: Technically adequate NBV measurements were available for 42 patients with PPS, 27 controls, and 49 patients with MS. The mean (standard deviation) age was 60.9 ± 7.6 years for patients with PPS, 47.0 ± 14.6 years for controls, and 46.2 ± 9.4 years for patients with MS. In a multivariable model adjusted for age and gender, NBV was not significantly different in patients with PPS compared with that in controls (P = .28). As expected, when using a similar model for patients with MS, NBV was significantly decreased compared with that in controls (P = .006). There was no significant association between NBV and fatigue in subjects with PPS (Spearman ρ = 0.23; P = .19).
Psychometric properties of fatigue severity and fatigue impact scales in postpolio patients
We evaluate the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS) and to determine whether these scales are potentially applicable for measuring fatigue in postpolio patients (PPS). After the Turkish adaptation of FSS and FIS using a forward-backward procedure, the scales were administered to 48 PPS patients without additional health problems that may induce fatigue. Reliability studies were carried out by determination of intraclass correlation coefficient and internal consistency by the Cronbach-α coefficient. Validity was tested by within-scale analyses and analyses against the external criteria including convergent validity and discriminant validity. Correlations with the Notthingham Health Profile (NHP), fatigue, pain and cramp severity (visual analog scale), and manual muscle testing were performed. Sensitivity to changes was determined by standardized response mean values. All patients completed scales, suggesting their satisfactory acceptance. Reliability studies were satisfactory, with higher Cronbach-α values and intraclass correlation coefficients than 0.80. The FSS score was correlated moderately with visual analog scale-fatigue (r=0.41) and the NHP-energy dimension (r=0.29). All FIS scores except cognitive scores were moderately related to the NHP-social isolation score (r=0.40, 0.37, and 0.43 for FIS-physical, social, and total scores, respectively). There was also a significant correlation between the FIS-physical score and the NHP-energy score (r=0.31). On the basis of the standardized response mean values, response to treatment for these two questionnaires was satisfactory (P=0.00). The Turkish versions of FSS and FIS were reliable, sensitive to clinical changes, and also well accepted by patients with PPS. Although they had somewhat satisfactory convergent validity, the absence of strong correlations did not support the validity entirely.
Fatigue in post-poliomyelitis syndrome: association with disease-related, behavioral, and psychosocial factors
OBJECTIVE: To determine the biopsychosocial correlates of general, physical, and mental fatigue in patients with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) by assessing the additional contribution of potentially modifiable factors after accounting for important nonmodifiable disease-related factors. It was hypothesized that disease-related, behavioral, and psychosocial factors would contribute in different ways to general, physical, and mental fatigue in PPS and that a portion of fatigue would be determined by potentially modifiable factors.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.

SETTING: A tertiary university-affiliated hospital post-polio clinic.

PATIENTS: Fifty-two ambulatory patients with PPS who were not severely depressed were included.

ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS: Potential correlates for fatigue included disease-related factors (acute polio weakness, time since acute polio, PPS duration, muscle strength, pain, forced vital capacity, maximum inspiratory pressure, maximum expiratory pressure, body mass index, disability, fibromyalgia), behavioral factors (physical activity, sleep quality), and psychosocial factors (depression, stress, self-efficacy).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Fatigue was assessed with the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI; assesses fatigue on 5 subscales) and the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS).

RESULTS: Multivariate models were computed for MFI General, Physical, and Mental Fatigue. Age-adjusted multivariate models with nonmodifiable factors included the following predictors of (1) MFI General Fatigue: maximum inspiratory pressure, fibromyalgia, muscle strength; (2) MFI Physical Fatigue: maximum expiratory pressure, muscle strength, age, time since acute polio; and (3) MFI Mental Fatigue: none. The following potentially modifiable predictors made an additional contribution to the models: (1) MFI General Fatigue: stress, depression; (2) MFI Physical Fatigue: physical activity, pain; and (3) MFI Mental Fatigue: stress.
Disability and functional assessment in former polio patients with and without postpolio syndrome
OBJECTIVES: To compare perceived health problems and disability in former polio subjects with postpolio syndrome (PPS) and those without postpolio syndrome (non-PPS), and to evaluate perceived health problems, disability, physical performance, and muscle strength.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey; partially blinded data collection.

SUBJECTS: One hundred three former polio subjects, aged 32 to 60yrs. This volunteer sample came from referrals and patient contacts. Criterion for PPS: new muscle weakness among symptoms.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), adapted D-code of the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps, performance test, and muscle strength assessment.

RESULTS: PPS subjects (n = 76) showed higher scores (p < .001) than non-PPS subjects (n = 27) within the NHP categories of physical mobility, energy, and pain. On a 16-item Polio Problems List, 78% of PPS subjects selected fatigue as their major problem, followed by walking outdoors (46%) and climbing stairs (41%). The disabilities of PPS subjects were mainly seen in physical and social functioning. No differences in manually tested strength were found between patient groups. PPS subjects needed significantly more time for the performance test than non-PPS subjects and their perceived exertion was higher. Perceived health problems (NHP-PhysMobility) correlated significantly with physical disability (r = .66), performance-time (r = .54), and muscle strength (r = .38). With linear regression analysis, 54% of the NHP-PhysMobility score could be explained by the performance test (time and exertion), presence of PPS, and muscle strength, whereas strength itself explained only 14% of the NHP-PhysMobility score.
A 5-year longitudinal study of fatigue in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis
OBJECTIVES: To study the severity and 5-year course of fatigue in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis (LOSP) and to identify physical and psychosocial determinants of fatigue.

DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with 5 measurements over 5 years.

SETTING: University hospital.

PARTICIPANTS: Patients with LOSP (N=168); 89% of the subjects completed the study.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fatigue assessed with the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Potential determinants were perceived physical functioning, bodily pain and mental health, extent of paresis, walking capacity, comorbidity, sleeping disorders, coping, and social support. Associations were investigated by multivariable longitudinal analysis using generalized estimating equations.

RESULTS: The mean FSS score ± SD at baseline was 5.1±1.4, which did not change significantly during the 5-year follow-up. Reduced physical functioning, increased bodily pain, reduced sleep quality, more psychologic distress, and higher task-oriented coping were independently associated with fatigue. The extent of paresis and walking capacity were strongly associated with physical functioning.
Post polio syndrome: fatigued patients a specific subgroup?
OBJECTIVES: To examine the characteristics of fatigued and non-fatigued post-polio patients and to define potential subgroups across the fatigue continuum.

DESIGN: Multi-centre study.

SUBJECTS: A total of 143 post-polio patients were subdivided on the basis of percentile distribution into a fatigue group, a intermediate group, and a non-fatigue group, using the Multi Fatigue Inventory 20 general fatigue ratings.

METHODS: Data on background, quality of life, fatigue and pain were collected. Descriptive statistics and correlations in each group and analysis of variance and χ2 for group comparisons were performed. Non-linear regressions were employed to evaluate differences in the strength of associations between physical and mental fatigue, on the one hand, and vitality on the other.

RESULTS: The fatigued group was younger, had shorter polio duration, more pain, higher body mass index, lower quality of life and was more physically and mentally fatigued. A higher proportion of this group had contracted polio after 1956 and was under 65 years of age. Mental fatigue had a relatively higher explanatory value than physical fatigue for differences in vitality in the fatigued group, whereas reversed patterns were seen in the other groups.
A comparison of 4 questionnaires to measure fatigue in postpoliomyelitis syndrome
OBJECTIVE: To assess the comparability and reproducibility of 4 questionnaires used to measure fatigue in postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS).

DESIGN: Repeated-measures at a 3-week interval.

SETTING: University hospital.

PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of 65 patients with PPS.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) energy category, the Polio Problem List (PPL) fatigue item, and the Dutch Short Fatigue Questionnaire (SFQ).

RESULTS: Correlations of scores between questionnaires were all significant (P<.01) and ranged from .43 (between the NHP energy category and the PPL fatigue item) to .68 (between the PPL fatigue item and the SFQ). Scores on the second visit, normalized to a 0 to 100 scale, were: FSS, 78+/-15; NHP energy category, 47+/-35; PPL fatigue item, 81+/-17; and SFQ, 65+/-22. Except for the difference between the FSS and the PPL fatigue item, the differences in scores between the questionnaires were significant (P<.01). Scale analysis indicated that all questionnaires measured the same unidimensional construct. The reproducibility of the FSS, the PPL fatigue item, and the SFQ was moderate. The smallest detectable change was 1.5 points for the FSS, 2.0 points for the PPL fatigue item, and 1.9 points for the SFQ.
The Neuropsychology of Post-Polio Fatigue
To test the hypothesis that post-polio fatigue and its concomitant cognitive deficits are associated with an impairment of attention and not of higher-level cognitive processes, six carefully screened polio survivors were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests. Only subjects reporting severe fatigue, and not those with mild fatigue, demonstrated clinically significant deficits on all tests of attention, concentration and information processing speed while showing no impairments of cognitive ability or verbal memory. These findings suggest that an impaired ability to maintain attention and rapidly process complex information appears to be a characteristic in polio survivors reporting severe fatigue, since these deficits were documented even when their subjective rating of fatigue was low. This finding supports the hypothesis that a polio-related impairment of selective attention underlies polio survivors' subjective experience of fatigue and cognitive problems.
The Pathophysiology Of Post-Polio Fatigue: A Role for the Basal Ganglia in the Generation of Fatigue
Fatigue is the most commonly reported, most debilitating and least studied Post-Polio Sequelae (PPS) affecting the more than 1.63 million American polio survivors. Post-polio fatigue is characterized by subjective reports of problems with attention, cognition and maintaining wakefulness, symptoms reminiscent of nearly two dozen outbreaks during this century of post-viral fatigue syndromes that are related clinically, historically or anatomically to poliovirus infections. These relationships, and recent studies that associate post-polio fatigue with clinically significant deficits on neuropsychologic tests of attention, histopathologic and neuroradiologic evidence of brain lesions and impaired activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, will be reviewed to described a role for the reticular activating system and basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of post-polio fatigue. The possibility of pharmacologic therapy for PPS is also discussed.
Fainting and Fatigue: Causation or Coincidence?
As the former autonomic nervous system fellow at New York's Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, and in my current incarnation studying chronic fatigue in polio survivors, I have read with special interest the reports from Johns Hopkins University describing neurally mediated hypotension (NMH) in adults and adolescents with CFIDS.[1] In June 1995, we presented a paper to the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine describing several of our post-polio patients who have had episodes of vasovagal syncope.[2] One patient with a 10-year history of severe, chronic and disabling post-polio fatigue had a history of frequent fainting 35 years before she ever experienced fatigue.
Muscular effects in late polio.
New or increased muscular weakness, fatigue and muscle and joint pain with neuropathic electromyography (EMG) changes in a person with a confirmed history of polio constitute the cardinal symptoms of the post-polio syndrome. Unusual tiredness or fatigue is a common complaint in late polio subjects as is intolerance to cold. Fatigue in polio subjects can have several explanations: emotional fatigue, central nervous system fatigue, ‘general’ fatigue and/or neuromuscular fatigue. Some studies indicate central fatigue, but it is unclear how often and to which degree there will be a central muscular fatigue. Polio patients are known to be deconditioned (reduced function because of low activity level), and aerobic power is reduced. Defects in the neuromuscular transmission may be present but are not seen in all post-polio subjects with reduction in force and increased fatigability. The fatigue experienced by late polio patients is most likely an augmented peripheral muscle fatigue. Possible explanations may be an imperfection in the sarcoplasmatic reticulum with altered calcium release mechanisms (activation) or in sliding filament function (contractile properties). This may be a secondary effect to the enlarged muscle fibres. However, the prolonged subjective feeling of fatigue reported despite unchanged maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) remains unexplained.
Word Finding Difficulty As A Post-Polio Sequelae
Seventy-nine percent of respondents to the 1990 National Post-Polio Survey reported difficulty
"thinking of words I want to say," with 37% reporting frequent, moderate-to severe word finding
difficulty. In this study, 33 polio survivors were administered the Post-Polio Fatigue Questionnaire,
Animal Naming and FAS Tests, and tests of attention and information processing speed. Plasma
prolactin was also measured as a marker for brain dopamine secretion. Subjects reporting high
fatigue severity and word finding difficulty had clinically abnormal or significantly lower Animal Naming
Test scores as compared to subjects with low symptom severity. Impaired performance on the most
difficult tests of attention and information processing speed were also associated with lower scores on
the word finding tests. A significant negative correlation between Animal Naming Test scores and
plasma prolactin suggests that a decrement in brain dopamine secretion is related to reduced animal
naming ability. These data support the hypothesis that decreased dopamine secretion, possibly
secondary to poliovirus damage to the basal ganglia, may underlie not only fatigue and impaired
attention but also word finding difficulty in polio survivors.
Measuring Physical and Cognitive Fatigue in People With Post-Polio Syndrome: Development of the Neurological Fatigue Index for Post-Polio Syndrome (NFI-PP).
Fatigue in post-polio syndrome (PPS) has been shown to affect quality of life adversely. There is currently no disease-specific measure of fatigue for PPS.

To develop a scale to measure fatigue in PPS that meets rigorous psychometric standards.

Qualitative followed by validation and test-retest studies.

Polio clinic followed by national questionnaire studies.

A total of 45 participants from polio clinic for qualitative; 319 participants from clinic or self-referral for validation study, of whom 87 completed the retest questionnaire.

Draft questionnaire items on PPS fatigue were derived from transcripts of qualitative interviews. After cognitive debriefing, the draft measure was administered by mail along with comparator questionnaires to a new sample.

Draft PPS fatigue measure, Fatigue Severity Scale, and visual analog scale for fatigue.

Analysis of 271 of 319 (85%) questionnaires identified a 2-factor solution (RMSEA 0.058). For the physical subscale, a 20-item scale showed good fit (χ2P = .189), strict unidimensionality (t-test 5.17%), and reliability 0.91. For the cognitive subscale, a 7-item scale showed excellent fit (χ2P = .917), strict unidimensionality (t-test 5.2%), and reliability 0.89. Evidence of a "difficulty factor" emerged also supporting a total score that showed good fit (χ2P = .151), strict unidimensionality (t-test 0.4%), and reliability consistent with group use at 0.73. Test-retest correlations for all scales were greater than 0.85. Standard error of measurement on metric ranges was 5.4 for total, 2.9 for physical, and 1.69 for cognitive domains. With the latent estimate of the total score transformed to a 0-100 scale, the mean score was 49.5 (SD 6.9). Spearman correlations with the Fatigue Severity Scale and visual analog scale were 0.60 and 0.55, respectively.
Immune Response
Intrathecal immune response in patients with the post-polio syndrome
BACKGROUND: The syndrome of progressive muscular atrophy decades after acute paralytic poliomyelitis (post-polio syndrome) is not well understood. The theory that physiologic changes and aging cause the new weakness does not explain the immunologic abnormalities reported in some patients. An alternative explanation is persistent or recurrent poliovirus infection.

METHODS: We assessed the intrathecal antibody response to poliovirus and intrathecal production of interleukin-2 and soluble interleukin-2 receptors in 36 patients with the post-polio syndrome and 67 controls (including 13 who had had poliomyelitis but had no new symptoms and 18 with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). Intrathecal antibody responses to measles, mumps, herpes simplex, and varicella zoster viruses were also determined.

RESULTS: Oligoclonal IgM bands specific to poliovirus were detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of 21 of the 36 patients with the post-polio syndrome (58 percent) but in none of the control group (P less than 0.0001). In quantitative studies there was evidence of increased intrathecal synthesis of IgM antibodies to poliovirus only among the patients with the post-polio syndrome; there was no increased synthesis of IgM to measles, mumps, herpes simplex, or varicella zoster viruses. The patients with post-polio syndrome had significantly higher mean (+/- SD) (cerebrospinal fluid levels of interleukin-2 and soluble interleukin-2 receptors than the controls (8.1 +/- 5.3 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.8 U per milliliter and 159.6 +/- 102.9 vs. 10.7 +/- 6.2 U per milliliter, respectively). The intrathecal synthesis of IgM antibodies to poliovirus correlated with the cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of interleukin-2 (P less than 0.0005) and soluble interleukin-2 receptors (P less than 0.001).
Immune Response
Normal serum levels of immune complexes in postpolio patients
OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of the postpolio syndrome is not fully understood. Increased cytokine levels in cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood indicate a systemic inflammatory process. Decreased cytokine levels and the clinical effect of intravenous immunoglobulin treatment further indicate an inflammatory/immunological pathogenesis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether an autoimmune process follows the initial infection, by means of analyzing immune complexes.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Circulating immune complexes were analyzed from blood samples of 20 postpolio patients and 95 healthy controls. To compensate for differences in age between patients and controls, a sub-analysis was performed using only the 30 oldest controls. Tumor necrosis factor-inducing properties of polyethylene glycol-precipitated immune complexes were compared between the postpolio patients and 10 healthy controls.

RESULTS: When comparing levels in postpolio patients to the whole control group, including the 30 oldest investigated, there were no statistically significant differences. No difference was found in tumor necrosis factor levels induced by immune complexes when comparing patients and controls.
Immune Response
Leukocyte myeloperoxidase and pathogenesis of the post-polio syndrome
Letter to the Editor - does not have an abstract.
Prior poliomyelitis - evidence of cytokine production in the central nervous system
In order to study the role of a possible inflammatory reaction in the post-polio syndrome (PPS) four key cytokines were determined by means of mRNA expression in mononuclear cells from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood of 13 patients. Data were compared with those of samples from eight non-inflammatory control persons. The PPS-patients displayed increased numbers of CSF cells expressing mRNA for TNF-alpha (p<0.02), IFN-gamma (p<0.02), IL-4 (p<0.001) and IL-10 (p<0.05), in comparison to the non-inflammatory controls. As positive controls, samples from patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) were examined. We conclude that there is a chronic intra CNS expression of inflammatory cytokines in PPS, in the range of that in MS, a well known neuroinflammatory disease. However, the pathogenic significance of this is unclear.
Elevated blood lipids are uncommon in patients with post-polio syndrome - a cross sectional study.
BACKGROUND: The post-polio syndrome occurs in people who previously have had poliomyelitis. After the initial recovery, new or increasing neurologic symptoms occur. Inflammation and dyslipidaemia may play an important role in the development of atherosclerotic complications, for example myocardial infarction and angina pectoris. Previous studies on cardiovascular risk factors in the post-polio syndrome have found a higher prevalence of hypertension, ischemic heart disease, hyperlipidaemia, and stroke in these patients. The present study was undertaken in order to evaluate whether post-polio patients have elevated lipid values, and if blood lipid abnormalities could be correlated to signs of inflammation.

METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 89 consecutive post-polio patients, (53 women, mean age 65 years) from the Post-Polio Outpatient Clinic, Danderyd University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. The lipid profiles of post-polio patients were compared to age and sex matched reference values from two earlier studies. Statistical analyses were performed by the Student's t-test, and linear regression analyses were assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient.

RESULTS: Mean total cholesterol levels (5.7 mmol/L) were low or normal in post-polio patients, whereas low density lipoprotein levels (3.6 mmol/L) were normal, and high density lipoprotein (1.5 mmol/L) and triglycerides (1.4 mmol/L) lower than reference values. The prevalence of diabetes (7%), hypertension (38%), concomitant cardiovascular disease, (including angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, heart failure, atrial fibrillation and stroke) (7%), and calculated 10 year risk of coronary heart disease according to Framingham risk score algorithm (8%) was not increased in post-polio patients.
Elevated expression of prostaglandin E2 synthetic pathway in skeletal muscle of prior polio patients
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate signs of inflammation in muscle of patients with prior polio, since the main symptoms in these patients are muscle pain, weakness and fatigue. In the context of pain and inflammation, the prostaglandin E2 pathway is of interest. Prostaglandin E2 has many biological actions and is a mediator of inflammation and pain.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Skeletal muscle biopsies from 8 patients with prior polio and post-polio symptoms, presenting with pain and muscular weakness, and from 6 healthy controls were studied. Immunohistochemistry, conventional microscopy, and computerized image analysis were performed.

RESULTS: There was statistically significant higher expression of enzymes of the prostaglandin E2 synthetic pathway, in muscle from patients, compared with controls. Expression of prostaglandin enzymes was mainly in scattered cells and blood vessels, and may indicate an inflammatory process of the muscle, which could be secondary to systemic inflammation.
Elevated plasma inflammatory mediators in post-polio syndrome: No association with long-term functional decline
A key feature of post-polio syndrome (PPS) is progressive loss of muscle strength. In other chronic diseases systemic inflammation has been linked to muscle wasting. In this study plasma TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and leptin levels were significantly increased in PPS-patients compared to healthy controls. There was however no association between these raised systemic levels of inflammatory mediators and long-term decline in quadriceps strength or other clinical parameters. In conclusion, there is evidence for systemic inflammation in PPS, yet the relationship with clinical deterioration remains tenuous.
Identification of novel candidate protein biomarkers for the post-polio syndrome - implications for diagnosis, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation.
Survivors of poliomyelitis often develop increased or new symptoms decades after the acute infection, a condition known as post-polio syndrome (PPS). The condition affects 20-60% of previous polio patients, making it one of the most common causes of neurological deficits worldwide. The underlying pathogenesis is not fully understood and accurate diagnosis is not feasible. Herein we investigated whether it was possible to identify proteomic profile aberrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PPS patients. CSF from 15 patients with well-defined PPS were analyzed for protein expression profiles. The results were compared to data obtained from nine healthy controls and 34 patients with other non-inflammatory diseases which served as negative controls. In addition, 17 samples from persons with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) were added as relevant age-matched references for the PPS samples. The CSF of persons with PPS displayed a disease-specific and highly predictive (p=0.0017) differential expression of five distinct proteins: gelsolin, hemopexin, peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase, glutathione synthetase and kallikrein 6, respectively, in comparison with the control groups. An independent ELISA confirmed the increase of kallikrein 6. We suggest that these five proteins should be further evaluated as candidate biomarkers for the diagnosis and development of new therapies for PPS patients.
Late Effects of Polio
New problems in old polio patients: results of a survey of 539 polio survivors
Presented are the results of a questionnaire survey on new health problems in 539 polio survivors. The most common new problems were fatigue, weakness in previously affected and unaffected muscles, muscle pain, and joint pain. The median time from polio to the onset of these problems ranged from 30 to 40 years. Factors at onset of polio most strongly associated with developing these new health problems were: being hospitalized, being over 10 years old, being on a ventilator, and having paralytic involvement of all four limbs. The differential diagnoses of these new problems, implications for treatment and areas for future research are discussed.
Late Effects of Polio
Polio: long-term problems
The most common long-term problems seen in polio are brace problems, knee recurvatum, increasing weakness due to overuse and ankle equinus. A definite increased incidence of problems is seen after the patient is more than 30 years post-polio. The basis for most of these problems is chronic mechanical strain of weak musculature and substituting ligaments. Overuse can cause increasing weakness resulting in pain and decreasing function. It is therefore important to follow polio patients closely, especially those that are more than 30 years post-polio. If signs of overuse or chronic mechanical strain are noted, treatment should not be delayed.
Late Effects of Polio
Psoriasis sparing the lower limb with postpoliomyelitis residual paralysis
This paper does not have an abstract.
Late Effects of Polio
People living with post-polio syndrome must not be forgotten
As research conducted by YouGov reveals, only 7% of people in Britain are aware of the neurological condition post-polio syndrome (PPS). The British Polio Fellowship is keen to highlight what is now an urgent need for more support for those living with PPS, from both the public and the nursing and medical community.
Late Effects of Polio
Risk of symptoms related to late effects of poliomyelitis
OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk of developing symptoms related to late effects of poliomyelitis between polio patients and persons of similar age and sex without history of poliomyelitis.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study comprised information on 148 patients with prior poliomyelitis and 115 persons with no history of poliomyelitis. Information was obtained by questionnaire and analyzed by multiple logistic regression method.

RESULTS: The risk of experiencing two or more symptoms was significantly higher among the polio patients than among the persons without history of poliomyelitis. The elevation in risk was less pronounced in the nonparalytic group (OR = 2.35; 95% CI = 0.92-5.97) than the group with permanent muscular weakness (OR = 8.84; 95% CI =4.32-18.09).
Late Effects of Polio
Living with polio and postpolio syndrome in the United Kingdom
The term Postpolio Syndrome (PPS) is used to describe new and late manifestations of poliomyelitis that occur later in life in polio survivors. Polio had been eradicated in the United Kingdom (UK) and most of Europe, although this is not the case in all countries. Research in this area has tended to focus upon the impact of polio and PPS on health status and functional health rather than its overall effect on people's lives. This study's two main aims were to explore the ways in which polio and PPS in the UK has affected the respondents' lives and to ascertain their views about how the quality of life could be improved. The two questions were as follows: (1) How has the health of people with polio and PPS affected their quality of life? (2) What would people with polio and PPS change to improve their quality of life? Deductive content analysis using existing qualitative data from a cross-sectional survey of 336 returned questionnaires from persons with polio and PPS was carried out. The average age of the participants was 54 years. Our research found that polio survivors valued social occupations and participation in family life. Our research has also shown that healthcare professionals still do not understand polio and PPS and this lack of understanding influences their clients' quality of life. Finances and accessibility of environments also influence participation in chosen occupations. Rehabilitation programmes for people with polio and PPS need to be targeted towards maintaining and improving accessible environments and participation in chosen occupations, and healthcare professionals need to ensure that persons with polio and PPS are referred to persons with specific expertise in this area.
Late Effects of Polio
Post-polio syndrome and risk factors in Korean polio survivors: a baseline survey by telephone interview
OBJECTIVE: To obtain information on the socioeconomic, medical, and functional status of polio survivors, and to use these results as the preliminary data for establishing the middle-aged cohort of polio survivors.

METHODS: The subjects were recruited based on the medical records of multiple hospitals and centers. They were assessed through a structured questionnaire over the phone. Post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) was identified according to the specified diagnostic criteria. Differences between polio survivors with or without PPS were evaluated, and the risk factors for PPS were analyzed by the odds ratio (OR).

RESULTS: Majority of polio survivors were middle-aged and mean age was 51.2±8.3 years. A total of 188 out of 313 polio survivors met the adopted criteria for PPS based on the symptoms, yielding a prevalence of 61.6%. Mean interval between acute poliomyelitis and the development of PPS was 38.5±11.6 years. Female gender (OR 1.82; confidence interval [CI] 1.09-3.06), the age at onset of poliomyelitis (OR 1.75; CI 1.05-2.94), the use of orthoses or walking aids (OR 2.46; CI 1.44-4.20), and the history of medical treatment for paralysis, pain or gait disturbance (OR 2.62; CI 1.52-4.51) represented independent risk factors for PPS.
Late Effects of Polio
Late functional deterioration following paralytic poliomyelitis
Many patients with previous poliomyelitis develop 'post-polio syndrome' (PPS) in which late functional deterioration follows a period of relative stability. The frequency with which PPS can be attributed to clearly defined causes remains uncertain. We reviewed 283 newly-referred patients with previous poliomyelitis seen consecutively over a 4-year period; 239 patients developed symptoms of functional deterioration at a mean of 35 (5-65) years after the paralytic illness. Functional deterioration was associated with orthopaedic disorders in 170 cases, neurological disorders in 35, respiratory disorders in 19 and other disorders in 15. Progressive post-polio muscular atrophy was not observed. Functional deterioration following paralytic poliomyelitis is common, and associated with orthopaedic, neurological, respiratory and general medical factors which are potentially treatable.
Late Effects of Polio
Prevalence and risk factors of post-polio syndrome in a cohort of polio survivors.
To investigate frequency and associated factors of post polio syndrome (PPS) in an Italian cohort of people with prior poliomyelitis.

We screened subjects admitted for poliomyelitis at the paediatric hospital of the University of Palermo during the time frame 1945-1960. Patients who developed PPS were identified through a structured questionnaire and a neurologic examination. PPS diagnosis was made according to specified diagnostic criteria. Frequency of PPS was calculated in the selected cohort of polio survivors. The association with the investigated risk factors (sex, age at onset of polio, extension and severity of polio, education, associated diseases, cigarette smoking, trauma, polio vaccination) was analysed by the calculation of the odds ratio.

Forty-eight participants met the adopted diagnostic criteria for PPS, giving a prevalence of 31.0%. The prevalence rate was significantly higher in women than in men (p=0.02). Logistic regression analyses revealed a significant inverse association with onset of poliomyelitis at over 12 months of age (OR 0.33; CI 0.14-0.79) a higher degree of education (OR 0.20; CI 0.07-0.79), and a significant association with the presence of other diseases (OR 9.86; CI 3.69-26.34).
Late Effects of Polio
Experiences and perspectives of patients with post-polio syndrome and therapists with exercise and cognitive behavioural therapy
Background: Many persons affected with poliomyelitis develop post-polio syndrome (PPS) later in their life.
Recently, the effectiveness of Exercise Therapy (ET) and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for PPS has been evaluated in a randomized controlled trial, but did not show a decrease in fatigue or improvement in secondary endpoints like Quality of Life and self-perceived activity limitations. The aim of this explorative study was to gain insight in the perceived effects and experiences of the interventions from the perspectives of the patients and
Methods: Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 17 patients and 7 therapists. All participants were involved in the trial. A thematic analysis of the data was performed.
Results: Some patients experienced a short term enhanced endurance and a better use of energy during the day. However, in general patients did not experience a long lasting reduction of fatigue from the CBT or ET. Mainly patients of the CBT, but also some patients of the ET described an increase of self-esteem and self-acceptance. As a result, patients were sometimes better able to perform physical activities during the day. In contrast to the CBT, the
ET was in general perceived by the patients as an intensive therapy, which was difficult to fit into their daily routine. Therapists of both the CBT and the ET struggled with a low intrinsic motivation of the patients in the study.
This made it sometimes difficult for the therapists to follow the protocol.
Late Effects of Polio
Three case studies of late diagnoses of polio in Australian adults
Polio Services Victoria (PSV) is a publicly funded organization; anyone with a history of polio residing in Australia may be seen by the service. The majority of patients referred to the service were diagnosed with polio shortly after they were infected with the virus, for most this was in early childhood and ranges from two to eight decades ago. In the past 18 months three patients were referred to PSV with untypically late diagnoses of polio, two of which were sisters. All were born in Australia between 1930 and 1950 and are considered to have acquired their infection in Australia during their early childhood. The three were able to live relatively uneventful lives however their verbal histories indicate suspicion of polio during their childhood medical examinations in school, but ultimately no formal diagnosis was made at that time. In later life, symptoms characteristic of the late effects of polio emerged. In combination with imaging and nerve conduction studies these symptoms were diagnosed as being the result of a likely childhood infection of polio. Their current and future management plans are typical of that seen regularly within the service with the patients reporting their main problems as being:



–increasing muscle atrophy and associated weakness.

These three cases highlight that although Australia, like most of the world, holds polio free status there may still be further undiagnosed cases. Polio should be considered as a differential diagnosis for patients presenting with any of the cardinal signs and symptoms of late effects of polio who have resided in a country during a time prior to polio eradication. Special consideration should be given where a sibling or close relative was diagnosed with polio.
Late Effects of Polio
Long-term follow-up of patients with prior polio over a 17-year period.
Follow-up of the health of patients with prior polio over a 17-year period.

Follow-up study.

Patients with prior polio.

The study questionnaire was answered in 1995 by 270 patients. In 2012 the questionnaire was sent again to the surviving patients.

Of the patients who answered the questionnaire in 1995, 116 (40%) were still alive in 2012. The group of patients who had died was older, and had a mean age of 70 years in 1995. A total of 60 patients participated in the study by answering the questionnaire in both 1995 and 2012. Most of these patients (84%) reported that they felt progressively worse, with poor mobility and increased muscle weakness in 2012 compared with 1995, and more than half reported a lower quality of life in 2012. The number of wheelchair users had increased significantly. Furthermore, the patients experienced increasing problems with activities of daily living (ADL) function.
Late Effects of Polio
Post-polio Syndrome: More Than Just a Lower Motor Neuron Disease
Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a neurological condition that affects polio survivors decades after their initial infection. Despite its high prevalence, the etiology of PPS remains elusive, mechanisms of progression are poorly understood, and the condition is notoriously under-researched. While motor dysfunction is a hallmark feature of the condition, generalized fatigue, sleep disturbance, decreased endurance, neuropsychological deficits, sensory symptoms, and chronic pain are also often reported and have considerable quality of life implications in PPS. The non-motor aspects of PPS are particularly challenging to evaluate, quantify, and treat. Generalized fatigue is one of the most distressing symptoms of PPS and is likely to be multifactorial due to weight-gain, respiratory compromise, poor sleep, and polypharmacy. No validated diagnostic, monitoring, or prognostic markers have been developed in PPS to date and the mainstay of therapy centers on symptomatic relief and individualized rehabilitation strategies such as energy conservation and muscle strengthening exercise regimes. Despite a number of large clinical trials in PPS, no effective disease-modifying pharmacological treatments are currently available.

Keywords: postpolio syndrome, PPS, polio, poliomyelitis, neuroimaging, biomarker, clinical trials, motor neuron disease
Late Effects of Polio, Psychology, Quality of Life
The value of a post-polio syndrome self-management programme
Post-polio syndrome is characterised by symptoms of fatigue, pain and new-onset neuromuscular weakness, and emerges decades after the initial poliovirus infection. We sought to evaluate the only post-polio syndrome specific self-management programme in the United Kingdom.

This was a retrospective study of patients who had completed a residential self-management programme led by a multi-disciplinary clinical team. Following a confirmed diagnosis of post-polio syndrome by rehabilitation and neurology specialists, patients were offered to participate in the programme. Although group-based, patients also received individually tailored support on physical exercise and fatigue management. Physical effects, physical function, psychosocial well-being measures were assessed at baseline and 6 months follow-up. Knowledge was tested at baseline and immediately following the programme. Statistical comparisons were made using paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test according to the data distribution.

Over a period of 17 years, 214 participants (median age 61.3 years old, 63% female) attended 31 programmes. At 6 months the following post-polio syndrome specific symptoms improved significantly: fatigue, as measured by the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue scale [37.6 (7.1) vs. 34.2 (9.3), P=0.005]; and pain [15.0 (6.1) vs. 13.1 (6.7), P=0.001], atrophy [10.0 (8.0–12.0) vs. 9.0 (7.0–11.0), P=0.002] and bulbar symptoms [3.0 (1.0–5.0) vs. 2.0 (0–4.0), P=0.003] as measured by the Index of Post-polio Sequelae scale. Knowledge related to post-polio syndrome also significantly increased [14.0 (11.0–16.0) vs. 17.0 (16.0–19.0), P=0.001]. Participants were able to walk at a faster speed over 10 meters [0.77 (0.59–1.00) vs. 0.83 (0.67–1.10) m/s, P=0.003] and walked longer distances during the 2-minute walk test [76.9 (31.7) vs. 82.0 (38.4) m, P=0.029]. Depression and anxiety scores did not change over time [PHQ-9, 2.0 (0.3–10.8) vs. 2.0 (0.3–6.8), P=0.450; GAD-7, 2.0 (0–7.0) vs. 1.0 (0–3.0), P=0.460] nor was there change in self-reported quality of life {60 [50–70] vs. 60 [55–70], P=0.200}.

This study suggests that a post-polio syndrome self-management programme led to improvement in symptoms, knowledge and walking speed, but not quality of life. Anxiety and depression scores remained low.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, post-polio syndrome (PPS), fatigue, quality of life (QoL)
Late Effects of Polio, Quality of Life
Relationship between participation in life situations and life satisfaction in persons with late effects of polio

Purpose. To assess the relationship between participation and problems with participation in life situations, and life satisfaction in persons with late effects of polio.

Methods. One hundred fifty-eight persons with late effects of polio responded to a postal questionnaire including the Swedish versions of the Impact on Participation and Autonomy Questionnaire (IPA-S) and Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LiSat-11).

Results. The persons' perceived participation in the five domains of participation in the IPA-S was significantly correlated with their satisfaction with life as a whole and with most of the 10 domains of life satisfaction. Significant differences in satisfaction with life as a whole and with eight of the 10 domains in LiSat-11 were found between groups of increasing severe problems with participation. Greater number of reports of severe problems with participation corresponded with gradually decreased satisfaction with life as a whole and with satisfaction in the eight domains in LiSat-11.

Keywords: Activities of daily living, disability evaluation, disabled persons, personal autonomy, postpoliomyelitis syndrome, rehabilitation, quality of life
Late Effects of Polio, Quality of Life
Life Satisfaction in Persons With Late Effects of Polio: A Test‐Retest Reliability Study

The Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LiSat‐11), including one global item and 10 domain‐specific items, is used to evaluate life satisfaction in persons with the late effects of polio (LEoPs). However, there is a lack of knowledge about its psychometric properties.

To evaluate the test‐retest reliability of the LiSat‐11 and the associations between the global and domain‐specific items in persons with LEoPs.

A test‐retest design, where data were collected by a postal survey.

University Hospital, Outpatient Clinic.

A cross‐sectional sample of persons (20 women and 31 men; mean age 72 years) with LEoPs.

Main Outcome Measurements
LiSat‐11, assessing how satisfied a person is with different aspects of life, such as life as a whole, vocation, economy, leisure, contacts with friends and acquaintances, sexual life, activities of daily living (ADLs), family life, partner relationship, somatic health, and psychological health.

LiSat‐11 was administered on two occasions, 2 weeks apart. The test‐retest reliability was evaluated by Kappa statistics, the percent agreement (PA), and the Svensson rank‐invariant method. The association between the items was evaluated with the Spearman rank correlation coefficient (rho).

The Kappa coefficients showed good to excellent agreement (0.64‐0.90) and the PA ≤1 point was high (>92%) for all items. No items showed any systematic or random disagreements according to the Svensson method. All domain‐specific items correlated significantly with the global item “Life as a whole” (P < .01; rhos 0.41 to 0.75).

LiSat‐11 is reliable for assessing life satisfaction in persons with LEoPs. The global item “Life as a whole” is useful as an overall measure but cannot fully replace the information obtained from the domain‐specific items of LiSat‐11.
Late Effects of Polio, Quality of Life
Quality of life assessment scales in polio survivors: a scoping review
Quality of life evaluation is essential to explore the effect of paralytic polio on the daily life experience of the polio survivor. Researchers have employed a range of assessment instruments to evaluate quality of life among polio survivors. Hence, to select the appropriate scale, it is crucial to compare the contents and psychometric properties of these instruments.

This scoping review explores quality of life instruments that are used in polio literature and analyzes their contents and psychometric properties using the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) criteria.

Using the Arksey and O’Malley framework, we conducted a literature search in the following electronic databases Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, Embase, and Google Scholar to identify relevant studies that focused on quality of life of polio survivors. Of the 88 articles that qualify for full-text screening, 34 studies met our inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers extracted data from the selected studies via Covidence, a reference manager that allows for blinding of reviews.

Most of the instruments included in this review are generic, self-reported, and multidimensional. Despite having mostly adequate psychometric properties, these properties were not evaluated in polio survivors.

The information provided in this review could be used to guide instrument selection and identify the need to develop a new tool or to adapt a pre-existing scale for measuring quality of life among polio survivors.
Late Effects of Polio, Respiratory Complications and Management
Post-Polio Syndrome Causing Late Onset Respiratory
We present a patient with thoracic cage deformity and chronic progressive hypoventilation due to late onset PPS.
Late Effects of Polio, Surgery
Physical Therapist Management Following Rotator Cuff Repair for a Patient With Postpolio Syndrome
Background and Purpose
Postpoliomyelitis sequelae, such as gait instability and progressive weakness, predispose people with postpolio syndrome to secondary disabilities. With aging, people who depend on their upper extremities to accommodate lower-extremity deficits may anticipate overuse injuries. The purpose of this case report is to describe the use of mobilization and exercise in postoperative rehabilitation of rotator cuff surgery on a patient with postpolio syndrome.

Case Description
A 48-year-old woman with postpolio syndrome had rotator cuff surgical repair followed by physical therapy intervention. Maitland mobilization and mild functional exercises were chosen to avoid triggering fatigue.

Measurements taken preoperatively, before and after physical therapy intervention, and 2 years after intervention showed return to independent status with excellent retention.

No fatigue or overuse weakness was encountered. This is the first case report to document physical therapy following rotator cuff repair in a patient with postpolio syndrome.
Late Effects of Polio, Surgery
Total hip arthroplasty in patients affected by poliomyelitis
The aims of this study were to determine the clinical and radiographic outcomes, implant survivorship, and complications of patients with a history of poliomyelitis undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) in affected limbs and unaffected limbs of this same population.

Patients and Methods
A retrospective review identified 51 patients (27 male and 24 female, 59 hips) with a mean age of 66 years (38 to 88) and with the history of poliomyelitis who underwent THA for degenerative arthritis between 1970 and 2012. Immigrant status, clinical outcomes, radiographic results, implant survival, and complications were recorded.

In all, 32 THAs (63%) were performed on an affected limb, while 27 (37%) were performed on an unaffected limb. The overall ten-year survivorship free from aseptic loosening, any revision, or any reoperation were 91% (95% CI 0.76 to 0.99), 91% (95% CI 0.64 to 0.97) and 87% (95% CI 0.61 to 0.95), respectively. There were no revisions for prosthetic joint infection. There were no significant differences in any of the above parameters if THA was on the affected or unaffected control limbs.

Patients with a history of poliomyelitis who undergo THA on the affected or unaffected limbs have similar results with overall survivorship and complication rates to those reported results in patients undergoing THA for osteoarthritis. At long-term follow-up, previous clinical concerns about increased hip instability due to post-polio abductor weakness were not observed.
Muscle Strength
Neuromuscular function: comparison of symptomatic and asymptomatic polio subjects to control subjects
The purpose of this study was to determine if there were any differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic polio survivors by history of acute poliomyelitis illness, electromyographic evidence of terminal motor unit reorganization, and neuromuscular function of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Thirty-four symptomatic postpolio subjects, 16 asymptomatic postpolio subjects, and 41 controls were studied. A questionnaire assessed polio history. Peak knee extension torque was measured isokinetically and isometrically. Endurance (time to exhaustion) was measured at 40% of maximal isometric torque. Work capacity was determined as the product of torque and duration. Recovery of isometric strength was measured at regular intervals for ten minutes after exhaustion. Quantitative electromyography was also performed on the quadriceps to determine motor unit action potential duration and amplitude. It was found that symptomatic subjects had evidence of more severe original polio involvement by history (documented electromyographically), were weaker and capable of performing less work than asymptomatic subjects, and recovered strength less readily than controls.
Muscle Strength
Reduction in thigh muscle cross-sectional area and strength in a 4-year follow-up in late polio
OBJECTIVE: To study changes in cross-sectional thigh muscle area and muscle strength in late polio subjects over a 4-year period.

DESIGN: Longitudinal study of a cohort of polio survivors, comparing subjects who acknowledge (unstable) with those who do not acknowledge (stable) new muscle weakness.

SETTING: University hospital.

SUBJECTS: Eighteen subjects (6 men, 12 women) with polio-myelitis sequelae (39 to 46 years of age) were studied on two occasions 4 years apart; the first examination was 37 to 44 years after onset of polio. Subjects were recruited through hospital registers, newspaper advertisement, and a patient organization.

OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Thigh muscle and intermuscular and intramuscular adipose tissue (AT) cross-sectional areas were measured by computed tomography. Isometric muscle strength for knee extension and flexion was measured using a Kin-Com dynamometer.

RESULTS: Cross-sectional muscle area decreased on average 1.3 +/- 3.6 cm2 (1.4%, p < .05); the intermuscular and intramuscular AT area increased 1.8 +/- 3.4 cm2 (12.1%, p < .05). When divided by legs in which subjects reported (unstable) or did not report (unstable) or did not report (stable) increased muscle weakness, unstable legs showed significant reduction (p < .05) in muscle area, whereas stable legs did not. Estimated total thigh muscle strength decreased 7.8% +/- 2.9% (p < .01), with a significant (p < .001) reduction in unstable legs (13.4% +/- 4.3%) but not in stable legs. The reduction in strength appears to be greater than the reduction in cross-sectional muscle area, but there is still a significant correlation (r = .44, p < .05).
Muscle Strength
An 8-year longitudinal study of muscle strength, muscle fiber size, and dynamic electromyogram in individuals with late polio
Twenty-one subjects with polio 24 to 51 years prior to the first examination were studied on three occasions, each 4 years apart with measurements of muscle strength and endurance for knee extension, macro EMG, and muscle biopsy from vastus lateralis. On average the muscle strength decreased during the 8-year follow-up by 9-15%. Endurance decreased during the observation period. The muscle fiber area was markedly increased in most subjects. There was a decrease in the capillarization during the follow-up. Macro EMG was increased in all subjects (range 3-42 times control) and increased in 20 legs during the 8-year follow-up, but showed a decrease in 8 of 9 legs with an approximative breakpoint when macro MUPs were around 20 times the normal size. Thus, evidence of on-going denervation/reinnervation as well as of failing capacity to maintain large motor units was demonstrated. SFEMG showed a moderate degree of disturbed neuromuscular transmission.
Muscle Strength
The course of functional status and muscle strength in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis: a systematic review
OBJECTIVES: To review systematically studies of late-onset polio sequelae on the course of functional status and muscle strength over time and to identify prognostic factors of change.

DATA SOURCES: We conducted a computerized literature search up to July 2004 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsychInfo, and the Cochrane controlled trial register using the key words: postpolio, postpoliomyelitis, postpoliomyelitis syndrome, post poliomyelitis muscular atrophy, and poliomyelitis.

STUDY SELECTION: Reports were selected by 1 reviewer if the study involved subjects with a history of poliomyelitis, the outcome measures described functional status or muscle strength, and follow-up was for at least 6 months.

DATA EXTRACTION: Studies were summarized with regard to population, design, sample size, outcome measures, results, and methodologic scores. Overlap in populations between studies was checked.

DATA SYNTHESIS: Of 71 potentially relevant studies, 19 were included (2 on functional status, 15 on muscle strength, 2 on both muscle strength and functional status). Two studies on the course of functional status had sufficient quality and reported inconsistent results. Four studies on the course of muscle strength had sufficient quality. Two studies reported a decline in strength and 2 reported no change. Decline in strength was only reported in studies with a follow-up period longer than 2 years. One study reported extent of paresis as a prognostic factor for change in perceived physical mobility.
Muscle Strength
Disability in a 4-year follow-up study of people with post-polio syndrome
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes over time in a clinically based cohort of individuals with post-polio syndrome.

DESIGN: A prospective longitudinal study.

SUBJECTS: A total of 106 individuals with poliomyelitis sequelae were included in the study. They were self-referred or had been referred to the post-polio clinic. After 4 years subjects were called for a follow-up and underwent the same measurements as at the initial assessment.

METHODS: The following measurements were conducted at both the initial assessment, and the follow-up: questionnaires including Nottingham Health Profile, muscle strength and walking speed.

RESULTS: Minor changes in disability during a 4-year period were shown. A significant reduction in muscle strength was only seen for 60° flexion in the left leg and for right and left dorsal flexion. No change could be seen in the total Nottingham Health Profile score.
Muscle Strength
Reliability of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength measurements in persons with late effects of polio
OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength measurements in persons with late effects of polio.

DESIGN: A test-retest reliability study.

SUBJECTS: Thirty men and women (mean age 63 (standard deviation 6.4) years) with verified late effects of polio.

METHODS: Knee extensor and flexor muscle strength in both lower limbs were measured twice 7 days apart using a Biodex dynamometer (isokinetic concentric contractions at 60°/s and isometric contractions with knee flexion angle 90º) and a Leg Extension/Curl Rehab exercise machine with pneumatic resistance (HUR) (isotonic contractions). Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC1,1), the mean difference between the test sessions (đ) together with the 95% confidence intervals for đ, the standard error of measurement (SEM and SEM%), the smallest real difference (SRD and SRD%) and Bland-Altman graphs.

RESULTS: Test-retest agreements were high, (ICC1,1 0.93–0.99) and measurement errors generally small. The SEM% was 4–14% and the SRD% 11–39%, with the highest values for the isokinetic measurements.
Muscle Strength
Reliability of contractile properties of the knee extensor muscles in individuals with post-polio syndrome.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of contractile properties of the knee extensor muscles in 23 individuals with post-polio syndrome (PPS) and 18 age-matched healthy individuals.

METHODS: Contractile properties of the knee extensors were assessed from repeated electrically evoked contractions on 2 separate days, with the use of a fixed dynamometer. Reliability was determined for fatigue resistance, rate of torque development (MRTD), and early and late relaxation time (RT50 and RT25), using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM, expressed as % of the mean).

RESULTS: In both groups, reliability for fatigue resistance was good, with high ICCs (>0.90) and small SEM values (PPS: 7.1%, healthy individuals: 7.0%). Reliability for contractile speed indices varied, with the best values found for RT50 (ICCs>0.82, SEM values <2.8%). We found no systematic differences between test and retest occasions, except for RT50 in healthy subjects (p = 0.016).

SIGNIFICANCE: This was the first study to examine the reliability of electrically evoked contractile properties in individuals with PPS. Our results demonstrate its potential to study mechanisms underlying muscle fatigue in PPS and to evaluate changes in contractile properties over time in response to interventions or from natural course.
Muscle Strength
Perceived disability, fatigue, pain and measured isometric muscle strength in patients with post-polio symptoms
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several years after the acute polio illness, patients may develop new post-polio symptoms. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate patients with post-polio symptoms with regard to perceived fatigue, functional ability, muscle strength, pain and with regard to measured physical fitness and isometric muscle strength. In addition, the relationship between the results of these subjective and objective measurements was investigated.

METHOD: This was a prospective cross-sectional study in which 32 patients with post-polio symptoms were included. Main outcome measures were the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), the Disability Rating Index (DRI), pain intensity, pain distribution, self-reported and measured muscle strength and oxygen uptake.

RESULTS: A marked reduction in isometric muscle strength compared to normal data, high scores in fatigue, widespread pain, low oxygen uptake and difficulties in performing some daily activities were found. Self-reported general muscle strength, pain intensity and pain distribution correlated significantly with patients' perceived fatigue and function at the activity level. There was no significant correlation between self-reported and measured results except for that found between isometric muscle strength in the legs and patients' perceived general muscle strength and oxygen uptake.
Muscle Strength
Men With Late Effects of Polio Decline More Than Women in Lower Limb Muscle Strength: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study
BACKGROUND: In persons with prior paralytic poliomyelitis, progressive muscle weakness can occur after a stable period of at least 15 years. Knowledge is limited about which factors influence changes in lower limb muscle strength in these persons.

OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in lower limb muscle strength annually over 4 years in persons with late effects of polio and to identify prognostic factors for changes in muscle strength.

DESIGN: A prospective, longitudinal study.

SETTING: University hospital outpatient program.

PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-two ambulant persons (mean age ± standard deviation: 64 ± 6 years) with verified late effects of polio.

METHODS: Mixed linear models were used to analyze changes in muscle strength and to identify determinants among the following covariates: gender, age, age at acute polio infection, time with late effects of polio, body mass index, and estimated baseline muscle weakness.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Knee extensor and flexor and ankle dorsiflexor muscle strength were measured annually with a Biodex dynamometer.

RESULTS: The men (n = 28) had significant linear change over time for all knee muscle strength measurements, from -1.4% (P < .05) per year for isokinetic knee flexion in the less-affected lower limb to -4.2% (P < .001) for isokinetic knee extension in the more-affected lower limb, and for 2 ankle dorsiflexor muscle strength measurements (-3.3%-1.4% per year [P < .05]). The women (n = 24) had a significant linear change over time only for ankle dorsiflexor measurements (4.0%-5.5% per year [P < .01]). Gender was the strongest factor that predicted a change in muscle strength over time.
Muscle Strength
Quantitative muscle ultrasound and quadriceps strength in patients with post-polio syndrome
INTRODUCTION: We investigated whether muscle ultrasound can distinguish muscles affected by post-polio syndrome (PPS) from healthy muscles and whether severity of ultrasound abnormalities is associated with muscle strength.

METHODS: Echo intensity, muscle thickness, and isometric strength of the quadriceps muscles were measured in 48 patients with PPS and 12 healthy controls.

RESULTS: Patients with PPS had significantly higher echo intensity and lower muscle thickness than healthy controls. In patients, both echo intensity and muscle thickness were associated independently with muscle strength. A combined measure of echo intensity and muscle thickness was more strongly related to muscle strength than either parameter alone.
Muscle Strength
Randomized controlled trial of strength training in post-polio patients
Many post-polio patients develop new muscle weakness decades after the initial illness. However, its mechanism and treatment are controversial. The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that: (1) after strength training, post-polio patients show strength improvement comparable to that seen in the healthy elderly; (2) such training does not have a deleterious effect on motor unit (MU) survival; and (3) part of the strength improvement is due to an increase in voluntary motor drive. After baseline measures including maximum voluntary contraction force, voluntary activation index, motor unit number estimate, and the tetanic tension of the thumb muscles had been determined, 10 post-polio patients with hand involvement were randomized to either the training or control group. The progressive resistance training program consisted of three sets of eight isometric contractions, three times weekly for 12 weeks. Seven healthy elderly were also randomized and trained in a similar manner. Changes in the baseline parameters were monitored once every 4 weeks throughout the training period. The trained post-polio patients showed a significant improvement in their strength (P < 0.05). The magnitude of gain was greater than that seen in the healthy elderly (mean ± SE, 41 ± 16% vs. 29 ± 8%). The training did not adversely affect MU survival and the improvement was largely attributable to an increase in voluntary motor drive. We therefore conclude that moderate intensity strength training is safe and effective in post-polio patients.
Muscle Strength
Strength gains without muscle injury after strength training in patients with postpolio muscular atrophy.
We evaluated changes in the dynamic and isometric strength in the newly weakened quadriceps muscles and asymptomatic triceps muscles of 6 patients with postpolio muscular atrophy (PPMA) after 10 weeks of progressive resistance strength training. Alterations in muscle size were determined with magnetic resonance imaging. Serum creatine kinase levels were measured throughout training, and histological signs of muscle injury and changes in muscle fiber size and types were assessed with muscle biopsies before and after training. Exercise training led to an increase in dynamic strength of 41% and 61% for the two knee extensor tests, and 54% and 71% for the two elbow extensor tests. Up to 20% of the improvement was maintained 5 months after cessation of training. Isometric strength, whole muscle cross-sectional areas of quadriceps and triceps muscles, and serum muscle enzymes did not change. No destructive histopathological changes were noted in the repeat muscle biopsies, and no consistent changes in muscle fiber size or fiber type percentages were observed. These results demonstrate that a supervised resistance training program can lead to significant gains in dynamic strength of both symptomatic and asymptomatic muscles of PPMA patients without serological or histological evidence of muscular damage.
Muscle Strength
A comparison of symptoms between Swedish and American post-polio individuals and assessment of lower-limb strength- a four year cohort study.
A cohort study with initial and 4-year follow-up evaluations was performed in 78 post-polio volunteers aged 34-65 years at the time of enrolment in the study, which was made to compare post-polio individuals living in Sweden and the United States, to determine whether lower limb musculature becomes weaker over time, and to determine whether individuals with complaints of post-polio syndrome, new weakness, fatigue, walking or stair climbing difficulty were weaker or lost more strength over a 4-year interval than those individuals without such complaints. Dynametrically-measured knee extensor and flexor strength and questionnaire data were obtained initially and 4 years later. The two cohorts were fairly similar, though they differed in weight gain. The Americans gained significantly (p < 0.05) more weight than the Swedish subjects. Both groups lost significant (p < 0.05) knee extensor strength (approximately 8%), but the loss was not significantly (p < 0.05) different between the groups. Knee flexor strength did not change significantly (p < 0.05) over time. Subjects acknowledging new strength loss were not significantly (p < 0.05) weaker than those denying strength loss; however, they lost significantly (p < 0.05) more isometric knee extensor strength than the other individuals. Subjects acknowledging new fatigue, walking or stair climbing difficulty were significantly (p < 0.05) weaker in both muscle groups than those without such complaints. Subjects acknowledging post-polio syndrome were significantly (p < 0.05) weaker than those denying this symptom, but the amount of loss of strength over time was not significantly (p < 0.05) different. We conclude that the two cohorts were quite similar. Knee extensor strength decreased during the study interval. Individuals acknowledging post-polio syndrome had weaker knee extensor musculature. Subjects with new fatigue, walking difficulty, or stair climbing difficulty were weaker in both the knee extensors and the knee flexors than the other subjects. Subjects reporting new muscle weakness also had a greater decline in isometric knee extensor strength during the study interval than those without such complaint.
Muscle Strength
Muscle strength is only a weak to moderate predictor of gait performance in persons with late effects of polio.
To assess muscle strength in the knee extensors, knee flexors and ankle dorsiflexors in persons with late effects of polio, and determine how much muscle strength, gender, age and BMI are related to gait performance.

Ninety community-dwelling ambulant persons (47 men and 43 women; mean age 64 years SD 8) with late effects of polio participated. Isokinetic concentric knee extensor and flexor muscle strength was measured at 60°/s and ankle dorsiflexor muscle strength at 30°/s. Gait performance was assessed by the Timed "Up & Go", the Comfortable and Fast Gait Speed tests, and the 6-Minute Walk test.

There were significant correlations between knee extensor and flexor muscle strength and gait performance (p < 0.01), and between ankle dorsiflexor muscle strength and gait performance (p < 0.05), for both lower limbs. Muscle strength in the knee extensors and flexors explained 7% to 37% and 9% to 47%, respectively, of the variance in gait performance. Strength in the ankle dorsiflexors explained 4% to 24%, whereas gender, age and BMI contributed at most an additional 9%.

Knee muscle strength, and to some extent ankle dorsiflexor muscle strength, are predictors of gait performance in persons with late effects of polio, but the strength of the relationships indicates that other factors are also important.
Muscle Strength
Patient-report as an option for describing muscle weakness: An integrative review
BACKGROUND: Muscle strength, although usually measured by performance, can be measured by patient-report. OBJECTIVE: Review the utility and clinimetric properties of muscle strength assessed by patient-report. METHODS: PubMed and hand searches were used to identify relevant literature. Findings were systematically summarized. RESULTS: Most patient-report measures identified individuals with muscle weakness, however, the clinimetric properties of measures were highly limited. Particularly missing was information on reliability and responsiveness. CONCLUSIONS: There is a place for the inclusion of patient-reported muscle strength, but clinimetric support for its use is still limited.
Muscle Strength, Exercise
Strength, endurance, and work capacity after muscle strengthening exercise in postpolio subjects
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a 12-week home quadriceps muscle strengthening exercise program would increase muscle strength, isometric endurance, and tension time index (TTI) in postpolio syndrome subjects without adversely affecting the surviving motor units or the muscle.

DESIGN: A longitudinal study to investigate the effect of a 12-week exercise program on neuromuscular function and electromyographic variables.

SETTING: Neuromuscular laboratory of a university hospital.

SUBJECTS: Seven subjects were recruited from a cohort of 12 subjects who had participated in a previous exercise study. All subjects had greater than antigravity strength of the quadriceps. Upon completion of a postpolio questionnaire, all acknowledged common postpolio syndrome symptoms such as new fatigue, pain, and weakness; 6 of the 7 acknowledged new strength decline.

INTERVENTION: On Mondays and Thursdays subjects performed three sets of four maximal isometric contractions of the quadriceps held for 5 seconds each. On Tuesdays and Fridays subjects performed three sets of 12 dynamic knee extension exercises with ankle weights.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Neuromuscular variables of the quadriceps muscles were measured at the beginning and completion of the exercise program and included: isokinetic peak torque (ISOKPT, at 60 degrees/sec angular velocity) and total work performed of four contractions (ISOKTW), isometric peak torque (MVC), endurance (EDUR, time subject could hold isometric contraction at 40% of the initial MVC), isometric tension time index (TTI, product of endurance time and torque at 40% of MVC), and initial and final ankle weight (WGT, kg) lifted. Electromyographic variables included: fiber density (FD), jitter (MCD), and blocking (BLK) from single fiber assessment and median macro amplitude (MACRO). Serum creatine kinase (CK) was also measured initially and at 4-week intervals throughout the study.

RESULTS: The following variables significantly (p < .05) increased: WGT by 47%, ISOKPT, 15%, ISOKTW, 15%; MVC, 36%; EDUR, 21%; TTI, 18%. The following variables did not significantly (p > .05) change: FD, MCD, BLK, MACRO, and CK.
Muscular Atrophy
A case of post-poliomyelitis muscular atrophy with cranial nerve signs and widespread muscular atrophy of extremities
Here we report a case of a 56-year-old male with post-poliomyelitis muscular atrophy (PPMA), who presented with cranial nerve signs and widespread atrophy of the extremities. He had suffered from poliomyelitis at the age of 2 years. After recovery from the acute stage, the paralysis remained in his left arm. He noticed muscle weakness of the right upper and lower extremities at the age of 45 years and the muscle atrophy progressed to his arms, hip and thigh at the age of 55 years. Neurological examination revealed muscle atrophy of the neck and disturbance of left V, VIII, IX, X and bilateral XI cranial nerves. We diagnosed this case as PPMA from his history and electromyographic and muscle biopsy findings which suggested chronic denervation. Among the 21 PPMA cases in the past in which the acute poliomyelitis had resulted in paralysis of the only one limb, ours was the only case that had muscle atrophy of all the limbs. Cranial nerve involvement is known to occur in acute poliomyelitis; therefore, there is a possibility that the involvement of the cranial nerves in our case might be a delayed progressive symptoms.
Muscular Atrophy
Late postpoliomyelitis muscular atrophy: clinical, virologic, and immunologic studies
Seventeen relatively young patients, ages 31-65 years (average, 45) with prior poliomyelitis, who after a number of years of stability had experienced new neuromuscular symptoms, were studied. Seven patients had deterioration of functional capacity and then stabilization without new muscular weakness. The other 10 had late postpoliomyelitis muscular atrophy (late PPMA) characterized by focal progressive muscle weakness, wasting, fasciculations, and muscle pains affecting previously spared muscles or muscles previously affected but recovered. Four patients with late PPMA had lymphorrhages or lymphocytic infiltrates in their biopsied muscle; three of three patients had oligoclonal IgG bands in their spinal fluid, and five had variable peripheral T lymphocyte-subset ratios. In one patient with late PPMA, antibodies to poliovirus were specifically elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid. Our findings indicate that new motor-neuron disease can occur in patients with prior poliomyelitis and that immunopathologic mechanisms may play a role.
Muscular Atrophy
Muscle atrophy is not always sarcopenia
The following Viewpoint article uses the histopathology of aging muscle to make the case that sarcopenia of aging is likely distinct from several other clinical causes of muscle atrophy, including some that are now using the term sarcopenia. As will be shown, many of the morphological features of sarcopenia resemble features seen in muscle that has been impacted by sporadic denervation, such as that seen in neurological disorders like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (7). Due to space constraints, we will only consider how the histopathology of aging
muscle compares with cancer cachexia. However, many of the points made here to distinguish sarcopenia from cancer cachexia should also be considered in other clinical conditions
associated with muscle atrophy.
Muscular Atrophy, Post-Polio Motor Unit
An autopsy case of progressive generalized muscle atrophy over 14 years due to post-polio syndrome
We report the case of a 72-year-old man who had contracted acute paralytic poliomyelitis in his childhood. Thereafter, he had suffered from paresis involving the left lower limb, with no relapse or progression of the disease. He began noticing slowly progressive muscle weakness and atrophy in the upper and lower extremities in his 60s. At the age of 72, muscle weakness developed rapidly, and he demonstrated dyspnea on exertion and dysphagia. He died after about 14 years from the onset of muscle weakness symptoms. Autopsy findings demonstrated motoneuron loss and glial scars not only in the plaque-like lesions in the anterior horns, which were sequelae of old poliomyelitis, but also throughout the spine. No Bunina bodies, TDP-43, and ubiquitin inclusions were found. Post-polio syndrome is rarely fatal due to rapid progressive dyspnea and dysphagia. Thus, the pathological findings in the patient are considered to be related to the development of muscle weakness.
Gait Analysis Techniques
In the gait laboratory at Rancho Los Amigos Hospital, the emphasis is on patient testing to identify functional problems and determine the effectiveness of treatment programs. Footswitch stride analysis, dynamic EMG, energy-cost measurements, force plate, and instrumented motion analysis are the techniques most often used. Stride data define the temporal and distance factors of gait. We use this information to classify the patient's ability to walk and measure response to treatment programs. Inappropriate muscle action in the patient disabled by an upper motor neuron lesion is identified with dynamic EMG. Intramuscular wire electrodes are used to differentiate the action of adjacent muscles. We use the information to localize the source of abnormal function so that selection of treatment procedures is more precise. Force and motion data aid in determining the functional requirement and the muscular response necessary to meet the demand. Determining the optimum mode of locomotion and developing criteria for program planning have become more realistic with the aid of energy-cost measurements. Microprocessors and personal computer systems have made compact and reliable single-concept instrumentation available for basic gait analysis in the standard clinical environment at a modest cost. The more elaborate composite systems, however, still require custom instrumentation and engineering support.
Findings in Post-Poliomyelitis Syndrome
The purpose of this study was to identify overuse of muscles and other alterations in the mechanics of gait in twenty-one patients who had muscular dysfunction as a late consequence of poliomyelitis. All of the patients had good or normal strength (grade 4 or 5) of the vastus lateralis and zero to fair strength (grade 0 to 3) of the calf, as determined by manual testing.

Dynamic electromyography was used, while the patients were walking, to quantify the intensity and duration of contraction of the inferior part of the gluteus maximus, the long head of the biceps femoris. the vastus lateralis, and the soleus muscles. Patterns of contact of the foot with the floor, temporal-spatial parameters, and motion of the knee and ankle were recorded.

The principal mechanisms of substitution for a weak calf muscle fell into three groups: overuse of the quadriceps (twelve patients) or a hip extensor (the inferior part of the gluteus maximus in eight patients and the long head of the biceps femoris in four), or both; equinus contracture (twelve patients); and avoidance of loading-response flexion of the knee (five patients). Most patients used more than one method of substitution.

These obervations support the theory that postpoliomyelitis syndrome results from long-term substitutions for muscular weakness that place increased demands on joints, ligaments, and muscles and that treatment -- based on the early identification of overuse of muscles and ligamentous strain -- should aim at modification of lifestyle and include use of a brace.
Gait patterns in association with underlying impairments in polio survivors with calf muscle weakness
The objective was to identify gait patterns in polio survivors with calf muscle weakness and associate them to underlying lower extremity impairments, which are expected to help in the search for an optimal orthosis.

Unilaterally affected patients underwent barefoot 3D-gait analyses. Gait pattern clusters were created based on the ankle and knee angle and ankle moment shown in midstance of the affected limb. Impairment clusters were created based on plantarflexor and knee-extensor strength, and ankle and knee joint range-of-motion. The association between gait patterns and underlying impairments were examined descriptively. The Random Forest Algorithm and regression analyses were used to predict gait patterns and parameters.

Seven gait patterns in 73 polio survivors were identified, with two dominant patterns: one with a mildly/non-deviant ankle angle, ankle moment and knee angle (n = 23), and one with a strongly deviant ankle angle and a mildly/non-deviant ankle moment and knee angle (n = 18). Gait pattern prediction from underlying impairments was 49% accurate with best prediction performance for the second dominant gait pattern (sensitivity 78% and positive predictive value 74%). The underlying impairments explained between 20 and 32% of the variance in individual gait parameters.

Polio survivors with calf muscle weakness who present a similar impairment profile do not necessarily walk the same. From physical examination alone, the gait pattern nor the individual gait parameters could be accurately predicted. The patient’s gait should therefore be measured to help in the prescription and evaluation of orthoses for these patients.
Biomechanical abnormalities of post-polio patients and the implications for orthotic management.
Muscle weakness resulting from the combined effects of acute and late motor neuron pathology is the basic cause of post-polio dysfunction. Through their normal sensation and moter control, post-polio patients minimize their disability by useful substitutions. Orthoses are needed only when these substitutions either are inadequate or result in muscle or joint overuse. The areas most commonly showing late disability are the lower extremities, shoulders and low-back. In the lower extremities, the major muscle groups are the hip extensors and abductors, the knee extensors (quadriceps), ankle plantar flexors and dorsi flexors. Each group has a specific function which relates to one of the basic tasks of walking, weight acceptance, single limb support and swing. To determine orthotic needs, polio gait deviations representing useful substitutions must be differentiated from symptomatic dysfunction. Weight acceptance utilizes the quadriceps, hip extensors and hip abductors to establish a stable limb and provide shock absorbing mechanics. Substitutions to preserve weight bearing stability include sacrifice of normal shock absorbing knee flexion for quadriceps weakness, backward or lateral trunk lean for hip extensor and abductor weakness. Knee pain, excessive hyperextension and flexion contractures are indications for orthotic assistance with a KAFO. Orthotic designs relate to the type of knee joint (off-set, free, locked) and completeness of the AFO component. Low-back pain from hip substitutions or over use of the hip muscles requires a walking aid. Single limb support is the period when the limb and body advance over the supporting foot. The key muscle group is the soleus-gastrocnemius complex. Swing involves lifting and advancing the unloaded limb. While all three joints flex simultaneously, the hip flexors and ankle dorsi flexors are the critical muscles. A drop foot from ankle dorsiflexor weakness is the common disability. Excessive hip flexion is the usual substitution.
Introducing a Surgical Procedure for an Implantable FES Device and Its Outcome
The adult paralytic foot or drop foot is a secondary related foot deformity, which usually arises due to neurogenic damage (Kunst et al. in Stroke 42:2126–2130, 2011; Truelsen et al. in European Journal of Neurology 13:581–598, 2006). The lack of neural innervation of the muscles, which play a major role in ankle dorsiflexion—M. tibialis anterior, Mm. peronei, M. extensor digitorum longus, and M. extensor halluces longus—can cause a secondary malposition of the foot. As a dorsiflexion of the ankle cannot be actively provoked, this leads to a domination of the flexors and as a secondary outcome to a shortening of these muscles and their tendons. Similarly, it may also lead to a malposition in supination (
Predictors of changes in gait performance over four years in persons with late effects of polio.
Reduced gait performance is common in persons with late effects of polio.

To identify predictors of change in gait performance over four years in persons with late effects of polio.

Gait performance was assessed annually in 51 ambulatory persons (mean age 64 years, SD 6) by the Timed "Up & Go" (TUG), Comfortable and Fast Gait Speed (CGS, FGS), and 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT). Isokinetic knee extensor and flexor muscle strength was measured with a Biodex dynamometer. Mixed Linear Models were used to analyze changes in gait performance and to identify any predictors of change among the covariates gender, age, body mass index, time with new symptoms, baseline reduction in gait performance and knee muscle strength.

There were significant linear effects over time (reduction per year) for three gait performance tests; CGS (0.8%; p < 0.05), FGS (1.7%; p < 0.001), and 6MWT (0.7%; p < 0.05) with significant random effects for all tests. The strongest predictor of a change in gait performance was the individual variations in the knee flexor strength (p < 0.001).
Mechanoadaptation: articular cartilage through thick and thin
The articular cartilage is exquisitely sensitive to mechanical load. Its structure is largely defined by the mechanical environment and destruction in osteoarthritis is the pathophysiological consequence of abnormal mechanics. It is often overlooked that disuse of joints causes profound loss of volume in the articular cartilage, a clinical observation first described in polio patients and stroke victims. Through the 1980s, the results of studies exploiting experimental joint immobilisation supported this. Importantly, this substantial body of work was also the first to describe metabolic changes that resulted in decreased synthesis of matrix molecules, especially sulfated proteoglycans. The molecular mechanisms that underlie disuse atrophy are poorly understood despite the identification of multiple mechanosensing mechanisms in cartilage. Moreover, there has been a tendency to equate cartilage loss with osteoarthritic degeneration. Here, we review the historic literature and clarify the structural, metabolic and clinical features that clearly distinguish cartilage loss due to disuse atrophy and those due to osteoarthritis. We speculate on the molecular sensing pathways in cartilage that may be responsible for cartilage mechanoadaptation.
Functional walking capacity of subjects with paralyzed knee extensors while walking with an SCO in locked vs unlocked mode
People with a paresis or paralysis of the knee extensors depend on knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs) to restore walking ability. Unlike locked KAFOs whose orthotic
knee joints are only unlocked for sitting down, stance control orthoses (SCOs) may utilize various mechanisms to lock the orthotic knee joint during the stance phase
and unlock it for a free swing phase. Thus far, all studies comparing SCOs to locked KAFOs have only used laboratory-based measures, but no clinical performance
measures commonly used in rehabilitation medicine. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate functional walking capacity using the 6-minute walk test
(6MWT), combined with objective 3D gait measurements, in established SCO users when using the orthosis in the unlocked and locked mode, respectively. In
addition, satisfaction with the SCO was surveyed using the QUEST questionnaire. A total of eight subjects participated in this study. The results show that in the
locked condition, subjects walked a significantly shorter distance (284.4±53.0 m vs. 316.9±59.6 m, p=.04) in the 6MWT than in the unlocked condition. Gait was
more physiological in the unlocked mode with a mean knee flexion angle during swing of 57°±15° vs. full extension in the locked mode. QUEST scores showed a
high overall satisfaction with the E-MAG Active SCO.
Ankle-foot orthoses for rehabilitation and reducing metabolic cost of walking: Possibilities and challenges
People with diseases such as stroke, spinal cord injury, and trauma usually have paretic ankle involvement because of the plantar flexor and dorsiflexor muscle weakness. Individuals with paretic ankle normally have the drop-foot gait, which has the complications of foot-slap after heel contact and toe-drag during the swing phase of a gait cycle. This could cause slow walking speed, short step-length, high metabolic cost, and high risk of tripping. Ankle-foot orthotic intervention is mostly prescribed to treat paretic ankle impairments. In addition, ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) have been developed to assist human walking, which can reduce the wearer's metabolic cost of walking. To date, three kinds of AFOs have been developed, including the passive AFOs, semi-active AFOs, and active AFOs. This paper provides a systematic review on these three types of AFOs, where the biomechanics of normal and pathological gaits of human, the design concepts of the AFOs, and motion data collection of the human-machine system in human trials are described. The limitations of the currently developed AFOs and future research and development directions of AFOs are discussed, which would provide useful information for researchers to develop suitable AFOs.
Compensations in lower limb joint work during walking in response to unilateral calf muscle weakness
Patients with calf muscle weakness due to neuromuscular disorders have a reduced ankle push-off work, which leads to increased energy dissipation at contralateral heel-strike. Consequently, compensatory positive work needs to be generated, which is mechanically less efficient. It is unknown whether neuromuscular disorder patients compensate with their ipsilateral hip and/or contralateral leg; and if such compensatory joint work is related to walking energy cost.

Research question
Do patients with calf muscle weakness compensate for the increase in negative joint work by increasing positive ipsilateral hip work and/or positive contralateral leg work? And is the total mechanical work related with walking energy cost?

Seventeen patients with unilateral flaccid calf muscle weakness and 10 healthy individuals performed the following two tests: i) a barefoot 3D gait analysis at comfortable speed and matched control speed (i.e. 0.4 non-dimensional) to assess lower limb joint work and ii) a 6-minute walk test at comfortable speed to assess walking energy cost.

Patients had a lower comfortable walking speed compared to healthy individuals (1.05 vs 1.36 m/s, p < 0.001) and did not increase positive lower limb joint work at comfortable speed. At matched speed (1.25 m/s), patients showed increased positive work at their ipsilateral hip (0.38 ± 0.08 vs 0.27 ± 0.07, p = 0.001) and/or contralateral leg (0.99 ± 0.14 vs 0.69 ± 0.14, p < 0.001). Patients with weakest plantar flexors used both strategies. No relation between total positive work and walking energy cost was found (r = 0.43, p = 0.122).
Knee exoskeletons for gait rehabilitation and human performance augmentation: A state-of-the-art
The number of patients with knee impairments caused by a stroke, spinal cord injury, post-polio, injury, osteoarthritis, or other related diseases is increasing worldwide. Robotic devices such as knee exoskeletons have been studied and adopted in gait rehabilitation, as they can provide effective gait training for the patients and release the physical therapists from the intensive labor required by the traditional physical therapy. In addition, knee exoskeletons can augment human performance in normal walking, loaded walking, and even running by enhancing the strength of the wearers’ knee joints. A systematic review of knee exoskeletons is presented in this paper. The biomechanics of the human knee joint is firstly presented. Then, the design concepts of knee exoskeletons, including the actuators and sensors, are provided, followed by the introduction of the corresponding control strategies. Finally, the limitations of the available devices and the research and development directions in the field of knee exoskeletons are discussed, thus providing useful information to the researchers developing knee exoskeletons that are suitable for practical applications.
Manufacture of Passive Dynamic Ankle–Foot Orthoses Using Selective Laser Sintering
Ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) designs vary in size, shape, and functional characteristics depending on the desired clinical application. Passive Dynamic (PD) Response ankle-foot orthoses (PD-AFOs) constitute a design that seeks to improve walking ability for persons with various neuromuscular disorders by passively (like a spring) providing variable levels of support during the stance phase of gait. Current PD-AFO manufacturing technology is either labor intensive or not well suited for the detailed refinement of PD-AFO bending stiffness characteristics. The primary objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using a rapid freeform prototyping technique, selective laser sintering (SLS), as a PD-AFO manufacturing process. Feasibility was determined by replicating the shape and functional characteristics of a carbon fiber AFO (CF-AFO). The study showed that a SLS-based framework is ideally suited for this application. A second objective was to determine the optimal SLS material for PD-AFOs to store and release elastic energy; considering minimizing energy dissipation through internal friction is a desired material characteristic. This study compared the mechanical damping of the CF-AFO to PD-AFOs manufactured by SLS using three different materials. Mechanical damping evaluation ranked the materials as Rilsantrade D80 (best), followed by DuraFormtrade PA and DuraFormtrade GF. In addition, Rilsantrade D80 was the only SLS material able to withstand large deformations.
Quality of life of prosthetic and orthotic users in South India: a cross-sectional study
The aim of this study was to compare QOL among people in India using lower-limb prostheses or orthoses with people without disability. A further aim was to compare subgroups and investigate whether QOL was associated with physical disability, gender, income, living area, and education.

A cross-sectional questionnaire study in which the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref was used to collect self-reported data. A total of 277 participants from India were included, 155 with disability and 122 without. Group comparisons were conducted using the Mann–Whitney U and the Kruskal–Wallis tests and associations were explored using regression analyses of the four QOL domains: physical health, psychological, social relationships, and environment.

Participants with physical disability scored significantly lower than did participants without disability in three of the four QOL domains, i.e., physical health, (Median 14.29 vs 16.29; p < .001) psychological, (Median 14.67 vs. 15.33; p = .017) and environment (Median13.00 vs 14.00; p = .006). For people with disability those with no or irregular income and those not attending school having the lowest QOL scores in all four domains. Education was associated with all four QOL domains and income was associated with psychological and environment. Living in urban slums was associated with a higher risk of lower QOL in three QOL domains, i.e., physical health, psychology, and environment.
Pain in persons with post-polio syndrome: frequency, intensity, and impact
OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency, intensity, and impact of pain in persons with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS).

DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional survey.

SETTING: Community-based survey.

PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of people with PPS.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall intensity and duration of pain, pain sites, pain interference, pain treatments, and relief provided by pain treatments.

RESULTS: A total of 91% (n=57) of the study participants (N=63) reported pain. The most frequently reported pain sites were the shoulders, lower back, legs, and hips. Participants reported pain intensity to be the greatest in the knees, legs, wrists, lower back, and head. Pain interfered most with sleep and with activities requiring a high level of musculoskeletal involvement. Respondents also reported pain problems that were more severe than those of the general population and than those of a sample of people with multiple sclerosis. Many treatments had been tried previously for pain, but continued use of treatments was reported by relatively few participants at the time of the survey.
Psychosocial factors and adjustment to pain in individuals with postpolio syndrome
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current study was to examine the associations among measures of psychosocial factors, pain, and adjustment in persons with postpoliomyelitis syndrome.

DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey design was used. Sixty-three community-dwelling individuals with postpoliomyelitis syndrome returned completed questionnaires (71% response rate) that included measures of pain intensity and interference, psychological functioning, pain catastrophizing, social support, and pain-related beliefs and coping.

RESULTS: After controlling for demographic variables, the group of psychosocial variables accounted for an additional 23% of the variance in pain intensity. These variables explained an additional 35% and 50% of the variance in pain interference and psychological functioning, respectively, after accounting for demographic variables and pain intensity. Social support was associated with both psychological functioning and pain interference, whereas catastrophizing was most closely related to psychological functioning. Individual pain beliefs and coping strategies were variably related to the three criterion measures.
Analysis of long-standing nociceptive and neuropathic pain in patients with post-polio syndrome
The purpose of this study was to analyze pain, both nociceptive and neuropathic, in patients with post-polio syndrome (PPS) and relate the pain to age at the initial polio infection, age at examination, to gender and disability. The study was conducted in a university hospital department. Patients with PPS were interviewed at their regular visits about pain, its character, intensity and localization. A clinical examination, including a thorough neurological examination, was performed. Data included age at time of polio infection, age at time of examination and gender. Pain intensity was measured with the VAS-scale and walking capability by the WISCI-scale. One hundred sixty-three (88 women, 75 men) patients were included in the study. Pain was present in 109 (67%). Pain was more frequently reported by women (82%) than by men (49%). 96 patients experienced nociceptive pain, 10 patients both neuropathic and nociceptive pain and three experienced pure neuropathic pain. Half of the patients with pain experienced pain in more than one body region. When neuropathic pain was present, another additional neurological disorder was diagnosed. Pain was more often found in younger patients (around 70%) than in older patients (around 50%). In summary pain is common in patients with PPS and most patients experienced nociceptive pain. Women have pain more often than men. Older patients experience pain more seldom than younger patients. Age at time of primary polio infection is important for the development of pain. When neuropathic pain is present, it is important to proceed with neurological examination to find an adequate diagnosis.
Predictive factors and correlates for pain in postpoliomyelitis syndrome patients
OBJECTIVE: To identify predictive and associated factors for muscle and joint pain in postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS).

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study design.

SETTING: Postpolio clinics.

PARTICIPANTS: Baseline data on 126 PPS patients entered into a multicentered clinical trial.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adjusted odds ratios were computed by using logistic regression modeling. Patients with or without muscle or joint pain were compared with regard to predictors and associated factors.

RESULTS: In multivariate analyses for muscle pain, significant predictive and associated factors were female gender (P=.0006), longer duration of general fatigue (P=.019), and a lower score on the general health scale (P=.009) of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-From Health Survey (SF-36). In multivariate analyses for joint pain, significant predictive and associated factors were female gender (P<.003), longer latency (duration of stability after polio; P=.008), younger age at interview (P<.002), greater weakness at acute polio (P<.07), weaker lower-extremity muscle strength (P<.04), and a lower SF-36 general health scale score (P<.02).
Modeling subjective well-being in individuals with chronic pain and a physical disability: the role of pain control and pain catastrophizing.
To investigate the associations between subjective well-being and pain intensity, pain interference, and depression in individuals with physical disabilities. We hypothesized that (1) pain control and (2) pain catastrophizing mediate the effects of subjective well-being on pain intensity, pain interference, and depression.

Analyses of cross-sectional data from 96 individuals diagnosed with spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular disease, or post-polio syndrome, with average pain intensity of ≥4 (0-10) on at least half the days in the past month. Two models tested study hypotheses using structural equation.

Both models showed acceptable model fit. Pain catastrophizing significantly mediated the effect of subjective well-being on pain intensity and pain interference, but not on depression. Pain control did not significantly mediate the effect of subjective well-being on pain intensity, pain interference, or depression. Path coefficients showed significant direct effects of subjective well-being on pain control (β = 0.39), pain catastrophizing (β = -0.61), pain interference (β = -0.48; -0.42), and depression (β = -0.75; -0.78).

This study supports the potential of enhancing subjective well-being and lowering pain catastrophizing for reducing pain intensity, pain interference, and depressive symptoms in individuals with chronic pain and a physical disability. The findings indicate that true experiments to test for causal associations are warranted. Implications for rehabilitation The majority of individuals with physical disabilities report having persistent moderate-to-severe pain that may negatively limit daily activities and quality of life. The present cross-sectional study indicates that individuals who reported greater subjective well-being showed significantly lower pain intensity via the mediating effect of lower pain catastrophizing. Since sample size and respective power are low, these findings should be taken as first indications of potential underlying mechanisms between subjective well-being and pain outcomes that need further confirmation in longitudinal research. However, the findings suggest that treatments which enhance subjective well-being (increasing positive affect and life satisfaction, and decreasing negative affect, e.g., via positive psychology exercises) and reducing pain catastrophizing (via e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy) may have the highest potential for benefiting individuals with disability-associated chronic pain.
Activity pacing in chronic pain: concepts, evidence, and future directions
Activity pacing (AP) is a concept that is central to many chronic pain theories and treatments, yet there remains confusion regarding its definition and effects.

To review the current knowledge concerning AP and integrate this knowledge in a manner that allows for a clear definition and useful directions for future research.

A narrative review of the major theoretical approaches to AP and of the empirical evidence regarding the effects of AP interventions, followed by an integrative discussion.

The concept of AP is derived from 2 main traditions: operant and energy conservation. Although there are common elements across these traditions, significant conceptual and practical differences exist, which has led to confusion. Little empirical evidence exists concerning the efficacy of AP as a treatment for chronic pain.
Activity pacing, avoidance, endurance, and associations with patient functioning in chronic pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
To systematically review the associations between different approaches to activity (ie, activity pacing, avoidance, or endurance) and indicators of patient functioning in chronic pain samples.

A key word search was conducted in PsycINFO, MEDLINE via Ovid, EMBASE, and PubMed up to March 2011.

To be included, studies had to (1) be written in English, (2) report on an adult chronic pain sample, and (3) report a correlation coefficient between at least 1 measure of 1 of the 3 "approach to activity" variables and an indicator of patient functioning.

Two reviewers independently screened abstracts and full-text articles for eligibility and extracted the data. Results of correlation analyses were grouped on the basis of measure of approach to activity (pacing/avoidance/endurance) and the criterion variable measured (pain/physical functioning/psychological functioning), resulting in 9 categories. Random-effects modeling was then used to pool data across studies in each category.

Forty-one studies were eligible for inclusion. Results demonstrated that avoidance of activity was consistently associated with more pain, poorer psychological functioning, and more physical disability. While enduring with activity was associated with enhanced physical and psychological functioning, these relationships appeared to be dependent on the measure used, with measures more reflective of persisting with activities to the point of severe pain aggravation (overactivity) linked to poorer outcomes. Pacing was generally linked to better psychological functioning but more pain and disability.
Pain, Late Effects of Polio
Effectiveness of Intravenous Immunoglobulin for Management of Pain in Patients with Postpolio Syndrome
Many patients with postpolio syndrome (PPS) experience pain. In this study, we aimed to review previous studies to investigate the effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for managing pain in patients with PPS. We performed a narrative review.

In PubMed, we searched for the keywords ((Immunoglobulin OR IVIG) AND (poliomyelitis OR poliomyelitis syndrome)). We included articles in which IVIG was infused in patients with PPS and pain severity was measured before and after treatment.

In the results, five articles (4 randomized controlled trials and 1 prospective observational study) were included in this review. Four of the studies reported that IVIG had a positive pain-reducing effect in patients with PPS. In addition, 4 studies evaluated the outcomes related to muscle strength and function. Of these studies, 3 showed some improvement in measurements for muscle strength and function.

In conclusion, IVIG might be one of the beneficial options for managing pain in PPS. Pain reduction might be responsible for the improvement of muscle strength or function. To confirm the benefits of IVIG in reducing pain, more high-quality studies are required.
Pain, Quality of Life
Impact of pain on quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome
OBJECTIVE: Post-polio syndrome is a neurological disorder occurring several years after an acute polio infection. The main symptoms are increased muscular weakness and atrophy, fatigue and pain. Pain is present more often in younger individuals and in females and, according to the visual analogue scale (VAS), the intensity of pain is relatively high. The aim of the present study was to analyse the impact of pain on quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome.

DESIGN: Transversal study.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with post-polio syndrome underwent a thorough neurological and general examination. They were interviewed about the presence and intensity of pain during the previous 3 months, then completed the quality of life inventory Short-Form 36 (SF-36), which included questions about pain during the previous 4 weeks, and rated their pain intensity during the previous 24 h according to the VAS.

RESULTS: Seventy-seven of the patients (68%) experienced pain at the examination. Pain was found to have a significant impact on the SF-36 subdomains Vitality and General health. A correlation was found between pain during the previous 3 months, the previous 4 weeks, and the previous 24 h.

DISCUSSION: Pain is common in patients with post-polio syndrome. Although patients have a high mean VAS score the pain only affects quality of life for Vitality and General Health, but not for other physical and mental domains.
Polio Immunisation
Preparation for global introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine: safety evidence from the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, 2000–12
BACKGROUND: Safety data from countries with experience in the use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) are important for the global polio eradication strategy to introduce IPV into the immunisation schedules of all countries. In the USA, IPV has been included in the routine immunisation schedule since 1997. We aimed to analyse adverse events after IPV administration reported to the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS).

METHODS: We analysed all VAERS data associated with IPV submitted between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2012, either as individual or as combination vaccines, for all age and sex groups. We analysed the number and event type (non-serious, non-fatal serious, and death reports) of individual reports, and explored the most commonly coded event terms to describe the adverse event. We classified death reports according to previously published body-system categories (respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological, gastrointestinal, other infectious, and other non-infectious) and reviewed death reports to identify the cause of death. We classified sudden infant death syndrome as a separate cause of death considering previous concerns about sudden infant syndrome after vaccines. We used empirical Bayesian data mining methods to identify disproportionate reporting of adverse events for IPV compared with other vaccines. Additional VAERS data from 1991 to 2000 were analysed to compare the safety profiles of IPV and oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV).

FINDINGS: Of the 41 792 adverse event reports submitted, 39 568 (95%) were for children younger than 7 years. 38 381 of the reports for children in this age group (97%) were for simultaneous vaccination with IPV and other vaccines (most commonly pneumococcal and acellular pertussis vaccines), whereas standalone IPV vaccines accounted for 0·5% of all reports. 34 880 reports were for non-serious events (88%), 3905 reports were for non-fatal serious events (10%), and 783 reports were death reports (2%). Injection-site erythema was the most commonly coded term for non-serious events (29%), and pyrexia for non-fatal serious events (38%). Most deaths (96%) were in children aged 12 months or younger; most (52%) had sudden infant death syndrome as the reported cause of death. The safely profiles of combined IPV and whole-cell pertussis vaccines, OPV and whole-cell pertussis vaccines, and OPV and acellular pertussis vaccines were similar. We noted no indication of disproportionate reporting of adverse events after immunisation with IPV-containing vaccines compared with other vaccines between 1990 and 2013.

INTERPRETATION: Fairly few adverse events were reported for the more than 250 million IPV doses distributed between 2000 and 2012. Sudden infant death syndrome reports after IPV were consistent with reporting patterns for other vaccines. No new or unexpected vaccine safety problems were identified for fatal, non-fatal serious, and non-serious reports in this assessment of adverse events after IPV.
Polio Immunisation
New vaccine strategies to finish polio eradication
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) currently faces two specific challenges. First, all the cases in the past 9 months caused by ongoing wild-virus transmission were in Afghanistan and Pakistan—Africa has had a remarkable 9 months without detection of the disease. Second, circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses are continuing to cause poliomyelitis in a few countries, a rare outcome associated with continued use of the live-attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). In The Lancet Infectious Diseases, the results of two clinical trials of OPV that address these challenges are reported by Fatima Mir and colleagues and Concepción Estívariz and colleagues.
Polio Immunisation
Next generation inactivated polio vaccine manufacturing to support post polio-eradication biosafety goals
Worldwide efforts to eradicate polio caused a tipping point in polio vaccination strategies. A switch from the oral polio vaccine, which can cause circulating and virulent vaccine derived polioviruses, to inactivated polio vaccines (IPV) is scheduled. Moreover, a manufacturing process, using attenuated virus strains instead of wild-type polioviruses, is demanded to enhance worldwide production of IPV, especially in low- and middle income countries. Therefore, development of an IPV from attenuated (Sabin) poliovirus strains (sIPV) was pursued. Starting from the current IPV production process based on wild type Salk strains, adaptations, such as lower virus cultivation temperature, were implemented. sIPV was produced at industrial scale followed by formulation of both plain and aluminium adjuvanted sIPV. The final products met the quality criteria, were immunogenic in rats, showed no toxicity in rabbits and could be released for testing in the clinic. Concluding, sIPV was developed to manufacturing scale. The technology can be transferred worldwide to support post polio-eradication biosafety goals.
Polio Immunisation
Immunogenicity of two different sequential schedules of inactivated polio vaccine followed by oral polio vaccine versus oral polio vaccine alone in healthy infants in China
BACKGROUND: Two vaccination schedules where inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) was followed by oral polio vaccine (OPV) were compared to an OPV-only schedule.

METHODS: Healthy Chinese infants received a 3-dose primary series of IPV-OPV-OPV (Group A), IPV-IPV-OPV (Group B), or OPV-OPV-OPV (Group C) at 2, 3, and 4 months of age. At pre-Dose 1, 1-month, and 14-months post-Dose 3, polio 1, 2, and 3 antibody titers were assessed by virus-neutralizing antibody assay with Sabin or wild-type strains. Adverse events were monitored.

RESULTS: Anti-polio 1, 2, and 3 titers were ≥8 (1/dil) in >99% of participants, and Group A and Group B were noninferior to Group C at 1-month post-Dose 3 as assessed by Sabin strain-based assay (SSBA). In Group A 1-month post-Dose 3, there was no geometric mean antibody titers (GMT) differences for types 1 and 3; type 2 GMTs were ≈3-fold higher by wild-type strain-based assay (WTBA) versus SSBA. For Group B, GMTs were ≈1.7- and 3.6-fold higher for types 1 and 2 via WTBA, while type 3 GMTs were similar. For Group C, GMTs were ≈6.3- and 2-fold higher for types 1 and 3 with SSBA, and type 2 GMTs were similar. Antibodies persisted in >96.6% of participants. Adverse event incidence in each group was similar.
Polio Immunisation
A cross-sectional survey of healthcare workers on the knowledge and attitudes towards polio vaccination in Pakistan
INTRODUCTION: Pakistan accounts for 85.2% of the total polio cases reported worldwide. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are an integral part of immunization campaigns and source of education for the general public. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards polio vaccination among HCWs providing immunisation and education to general public in Quetta and Peshawar divisions of Pakistan.

METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 490 HCWs was conducted in two major referral public teaching hospitals of Quetta and Peshawar divisions. During February to April, 2015, a random sample of 490 HCWs was invited to participate in this study. Knowledge and attitudes were assessed by using self-administered, anonymous and pretested questionnaire. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used to express the results.

RESULTS: A total of 468 participants responded to the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 95.5%. Overall, participants demonstrated good knowledge and positive attitudes towards polio vaccination. The mean knowledge score of HCWs about polio was 13.42±2.39 (based on 18 knowledge questions) while the mean attitude score was 28.75±5.5 (based on 9 attitudes statements). Knowledge gaps were identified about the incubation period of poliovirus (19.5%), management issues (31.9%), use of polio vaccine in mild illnesses (34.7%) and the consequences of the polio virus (36.9%). The majority of participants agreed that all children should be vaccinated for polio (95.1%), while reservations were noted about the need of a booster (38.9%), and sterility issues associated with polio vaccines (43.6%). Internet (n = 167, 37%) and Posters (n = 158, 35%) were the main sources used by HCWs to educate themselves about polio.
Polio Immunisation
Applying the concept of peptide uniqueness to anti-polio vaccination
BACKGROUND: Although rare, adverse events may associate with anti-poliovirus vaccination thus possibly hampering global polio eradication worldwide.

OBJECTIVE: To design peptide-based anti-polio vaccines exempt from potential cross-reactivity risks and possibly able to reduce rare potential adverse events such as the postvaccine paralytic poliomyelitis due to the tendency of the poliovirus genome to mutate.

METHODS: Proteins from poliovirus type 1, strain Mahoney, were analyzed for amino acid sequence identity to the human proteome at the pentapeptide level, searching for sequences that (1) have zero percent of identity to human proteins, (2) are potentially endowed with an immunologic potential, and (3) are highly conserved among poliovirus strains.

RESULTS: Sequence analyses produced a set of consensus epitopic peptides potentially able to generate specific anti-polio immune responses exempt from cross-reactivity with the human host.
Polio Immunisation
Review of the health consequences of SV40 contamination of poliomyelitis vaccines, and in particular a possible association with cancers
The published papers concerning the human health risk of vaccines contaminated with SV40 virus falls into three groups: those published in the 1960s when the virus was discovered, a second group dating from the period when the two related human viruses BK and JC were described and the third recent period when molecular techniques were applied to the problem.

GROUP 1: SV40 was discovered in 1960 and shown
~ To be a common infection in healthy rhesus monkeys
~ To belong to the polyoma virus family
~ To cause tumours (especially ependymomas, osteosarcomas, mesotheliomas and lymphomas) when injected into baby hamsters
~ To be incompletely killed by the heat and formalin treatment used to inactivate polioviruses during "Salk" vaccine manufacture
~ To be capable of infecting human recipients of contaminated vaccine
~ To be capable of transforming human cells into cancer cells in the laboratory

Immediate steps were taken to free the vaccine seed cultures of SV40 and to ensure that all future batches of vaccine (both the inactivated "Salk" and the then prototype attenuated "Sabin" types) were made in monkey kidney cultures free of SV40. This was accomplished in 1963.

Many millions of children and adults had already been inoculated with polio vaccine before these measures were fully effective. It is not known which of the early batches actually contained infectious doses of SV40, but tests of recipients showed that many produced SV40 antibodies. This could be the result of either SV40 infection or "immunisation" by the killed SV40 in the vaccine.

Concern focussed on the risk to very young children but no increased risk of cancer was found in follow up of over 1000 vaccinees. As the tumour types induced in hamsters are rare these studies were supplemented with much larger studies comparing cancer registry data for children born (and presumably mostly immunised) during the period between introduction of polio vaccine and eradication of SV40 from manufacture (ie 1957-63) and children born within the preceding or subsequent five year periods. These studies were reassuring, although it was recognised that the follow up was not sufficiently long term to detect a risk of the cancers such as mesothelioma which occur in middle age and beyond. There were also some discrepant reports but in retrospect these (including the single Australian study) have significant design limitations.

GROUP 2: The issue was revived in the 1970s when two new human polyomaviruses (BK and JC) were discovered. These cause tumours and degenerative neurological disease in humans. They also share antigens and DNA sequences with SV40 which may cause cross reactions leading to false positive results in diagnostic tests. Surveys showed that serological evidence of infection with the two new agents was common in healthy people and that disease emerged almost exclusively in immune deficient individuals. Attempts to isolate SV40 from human tumours, even by explanting the cells in culture, were generally unsuccessful, but one typical SV40 strain was obtained from a melanoma and two others from diseased brain tissue. Serological surveys showed that earlier findings that up to 5% of the population had low titre SV40 antibody were mostly, if not entirely, due to cross reactions with the much commoner human polyoma viruses.

It was thus concluded that while SV40 involvement in human tumours could not be absolutely denied it must be very rare indeed.

GROUP 3 : The most recent group of publications has reported the use of molecular techniques to detect SV40 DNA in tumours. The results have been conflicting, some studies showing no positives
others a high proportion. Most workers have focussed on detection of the viral oncogene (T antigen) and/or its expression. Persistence of these sequences integrated into the host cell genome would be expected from experimental studies of polyomavirus induced tumours of other species. Unfortunately the SV40 sequences of interest are widely used as tools in molecular laboratories creating a very substantial risk of cross contamination when testing tumour samples. This casts doubt on these studies which has not yet been resolved. Another new avenue of research has revealed that the SV40 oncogene (Tag) acts through complexing with p53 and affects the pRb pathway of cell cycle control. Genetic mutations of these control elements makes the cell exquisitely sensitive to SV40 transformation. These mutations occur naturally in the population, and confer cancer susceptibility on individuals who often develop tumours of similar type to those associated with SV40. This may need to be taken into account in future epidemiological studies.
Polio Immunisation
Effect of substituting IPV for tOPV on immunity to poliovirus in Bangladeshi infants: An open-label randomized controlled trial
BACKGROUND: The Polio Endgame strategy includes phased withdrawal of oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV) coordinated with introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) to ensure population immunity. The impact of IPV introduction into a primary OPV series of immunizations in a developing country is uncertain.

METHODS: Between May 2011 and November 2012, we enrolled 700 Bangladeshi infant-mother dyads from Dhaka slums into an open-label randomized controlled trial to test whether substituting an injected IPV dose for the standard Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) fourth tOPV dose at infant age 39 weeks would reduce fecal shedding and enhance systemic immunity. The primary endpoint was mucosal immunity to poliovirus at age one year, measured by fecal excretion of any Sabin virus at five time points up to 25 days post-52 week tOPV challenge, analyzed by the intention to treat principle.

FINDINGS: We randomized 350 families to the tOPV and IPV vaccination arms. Neither study arm resulted in superior intestinal protection at 52 weeks measured by the prevalence of infants shedding any of three poliovirus serotypes, but the IPV dose induced significantly higher seroprevalence and seroconversion rates. This result was identical for poliovirus detection by cell culture or RT-qPCR. The non-significant estimated culture-based shedding risk difference was -3% favoring IPV, and the two vaccination schedules were inferred to be equivalent within a 95% confidence margin of -10% to +4%. Results for shedding analyses stratified by poliovirus type were similar.
Polio Immunisation
Field study of fecal excretion as a decision support tool in response to silent reintroduction of wild-type poliovirus 1 into Israel
BACKGROUND: Israel has used an inactivated polio vaccine (IPV)-only schedule since 2005 (95% coverage). Silent reintroduction of wild type poliovirus 1 (WPV1) into Israel in early 2013 was detected in Southern Israel via routine environmental surveillance without clinical cases.

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the rate of WPV1 excretion by age and residence and inform decision-making regarding supplemental immunization with OPV.

STUDY DESIGN: A convenience sample of Bedouin and Jewish residential areas in the epicenter of the incident, focusing on under 8 year-olds who not previously given OPV. Fecal samples were directly tested for WPV1 RNA using a novel qRT-PCR assay. Positive samples were confirmed by gold standard cell culture and subject to genotyping.

RESULTS: Overall, 2196 non-duplicate fecal samples were collected and analyzed. WPV1 was detected in 61 samples (2.8%), 55 of which (90.2%) were from Bedouins. WPV1 excretion rates were 5.4% among Bedouins and 0.6% among Jewish individuals. Respective age-specific rates among Bedouin and Jewish children were 4.9% and 0.2% for 0-2 years and 7.2% and 1.7% for 2-8 years. Molecular testing had 89.5% sensitivity (higher than culture) and 100% specificity.
Polio Immunisation
Rotary’s PolioPlus Program: Lessons Learned, Transition Planning, and Legacy
Hundreds of thousands of Rotary volunteers have provided support for polio eradication activities and continue to this day by making financial contributions to the Rotary PolioPlus program, participating in national immunization days, assisting with surveillance, working on local, national, and international advocacy programs for polio eradication, assisting at immunization posts and clinics, and mobilizing their communities for immunization activities (including poliovirus and other vaccines) and other health benefits. Rotary has contributed more than $1.61 billion for the global eradication of polio and has committed to provide an additional $35 million each year until 2018 (all dollar amounts represent US dollars). Its unwavering commitment to eradicate polio has been vital to the success of the program. Rotary is providing additional support for routine immunization and healthcare. When polio is finally gone, we will have the knowledge from the lessons learned with PolioPlus, such as the value of direct involvement by local Rotarians, the program for emergency funding, innovative tactics, and additional approaches for tackling other global issues, even those beyond public health. Rotary has already transitioned its grants program to include 6 areas of focus: disease prevention and treatment, water and sanitation, maternal and child health, basic education and literacy, economic and community development, and peace and conflict prevention/resolution. Funding for these grants in 2015–2016 was $71 million. The legacy of the polio program will be the complete eradication of poliovirus and the elimination of polio for all time.
Polio Immunisation
Patients with Primary Immunodeficiencies Are a Reservoir of Poliovirus and a Risk to Polio Eradication
Immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived polioviruses (iVDPVs) have been isolated from primary immunodeficiency (PID) patients exposed to oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Patients may excrete poliovirus strains for months or years; the excreted viruses are frequently highly divergent from the parental OPV and have been shown to be as neurovirulent as wild virus. Thus, these patients represent a potential reservoir for transmission of neurovirulent polioviruses in the post-eradication era. In support of WHO recommendations to better estimate the prevalence of poliovirus excreters among PIDs and characterize genetic evolution of these strains, 635 patients including 570 with primary antibody deficiencies and 65 combined immunodeficiencies were studied from 13 OPV-using countries. Two stool samples were collected over 4 days, tested for enterovirus, and the poliovirus positive samples were sequenced. Thirteen patients (2%) excreted polioviruses, most for less than 2 months following identification of infection. Five (0.8%) were classified as iVDPVs (only in combined immunodeficiencies and mostly poliovirus serotype 2). Non-polio enteroviruses were detected in 30 patients (4.7%). Patients with combined immunodeficiencies had increased risk of delayed poliovirus clearance compared to primary antibody deficiencies. Usually, iVDPV was detected in subjects with combined immunodeficiencies in a short period of time after OPV exposure, most for less than 6 months. Surveillance for poliovirus excretion among PID patients should be reinforced until polio eradication is certified and the use of OPV is stopped. Survival rates among PID patients are improving in lower and middle income countries, and iVDPV excreters are identified more frequently. Antivirals or enhanced immunotherapies presently in development represent the only potential means to manage the treatment of prolonged excreters and the risk they present to the polio endgame.
Polio Immunisation
Genetically Thermo-Stabilised, Immunogenic Poliovirus Empty Capsids; a Strategy for Non-replicating Vaccines
While wild type polio has been nearly eradicated there will be a need to continue immunisation programmes for some time because of the possibility of re-emergence and the existence of long term excreters of poliovirus. All vaccines in current use depend on growth of virus and most of the non-replicating (inactivated) vaccines involve wild type viruses known to cause poliomyelitis. The attenuated vaccine strains involved in the eradication programme have been used to develop new inactivated vaccines as production is thought safer. However it is known that the Sabin vaccine strains are genetically unstable and can revert to a virulent transmissible form. A possible solution to the need for virus growth would be to generate empty viral capsids by recombinant technology, but hitherto such particles are so unstable as to be unusable. We report here the genetic manipulation of the virus to generate stable empty capsids for all three serotypes. The particles are shown to be extremely stable and to generate high levels of protective antibodies in animal models.
Polio Immunisation
Expert Review on Poliovirus Immunity and Transmission
Successfully managing risks to achieve wild polioviruses (WPVs) eradication and address the complexities of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation to stop all cases of paralytic poliomyelitis depends strongly on our collective understanding of poliovirus immunity and transmission. With increased shifting from OPV to inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), numerous risk management choices motivate the need to understand the tradeoffs and uncertainties and to develop models to help inform decisions. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention hosted a meeting of international experts in April 2010 to review the available literature relevant to poliovirus immunity and transmission. This expert review evaluates 66 OPV challenge studies and other evidence to support the development of quantitative models of poliovirus transmission and potential outbreaks. This review focuses on characterization of immunity as a function of exposure history in terms of susceptibility to excretion, duration of excretion, and concentration of excreted virus. We also discuss the evidence of waning of host immunity to poliovirus transmission, the relationship between the concentration of poliovirus excreted and infectiousness, the importance of different transmission routes, and the differences in transmissibility between OPV and WPV. We discuss the limitations of the available evidence for use in polio risk models, and conclude that despite the relatively large number of studies on immunity, very limited data exist to directly support quantification of model inputs related to transmission. Given the limitations in the evidence, we identify the need for expert input to derive quantitative model inputs from the existing data.
Polio Immunisation
Epidemiology of the silent polio outbreak in Rahat, Israel, based on modeling of environmental surveillance data
Israel experienced an outbreak of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) in 2013–2014, detected through environmental surveillance of the sewage system. No cases of acute flaccid paralysis were reported, and the epidemic subsided after a bivalent oral polio vaccination (bOPV) campaign. As we approach global eradication, polio will increasingly be detected only through environmental surveillance. We developed a framework to convert quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) cycle threshold data into scaled WPV1 and OPV1 concentrations for inference within a deterministic, compartmental infectious disease transmission model. We used this approach to estimate the epidemic curve and transmission dynamics, as well as assess alternate vaccination scenarios. Our analysis estimates the outbreak peaked in late June, much earlier than previous estimates derived from analysis of stool samples, although the exact epidemic trajectory remains uncertain. We estimate the basic reproduction number was 1.62 (95% CI 1.04–2.02). Model estimates indicate that 59% (95% CI 9–77%) of susceptible individuals (primarily children under 10 years old) were infected with WPV1 over a little more than six months, mostly before the vaccination campaign onset, and that the vaccination campaign averted 10% (95% CI 1–24%) of WPV1 infections. As we approach global polio eradication, environmental monitoring with qPCR can be used as a highly sensitive method to enhance disease surveillance.
Polio Immunisation
A systematic review of the worldwide prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis reported in 31 studies
Background Accurate prevalence figures estimating the number of survivors of poliomyelitis (disease causing acute flaccid paralysis) following poliovirus infection are not available. We aim to undertake a systematic review of all literature concerning the prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis.

Methods Electronic databases were searched from 1900 up to May 2016 for peer-reviewed studies using a population-based approach witha defined denominator and some form of diagnostic or clinical verification of polio. Exclusion criteria were any prevalence data that were unable to be extracted or calculated and studies reporting on incidence only. The quality of each included study was assessed using an existing tool modified for use in prevalence studies. Average crude prevalence rates were used to calculate worldwide estimates.

Results Thirty-one studies met criteria with 90% of studies conducted in low-income to lower middle-income countries. Significant variability in the prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis was revealed, in low- income to lower middle-income (15 per 100 000 in Nigeria to 1733 in India) and upper-middle to high-income countries (24 (Japan) to 380 per 100 000 (Brazil). The total combined prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis for those studies at low to moderate risk of bias ranged from 165 (high-income countries) to 425 (low-income to lower middle-income countries) per 100 000 person-years. Historical lameness surveys of children predominated, with wide variation in case definition and assessment criteria, and limited relevance to current prevalence given the lack of incidence of poliovirus infection in the ensuing years.
Polio Immunisation
Intestinal Immunity to Poliovirus Following Sequential Trivalent Inactivated Polio Vaccine/Bivalent Oral Polio Vaccine and Trivalent Inactivated Polio Vaccine–only Immunization Schedules: Analysis of an Open-label, Randomized, Controlled Trial in Chilean Infants
Identifying polio vaccine regimens that can elicit robust intestinal mucosal immunity and interrupt viral transmission is a key priority of the polio endgame.

In a 2013 Chilean clinical trial (NCT01841671) of trivalent inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV; targeting types 1 and 3), infants were randomized to receive IPV-bOPV-bOPV, IPV-IPV-bOPV, or IPV-IPV-IPV at 8, 16, and 24 weeks of age and challenged with monovalent oral polio vaccine type 2 (mOPV2) at 28 weeks. Using fecal samples collected from 152 participants, we investigated the extent to which IPV-bOPV and IPV-only immunization schedules induced intestinal neutralizing activity and immunoglobulin A against polio types 1 and 2.

Overall, 37% of infants in the IPV-bOPV groups and 26% in the IPV-only arm had detectable type 2–specific stool neutralization after the primary vaccine series. In contrast, 1 challenge dose of mOPV2 induced brisk intestinal immune responses in all vaccine groups, and significant rises in type 2–specific stool neutralization titers (P < .0001) and immunoglobulin A concentrations (P < 0.0001) were measured 2 weeks after the challenge. In subsidiary analyses, duration of breastfeeding also appeared to be associated with the magnitude of polio-specific mucosal immune parameters measured in infant fecal samples.
Polio Immunisation
The Lancet: New polio vaccine against strain that threatens eradication is safe and generates immune response in adults, young children, and infants
Phase 2 trials in 1,200 adults, young children, and infants suggest new poliovirus vaccine may have the potential to overcome outbreaks caused by a mutated polio strain linked to the oral vaccine that typically circulates in areas of low immunisation coverage, and poses one of biggest barriers to eradication.

Scientists have developed the first poliovirus vaccine against a mutated form of the disease that is causing disease outbreaks across Africa and Asia. Designed to be more genetically stable than the licensed Sabin oral vaccine [1], the new vaccine appears to be as safe and provides similar immune responses when tested in healthy adults, children, and infants, according to new research published in two papers in The Lancet.

The new vaccine, known as nOPV2, is directed against poliovirus type 2, and has improved genetic stability and is less likely to mutate and revert into a form of the virus that can cause infection and paralytic disease.

Based on the results from these phase 2 clinical trials, nOPV2 vaccine has received an Emergency Use Listing (EUL) recommendation from WHO making it the first vaccine ever to go through this pathway that is meant for global health emergencies. The aim is to now use the vaccine for outbreak response for vaccine-derived poliovirus that is increasing across Africa as well as Afghanistan, Pakistan, the Philippines, Malaysia, and other countries. Currently, outbreaks are being tackled using the original Sabin oral vaccine for type 2 polio, which risks seeding further outbreaks in areas of persistently low immunisation coverage.

Post-Polio Motor Unit
Vasomotor abnormalities as post-polio sequelae: functional and clinical implications
Persons who had poliomyelitis report cold and discolored extremities and decreased muscle strength when exposed to mildly cool ambient temperatures. Bilateral digital cutaneous blood flow, skin temperature and median nerve latencies and amplitudes were measured at 30 degrees C, 25 degrees C and 20 degrees C in five post-polio subjects and age-matched controls. Cutaneous blood flow was lowest on the more affected side in the post-polio subjects but vasoconstriction with decreasing Ta was equal bilaterally in both groups. With decreasing Ta, median motor nerve latencies became clinically abnormal and “giant” sensory nerve potential amplitudes were seen in a majority of the post-polio subjects. It is concluded that an impairment of sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow in post-polios allows passive dilatation and engorgement of the cutaneous venous capacitance beds. This promotes uncontrolled heat loss and causes cooling of nerve and muscle that is responsible for the impairment of muscle functioning and the abnormal electrophysiological findings.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
Acute and latent effect of poliomyelitis on the motor unit as revealed by electromyography
When polio virus attacks the motor neuron it may be completely destroyed, damaged, or unaffected. Muscle fibers of a destroyed motor neuron are orphaned or reinnervated. Nearby functioning motor units will then send terminal axon sprouts to reinnervate the orphaned muscle fibers. If there are too many orphaned muscle fibers and not enough surviving motor units to reinnervate them, the orphaned muscle fibers will continue to fibrillate until they atrophy and die. The resultant effect of poliomyelitis upon the affected muscle is an overall loss of motor units with the remaining units innervating many more muscle fibers than they originally did. There appears to be a late effect of polio upon these larger reinnervated motor units. After approximately 20 to 30 years, impulse transmission to the muscle fibers of the large reinnervated motor unit begins to fail. These transmission difficulties increase with age and time from recovery. These late onset transmission abnormalities may be factors in patient complaints of fatigue and progressive weakness.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
A rat model of the post-polio motor unit
We examined the long-term effects of muscle usage on a rat model of the post-polio motor unit. Isometric tensions, type I and type II muscle fiber areas, the incidence of collateral sprouting, and motor endplate morphology were examined following 1, 3, 6, and 9 months of partial denervation in rat plantaris muscle. Full morphologic and functional stability of the expanded motor units occurred at 6 months post-partial denervation. Fiber hypertrophy was observed, possibly the result of compensatory work hypertrophy due to muscle overuse. Following 9 months of partial denervation and muscle overuse, the twitch and tetanic tensions and type I and type II muscle fiber areas were significantly reduced as compared to sham controls; angulated myofibers and group atrophy also were seen. The percent collateral sprouting, the number of terminal branches per endplate, and the endplate area were all increased, possibly a compensatory response to a decreased synthesis of neurotrophic factor(s) and/or transmitter-related components. These aging-like changes seem to occur earlier in chronically stressed, overenlarged, and overworked motor units.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
Late effects of polio: critical review of the literature on neuromuscular function
Many individuals who have had poliomyelitis are now complaining of several new problems attributed to their former illness including muscle atrophy; fatigue; progressive weakness; and muscle, back, and joint pain. This paper critically examines the literature regarding the neuromuscular effects of poliomyelitis. Weakness resulting from poliomyelitis was due to destruction of anterior horn cells. After the illness, muscle strength was partially recovered as a result of several physiologic adaptive mechanisms including terminal sprouting and reinnervation, myofiber hypertrophy, and, possibly, myofiber type transformation. Several pathophysiologic and functional etiologies have been proposed for late neuromuscular deterioration, but none has been proven. In fact, to date, there is no objective evidence documenting progressive loss of strength in polio survivors. Studies attempting to differentiate polio survivors with and without symptoms of deterioration have resulted in conflicting results; however, it appears reasonable to conclude that symptomatic postpolio subjects had a more severe illness with greater loss of neuromuscular function. Exercise may be helpful for many postpolio patients, but the prescription must be tailored to the individual to avoid problems of overuse or excessive fatigue.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
Late denervation in patients with antecedent paralytic poliomyelitis
The development of new weakness, fatigue, and pain decades after acute paralytic poliomyelitis is a recognized syndrome. We conducted a controlled study of this syndrome by analyzing clinical, electromyographic, and muscle-biopsy features in 18 patients with a history of poliomyelitis--13 reporting 1 to 20 years of new weakness and 5 without new symptoms. The patients with new weakness also reported new muscle atrophy (9 of 13) and fatigue (10 of 13), symptoms not reported by the controls. The age at the time of acute poliomyelitis, severity of poliomyelitis, residual disability, number of years since acute poliomyelitis, and age at the time of study were comparable in the weakening and control groups. Evidence of remote denervation consistent with antecedent poliomyelitis was demonstrated in all patients by electromyography or muscle biopsy or both. In addition, active denervation (as evidenced by spontaneous activity on conventional electromyography, increased jitter on single-fiber electromyography, or atrophic myofibers) was found in 12 patients in the weakening group and in all 5 controls. Immunohistochemical detection of myofibers expressing the neural-cell adhesion molecule corroborated ongoing denervation in both patient groups. When muscle data from both groups were pooled, correlations were observed between the extent of past reinnervation and the degree of ongoing motor-unit instability. We conclude that the extensive reinnervation of denervated muscle that occurs in paralytic poliomyelitis may be followed by late denervation of the previously reinnervated muscle fibers. Electromyographic and muscle-biopsy evidence of ongoing denervation does not distinguish between stable patients with prior paralytic poliomyelitis and those with new weakness.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
A long-term follow-up study of patients with post-poliomyelitis neuromuscular symptoms
A “post-polio” syndrome characterized by new neuromuscular symptoms, including muscle weakness, may develop years after recovery from acute paralytic poliomyelitis. We studied 27 patients (mean age, 50.6 years) in whom new muscle weakness developed a mean of 28.8 years after recovery from acute polio. We reevaluated these patients during a mean follow-up period of 8.2 years (range, 4.5 to 20) after they were originally studied at the National Institutes of Health. The total mean follow-up period after the onset of new weakness was 12.2 years (range, 6 to 29). The patients were assessed with quantitative muscle testing, muscle biopsy, electromyography, and virologic and immunologic examination of the cerebrospinal fluid. Muscle strength had declined in all patients. The rate of decline averaged 1 percent per year. The decrease was irregular, with subjective plateau periods that ranged from 1 to 10 years. None of the patients had amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Oligoclonal bands (IgG) were found in the cerebrospinal fluid of 7 of 13 patients studied, but no specific elevation of antibodies to poliovirus was observed in the cerebrospinal fluid. The newly affected muscles that were evaluated longitudinally with follow-up muscle biopsies and electromyography showed signs of chronic and new denervation. Groups of atrophic muscle fibers (group atrophy) and "neurogenic jitter" were not present. New post-polio muscle weakness is not a life-threatening form of motor-neuron deterioration. It appears that this weakness is not due to a loss of whole motor neurons, as in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but that it is due to a dysfunction of the surviving motor neurons that causes a slow disintegration of the terminals of individual nerve axons.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
Electromyographic and morphological functional compensation in late poliomyelitis
Patients with prior poliomyelitis may experience muscle function deterioration decades after onset of disease. The present study is aimed at describing electromyographic and morphometric evidence of muscular compensation and of on-going muscular instability. Ten subjects 42-62 years of age with onset of polio 25-52 years earlier were studied with macro EMG, single-fiber EMG (SFEMG), muscle strength measurement, and morphometrical analysis of muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle. SFEMG revealed increased fiber density (FD) and large macro-MUP potentials indicating pronounced reinnervation as compensation to loss of motor neurons. From electrophysiological data of motor unit size, morphometric measures of fiber size, and muscle strength data, the minimal degree of motor neuron loss was estimated to be greater than 70%.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
Neurological manifestations of the post-polio syndrome
Patients with late effects of poliomyelitis, ie PPS, are being seen at an ever increasing frequency by general physicians, neurologists, and orthopedists. An appropriate time interval for the onset of late manifestations has elapsed since the major epidemics of poliomyelitis in the 1940s and 1950s. Post-polio neurological manifestations primarily include new weakness, atrophy, muscle pain, and fasciculations. Fortunately, the weakness is of a very slow, progressive nature. Abnormal laboratory studies include routine EMG, demonstrating chronic denervation; SFEMG, demonstrating increased fiber density, increased jitter, and blocking; and muscle biopsy most often revealing fiber-type grouping of chronic denervation and small isolated angular (or angulated) fibers and group atrophy in some series, both suggestive of active denervation. Unfortunately, both EMG and muscle biopsy studies suffer from a lack of specificity as they do not appear to distinguish asymptomatic from symptomatic (new weakness, PPMA) patients with prior poliomyelitis. Although the cause of PPMA is unknown, electrophysiological (SFEMG) and muscle biopsy studies suggest that the process involves a loss or dropout of axon terminals of reinnervated motor units. The axons terminal dropout could be due to dysfunction in the cell soma, the axon, or the terminals themselves. Whether motor neuron exhaustion, a persistent viral infection, or immune-mediated mechanisms play a role in the pathogenesis of the late weakness is unclear at present and will require further investigation. Treatment at this time is of a supportive nature. A major controversy involves the role of strengthening exercises in these patients since experimental animal studies suggest that excessive exercise of denervated muscles leads to increased weakness. Clearly, a better understanding of PPS and PPMA will allow more effective management of these patients’ problems and might also provide insight into other motor neuron and neuromuscular junction diseases.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
Functional recovery – a major risk factor for the development of postpoliomyelitis muscular atrophy
A retrospective study was undertaken to identify potential risk factors for the development of progressive postpoliomyelitis muscular atrophy (PPMA). Patients with PPMA (n = 57) were compared with patients with a history of poliomyelitis but without a history of progressive weakness (n = 49). Patients who later developed PPMA had histories of more widespread acute paralysis, but relatively greater functional recovery. They were less disabled, and reported higher recent activity levels. Seventy-nine percent of the total variance between the PPMA and control groups could be accounted for by recovery alone (ie, severity minus disability). Functional recovery is generally attributed to reinnervation of sarcomeres by collateral sprouting from surviving lower motor neurons. Since degree of recovery predicts the risk of developing PPMA, our findings suggest that enlarged motor units may carry an increased susceptibility for dysfunction and/or degeneration.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
Dynamic electromyography and muscle biopsy changes in a 4-year follow-up: study of patients with a history of polio
Eighteen patients who had had polio 29-56 years prior to the first investigation were studied on two occasions, 4 years apart. Isokinetic and isometric strength measurements and Macro EMG were performed in 28 legs. Muscle biopsy specimens were obtained on both occasions from 11 legs. On average the muscle strength was 56% of control values at the first examination, and decreased by another 8% during the observation period. The muscle fiber area was increased compared to that of controls and did not change significantly. Macro EMG, comprising muscle fiber area and number of muscle fibers, and/or single fiber EMG showed clear signs of reinnervation in all legs. The motor units at the first examination were increased 11-fold, on average, compared with age-matched control values. During the observation period, reinnervation continued and the size of motor units increased by another 56% as a result of ongoing denervation, that is, loss of neurons. This compensation was particularly pronounced in patients with stable conditions. The parameters studied did not reveal any definite pattern predicting future development of new muscle weakness in individual subjects.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
Loss of motor unit size and quadriceps strength over 10 years in post-polio syndrome
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether strength decline in post-polio syndrome (PPS) results from excessive distal axonal degeneration of enlarged motor units.

METHODS: We assessed changes over 10 years in isometric quadriceps strength, mean motor unit action potential (MUAP) size, root mean squared (RMS) amplitude, and level of interference (LOI) in 47 patients with PPS and 12 healthy controls, using high density surface EMG. At baseline, all patients had symptomatic quadriceps dysfunction, evidenced by transmission defects on single-fibre EMG.

RESULTS: MU size and strength declined significantly by 20% and 15%, respectively in patients with PPS. Those with the largest initial MU sizes exhibited the greatest losses of mean MU size (27%) and proportional decreases in quadriceps strength (23%). Initial strength, change in LOI and change in RMS amplitude together explained 35% of the variability in strength changes in patients. MU size of controls did not change, although they lost 29% strength.

SIGNIFICANCE: This long term follow-up study provides evidence that size diminution of enlarged MUs combined with a reduced number of active MUs contributes to the gradual strength decline in PPS.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
Repeater F-waves are signs of motor unit pathology in polio survivors
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine whether F-waves reveal electrophysiological features of anterior horn cells in polio survivors.

METHODS: Forty-three polio survivors and 20 healthy controls underwent motor nerve conduction studies of the median and tibial nerves bilaterally, including sampling of F-waves elicited by 100 stimuli and the determination of motor unit number estimation (MUNE).

RESULTS: A significant increase in abnormally stereotyped ("repeater") F-waves and a reduction of F-wave persistence were observed in both nerves in the polio group as compared with the control group. Repeater F-waves had a negative correlation with MUNE.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
Polioencephalitis and the Brain Fatigue Generator Model of Post-Viral Fatigue Syndromes
Fatigue is the most commonly reported and most debilitating Post-Polio Sequelae (PPS) affecting millions of polio survivors world-wide. Post-polio fatigue is associated with: 1) subjective reports of difficulty with attention, cognition, word-finding and maintaining wakefulness; 2) clinically significant deficits on neuropsychological tests of information processing speed and attention; 3) gray and white matter hyperintensities in the reticular activating system on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain; 4) neuroendocrine evidence of impaired activation of the HPA axis. Many of these findings are identical to those documented following a variety of viral encephalitides, including acute poliovirus infection, lethargic encephalitis, Iceland Disease, myalgic encephalomyelitis, and, most recently, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. The clinical, historic, neuropsychologic, neuroanatomic and physiologic parallels between poliovirus infection, post-polio fatigue and post-viral fatigue syndromes (PVFS) will be explored in an attempt to describe the pathophysiology of PVFS. The disinhibition of a putative Brain Fatigue Generator will be implicated as a cause of the subjective symptoms and objective signs that accompany PVFS. The results of a pilot placebo-controlled study of a dopamine 2 receptor agonist to treat post-polio fatigue will also be described.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
Correlation of Electrophysiology with Pathology, Pathogenesis, and Anticholinesterase Therapy in Post-Polio Syndrome
Post-Polio Motor Unit
Stimulation frequency-dependent neuromuscular junction transmission defects in patients with prior poliomyelitis
Generalized fatigue and muscle fatiguability are major symptoms of post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS), and may be due to neuromuscular junction transmission defects, as suggested by increased jitter on single fiber electromyography (SFEMG). To determine the etiology of this defect, we studied jitter at low (1, 5 Hz) and high (10, 15, 20 Hz) frequency stimulation with stimulation SFEMG in 17 post-polio patients with muscle fatiguability, and in 9 normal controls. In 5 of 17 PPS patients and in 1 of 9 controls, jitter was significantly higher (unpaired t-test, P < 0.05) at high frequency stimulation (HFS). In the remaining PPS patients and controls there was no significant difference in jitter at high and low stimulation frequencies. PPS patients with increased jitter at HFS had a significantly longer time interval since acute polio (mean 48.5 years) than PPS patients without increased jitter at HFS (mean 40 years; P < 0.05), but were not distinguished by other historical or clinical criteria. We conclude that the neuromuscular junction defect in post-polio patients is similar to that observed in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and is probably due to ineffective conduction along immature nerve sprouts and exhaustion of acetylcholine stores. The appearance of an increase in jitter with HFS in post-polio patients may be dependent upon time after acute polio.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
Electrophysiology and Electrodiagnosis of the Post-Polio Motor Unit
Post-poliomyelitis syndrome refers to new symptoms that may occur years after recovery from poliomyelitis. The most common of these symptoms are new weakness, fatigue, and pain. This article describes electrodiagnostic studies -- conventional electromyography (EMG), single fiber electromyography (SFEMG), and macroelectromyography (macro-EMG) -- that have provided information on the post-polio motor unit and on the possible etiology of some post-polio syndrome symptoms. Muscular fatigue, and indirectly, general fatigue, may be due to neuromuscular junction transmission defects in some post-polio individuals, as suggested by reduction of the compound motor action potentials on repetitive stimulation, and increased jitter and blocking on SFEMG. Progressive weakness and atrophy in post-polio syndrome is probably due to a distal degeneration of post-polio motor units with resultant irreversible muscle fiber denervation. Electrodiagnostic evidence of ongoing denervation includes fibrillation and fasciculation potentials on conventional EMG, increased jitter and blocking on SFEMG, and smaller macro-EMG amplitudes in newly weakened postpolio muscles. However, even though electrodiagnostic studies have provided insight into the possible causes of some postpolio syndrome symptoms, no specific electrodiagnostic test for the syndrome is currently available.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
Electrodiagnostic Findings in 108 Consecutive Patients Referred to a Post-Polio Clinic – The Value of Routine Electrodiagnostic Studies
Many patients with a history of polio develop new symptoms including weakness, pain, fatigue, and changes in function, or post-polio syndrome (PPS).[1] Before a diagnosis of PPS is made, other diagnoses must first be ruled out. Assessment must be done in a comprehensive and coordinated manner.[2] Therefore, as part of our routine evaluation, we do an electromyogram/nerve conduction study (EMG/NCS) on every patient. During examinations on our clinic patients we began to notice (1) electrodiagnostic evidence of polio in limbs not previously felt to be involved; (2) a normal EMG, or evidence of another disease; and (3) EMG evidence consistent with additional neurological lesions, including compression neuropathies, peripheral neuropathies, and radiculopathies. A prospective study using a routine, standardized four-extremity electrodiagnostic protocol was done to quantify the frequency of these occurrences.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
Muscle Function, Muscle Structure, and Electrophysiology in a Dynamic Perspective in Late Polio
The muscular impairment in patients with a history of polio varies from none to severe. The relationship between the degree of initial involvement and the effect of various compensatory mechanisms determines the clinical picture, which changes dynamically. Early and late recovery after poliomyelitis depend on a number of factors. Clinical improvement that appears within a few weeks after the acute phase is probably due to recovery in the excitability of functional, but not degenerated, motor neurons. Degeneration of neurons, causing peripheral denervation, is compensated by collateral sprouting, i.e., by nerve twigs branching off from surviving motor units overlapping with the denervated ones. This is most likely the main factor explaining recovery within the first 6-12 months. Another late compensatory process is the increase in size of the muscle fibers. As a result of these processes, normal muscle strength and presumably normal muscle volume can be seen despite a calculated loss exceeding 50% of the number of motor neurons.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
How long does denervation take in poliomyelitis? Or is it a lifetime?
Background and Objective: This study aims to determine the period of reinnervation in patients with poliomyelitis. This research was conducted to identify the appearance of denervation potentials in patients with poliomyelitis as indicators for reinnervation.

Materials and Methods: A total of 246 male patients with poliomyelitis were assessed electrophysiologically between 1988 and 2007. The mean age was 22.8 (18–42). It has been an average of 19.9 ± 4.9 years since the beginning of complaints from the patients.

Results: The patients had no complaints of newly developing muscle weakness, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, and difficulties in breathing and swallowing. Neurological examinations revealed the absence of myotomal pain and sensory loss. Upon assessment of the patients' limbs, the following findings were revealed: two patients had left upper and lower limb involvement, two patients had left upper and right lower limb involvement, 6 patients had left upper limb involvement, 12 patients had both lower limb involvement, 105 patients had left lower limb involvement, 1 patient had both upper limb involvement, 2 patients had right lower and upper limb involvement, 12 patients had right upper limb involvement, 6 patients had both lower limb involvement, 95 patients had right lower limb involvement, and 3 had all the three extremities affected. The needle electromyography revealed the presence of denervation potentials in 25.2% (62) of the patients.

Conclusion: When poliovirus attacks the motor neuron, this neuron may be completely destroyed, damaged, or unaffected. Reinnervation occurs when nearby functioning motor units send out terminal axon sprouts to reinnervate the damaged muscle fibers. As a consequence of poliomyelitis, several muscle fibers become atrophic and fibrotic, but others continue to survive. This study showed that patients with a history of poliomyelitis experienced denervation with subsequent reinnervation for many years.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
Neuromuscular function in polio survivors at one-year follow-up.
Many polio survivors complain of progressive loss of strength, work capacity, endurance, and ability to recover from fatiguing activity. These variables were measured initially and one year later in the quadriceps muscles of 28 symptomatic and 16 asymptomatic persons who had polio and 38 control individuals. Peak knee extension torque was measured isokinetically and isometrically. Endurance, or the amount of time the subject could maintain isometric torque at 40% of maximal torque, was measured. Work capacity was determined as the product of isometric torque and endurance time. Recovery of strength was measured at regular intervals for ten minutes after the endurance test. Statistical analysis was done by repeated measures ANOVA. Although the initial measures showed significant deficits in mean peak torque, work capacity, and recovery of strength in symptomatic postpolio subjects, no significant changes were found one year later in any of the variables.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
Correlation of motor units with strength and spectral characteristics in polio survivors and controls
The purpose of this study was to determine whether quantitative motor unit analysis in postpolio individuals correlates with muscle strength, endurance, work capacity, or power spectral characteristics of surface EMG and to determine whether power spectrum differentiates postpolio from control subjects. This study was designed to compare these variables in 34 symptomatic postpolio, 16 asymptomatic postpolio, and 41 control subjects. Quantitative motor unit analysis of the quadriceps femoris muscle was performed using a concentric needle electrode. Isometric knee extension peak torque, endurance (time to exhaustion) at 40% of maximal torque, work capacity (tension time index), and recovery of force through 10 minutes post-exhaustion were determined. Median frequency of the surface power spectrum was determined during the above testing. Power spectrum histograms were compared at the onset and termination of endurance exercise. Motor unit action potential variables did not correlate with isometric peak torque, tension time index, endurance time, recovery of strength, or with median frequency. Surface power spectrum did not differentiate postpolio from control subjects.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
Macro electromyography and motor unit number index in the tibialis anterior muscle: differences and similarities in characterizing motor unit properties in prior polio
Our objective was to establish the usefulness of the noninvasive method of the motor unit number index (MUNIX) in a large muscle and to study how macro electromyography (EMG) and MUNIX complement each other in describing the motor units (MUs) in prior polio. MUNIX and macro EMG were performed in 48 tibialis anterior muscles in 33 prior polio patients. In addition, the reproducibility of MUNIX was investigated. It is shown that MUNIX can be used to characterize MUs with high reproducibility, even in a large muscle. As judged by MUNIX values, the patients had a 25% reduction of motor neurons, whereas the macro EMG indicated a loss of 60% of the neurons. Macro EMG showed more pronounced changes compared with control material than the MUNIX. One of the reasons for this finding may be the difference in MU populations studied with the two methods.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
Changes in macro electromyography over time in patients with a history of polio: a comparison of 2 muscles.
To investigate whether changes over time are different in a weight-bearing leg muscle than in a less heavily used arm muscle.

Prospective study.

University hospital laboratory.

Twenty-three patients with a history of poliomyelitis.

Two investigations were performed 5 years apart, using macro electromyography and the patients' own assessments of symptoms in the tibial anterior and the biceps brachii muscles. Test-retest of macro electromyography was performed in controls and in patients with old polio.

Macro motor unit potential (MUP) and symptoms in the tibial anterior and biceps brachii over time.

The macro MUP amplitude increased by 24% (P<.05) in the tibial anterior but was unchanged in the biceps brachii muscle.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
Motor unit number estimation (MUNE)
Electrophysiologic testing of nerve and muscle function has played a critical role in the diagnosis of neuromuscular disease for over half a century. Advances in computer technology and technical refinements have enabled the development of more sophisticated electrodiagnostic methods, which are providing information on the motor nerve and its function in health and disease. Motor unit number estimation (MUNE) is a technique that can be used to determine the approximate number of motor neurons in a muscle or group of muscles. In addition, MUNE methods provide a means of measuring motor unit size, enabling tracking of both loss of motor units and the compensatory phenomenon of collateral reinnervation. MUNE is used most often in neuromuscular disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy.
This topic will review the methodology and utility of MUNE.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
CMAP scan and scanning EMG in the same muscle: Two cases with post-polio muscular atrophy
Post-polio muscular atrophy (PPMA) is characterized by new onset or increased weakness in patients with prior poliomyelitis after a stable period of time. Loss of highly reinnervated motor units during ageing has been accused for the development of this syndrome which is also known as “unstable-polio”. These patients have less number of motor units that can be estimated by conventional electrophysiological methods. By showing the large steps, CMAP scan provides information about the amount of collateral reinnervation in the construction of total muscle response (CMAP). As well as the number of motor units, their territory is also an object of curiosity. It is possible to record bioelectrical activity of motor unit lengthwise by scanning EMG and depict the temporal and spatial features of motor unit action potential (MUAP). This presentation aims to combine the findings in CMAP scan with scanning EMG and draw attention to reinnervation status of 2 PPMA patients whose tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were affected in different degrees.

Two patients aged 39and 41 years were included. Patient 1 had PPMA for 8 years and his TA muscle strength was 3-/5, whereas Patient 2 showed PPMA findings for 1 year and his TA strength was 4/5. CMAP scan of TA muscle on recently affected side was performed with a commercially available software. In scanning EMG, MU territories were scanned with a concentric needle electrode (CNE) which is attached to a stepper motor. Another CNE is used for sweep triggering with the rate of selected motor units’ firing frequency. Acquired signals were processed by the dedicated software designed by the authors.

CMAP scan of Patient 1 revealed a 1.65 mV CMAP constituting of 4 very large steps and Patient 2 revealed a 5.5 mV CMAP containing a few smaller steps. In scanning EMG, both patients’ motor units showed increased voltage in different parts corresponding to dense areas arisen from collateral reinnervation. Interestingly, the patient with more pronounced weakness for a longer period revealed both huge steps in his CMAP scan and also showed electrically silent areas in his scanned motor units. On the other hand, the patient with stronger TA muscle did not show very large steps or silent areas in his CMAP scan and MU scan, respectively.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
Are the nonparalytic muscles of polio survivors free from the risk of post-polio syndrome?
The aim of this study was to reveal the relation between the neurogenetic change in the nonparalytic muscles in upper and lower limbs of Polio survivors and the later muscle strength decline.

Material and method
Retrospective study. We looked back the data of electromyography (EMG) of Polio survivors in our Polio clinic (average age: 58.9). Muscles whose strength at EMG had been normal were extracted. We looked up the muscle strength at EMG time and two years later from medical record.

The subjects were 23 deltoid (middle strand), 40 biceps branchii, 36 triceps branchii, 24 vastus lateralis, 19 tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius (medial head). The ratio of neurogenic change subject (giant spike or interference pattern reduction) was, 30.4%, 25.0%, 36.1%, 62.5%, 47.4%, and 73.7%, respectively. In neurogenic change group of Biceps, 50.0% showed decline in their muscle strength. In non-neurogenic change group of Deltoid, 25.0% showed decline in their muscle strength.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
An algorithm for automatic detection of repeater F-waves and MUNE studies
The present study aims to develop an algorithm and software that automatically detects repeater F-waves which are very difficult to analyze when elicited as high number of recordings in motor unit number estimation studies. The main strategy of the study was to take the repeater F waves discriminated by the neurologist, from limited number of recordings, as the gold standard and to test the conformity of the results of the new automated method.

Ten patients with ALS and ten healthy controls were evaluated. 90 F-waves with supramaximal stimuli and 300 F-waves with submaximal stimuli were recorded. Supramaximal recordings were evaluated both manually by an expert neurologist and automatically by the developed software to test the performance of the algorithm. The results both acquired from the neurologist and from the software were found compatible. Therefore, the main expected impact of the present study is to make the analysis of repeater F waves easier primarily in motor unit number estimation studies, since there is currently a continuing need for such automated programs in clinical neurophysiology.

Submaximal recordings were examined only by the developed software. The extracted features were: maximum M response amplitude, mean power of M response, mean of sMUP values, MUNE value, number of baskets, persistence of F-waves, persistence of repeater F-waves, mean of F-waves’ powers, median of F-waves’ powers. Feature selection methods were also applied to determine the most valuable features. Various classifiers such as multi-layer perceptron (MLP), radial basis function network (RBF), support vector machines (SVM) and k nearest neighbors (k-NN) were tested to differentiate two classes. Initially all features, then decreased numbers of features after feature selection process were applied to the aforementioned classifiers. The classification performance usually increased when decreased features were applied to intelligent systems. Ulnar recordings under submaximal stimulation showed better performance when compared with supramaximal equivalents or median nerve equivalents. The highest performance was obtained as 90% with k-NN algorithm which was a committee decision based classifier. This result was achieved with only two features, namely mean of sMUP amplitude and MUNE value.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX) as a biomarker of motor unit loss in post-polio syndrome versus needle EMG
MUNIX method (Motor Unit Number Index) had been not used to assess number of motor neurons in post-polio syndrome in contrary to needle electromyography.

To confirm if MUNIX reflects motor unit loss and clinical stage and to assess difference in MUNIX and EMG results between muscles in different stage.

132 Muscles (MUNIX) and 96 (EMG) in 12 patients were studied and divided into groups: with normal strength(N), stable weakness and atrophy(S), new weakness and atrophy(W).

In PPS group MUNIX global was 561.36 ± 282.6 (right 6 muscles) and 561.27 ± 281.1 (left) significantly lower than in control group (six muscles 1139.6 ± 164.5) (p < 0.05). MUNIX global correlated with MRC global. MUNIX was greater in muscles with normal strength (95–100% of normal values) than in those with stable weakness (48%-0% of normal values) and new weakness (65%-0% of normal values). Respectively to clinical stage of muscle MUP (motor unit potential) amplitude increased to 350% of normal value, from 250% to 110%, and from 300% to 700%. No correlation was found between MUP parameters and MRC values.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
P66-S Corticospinal function in poliomyelitis survivors
Poliomyelitis survivors (PS) become candidates to post-polio syndrome (PPS) in their later lives. The mechanism of PPS has been suggested to be multifactorial involving cortical, spinal and peripheral mechanisThe aim of this study was to evaluate TMS parameters in PS and to compare them with those of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and controls.

Material and methods
Single and paired TMS, contralateral and ipsilateral silent period (SP) and triple stimulation technique (TST) were performed by recording from abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscles of 18 PS, 31 ALS patients and 21 controls. The results were compared with mixed ANOVA and nonparametric independent tests.

No significant difference was present for within and between subject factors except those for the different interstimuli intervals. Resting motor threshold and MEP/M% in ADM, MEP amplitudes and latencies and TST% in both ADM and APB were significantly different. In posthoc analyses, MEP latencies were higher and TST% were lower in both ADM and APB in ALS group (20.7 ± 4.2 ms, 22.4 ± 5.0 ms, 83.1 ± 42.2, 72.3 ± 29.9) as compared to PS (18.3 ± 1.0 ms, 19.2 ± 2.0 ms, 101.6 ± 15.9, 98.1 ± 14.9), MEP/M% in ADM were lower in PS group (56.0 ± 13.4) as compared to controls (85.2 ± 23.9). SPs, TST, MEP amplitudes and latencies and MEP/M amplitudes did not show any significant difference between ADM and APB in both patient groups.
Post-Polio Motor Unit
P63-S Insidious neuromuscular deterioration in polio survivors demonstrated by CMAP scan analysis.
This study aimed to explore the subtle motor unit(MU) changes in asymptomatic muscles of poliomyelitis survivors (PS) using CMAP Scan analysis.

Material and method
Nineteen PS cases and 21 controls were recruited. CMAP Scan recordings were obtained from asymptomatic thenar and hypothenar muscles. CMAP Scan parameters indicating nerve excitability [stimulus intensities producing 50%, 95% and 5% of the CMAP amplitude (SI%5, SI%50, SI%95), absolute range width (ARW) (SI%95-SI%5), relative width (RW) (SI95 − SI5)/SI5], all step parameters and D50 which reflect the MU motor unit loss and reinnervation were analyzed. The new motor unit number estimation (MUNE) method, MscanFit was also calculated.

There were no significant differences in ages, maximum CMAP amplitudes and MScanFit MUNE between the groups. PS group median and ulnar D50 values (46.76 ± 10.98, 46.19 ± 12.42 respectively) were lower than control group (37.21 ± 17.37, 36.44 ± 11.99) (p < 0.05). Median nerve,excitability parameters of patients (SI 5%; 14.81 ± 6.97, SI 50%; 19.07 ± 9.2, SI 95%; 24.06 ± 11.52), ARW (9.26 ± 5.79), RW (0.65 ± 0.31) were higher than those of the controls (SI 5%; 9.64 ± 2.57, SI 50%; 11.64 ± 3.27, SI 95%; 13.64 ± 3.66, ARW; 4.00 ± 1.56, RW; 0.42 ± 0.13) (p < 0.05). Median and ulnar nerve step size parameters, step number and step% in the patients were also significantly higher (p < 0.05).
Post-Polio Motor Unit
Motor unit number estimation: A technology and literature review
Introduction: Numerous methods for motor unit number estimation (MUNE) have been developed. The objective of this article is to summarize and compare the major methods and the available data regarding their reproducibility, validity, application, refinement, and utility.

Methods: Using specified search criteria, a systematic review of the literature was performed. Reproducibility, normative data, application to specific diseases and conditions, technical refinements, and practicality were compiled into a comprehensive database and analyzed.

Results: The most commonly reported MUNE methods are the incremental, multiple‐point stimulation, spike‐triggered averaging, and statistical methods. All have established normative data sets and high reproducibility. MUNE provides quantitative assessments of motor neuron loss and has been applied successfully to the study of many clinical conditions, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and normal aging.

Conclusions: MUNE is an important research technique in human subjects, providing important data regarding motor unit populations and motor unit loss over time.
Post-polio sequelae and the psychology of second disability
Thousands of persons who had poliomyelitis are reporting new physical symptoms that are eroding physical abilities, regained only after strenuous and lengthy rehabilitation, that were thought to have been permanently restored. These symptoms are causing persons to feel they are becoming disabled for a second time by the same disease. These new symptoms are psychologically traumatic also because they are unexpected, their cause is unknown and there is a lack of knowledge and understanding concerning them within the medical community. Society's negative and pejorative attitude toward the disabled is discussed to explain the psychological trauma associated with any first or second disability. Psychological processes that promote acceptance of disability are outlined with special emphasis on the post-polio experience. Post-polio support groups are described as one means to obtain the resources necessary to surmount the physical and psychological difficulties associated with post-polio sequelae.
Recognizing typical coping styles of polio survivors can improve re-rehabilitation – a commentary
This paper does not have an abstract
The psychology of polio as prelude to post-polio sequelae: behavior modification and psychotherapy
Even as the physical causes and treatments for post-polio sequelae (PPS) are being identified, psychological symptoms – chronic stress, anxiety, depression, and compulsive, Type A behavior – are becoming evident in polio survivors. Importantly, these symptoms are not only causing marked distress but are preventing patients from making the lifestyle changes necessary to treat their PPS. Neither clinicians nor polio survivors have paid sufficient attention to the acute polio experience, its conditioning of life-long patterns of behavior, its relationship to the development of PPS, and its effect on the ability of individuals to cope with and treat their new symptoms. We describe the acute polio and post-polio experiences on the basis of patient histories, relate the experience of polio to the development of compulsive, Type A behavior, link these behaviors to the physical and psychological symptoms reported in the National Post-Polio Surveys, and present a multimodal behavioral approach to treatment.
Coping with the late effects: differences between depressed and nondepressed polio survivors
This study examined differences between depressed and nondepressed individuals with a history of paralytic poliomyelitis in terms of demographics, health status and coping strategies. The prevalence of distress and depression in this group of 116 polio survivors was determined. Subjects completed the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Coping with Disability Inventory and a questionnaire concerning their polio histories and self-perceptions of health. Medical assessments were performed by physicians. Only 15.8% of the sample had scores indicating depression and elevated distress. Depressed/distressed polio survivors were more likely to: be living alone, be experiencing further health status deterioration, seek professional help, view their health as poor, report greater pain, be less satisfied with their occupational status and their lives in general and exhibit poorer coping outcome behaviors in relation to their disability. Three factors in coping with the late effects of polio were identified through a factor analysis of the Coping with Disability Inventory: positive self-acceptance, information seeking/sharing about the disability and social activism. Differences between depressed/distressed and other polio survivors were found across these three factors, with depressed/distressed subjects having significantly lower coping scores. These and other results are discussed.
Prevalence and associated features of depression and psychological distress in polio survivors
This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of psychological distress and depression among 116 polio survivors. It investigates demographic, medical, and coping differences between subjects with (n = 17) and without (n = 99) these symptoms. Subjects were administered the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Coping with Disability Inventory (CDI), and a questionnaire about their polio histories. The BSI provided measures of psychological distress and depression that defined the subgroups. The CDI assessed coping behaviors. BSI scores for the overall sample were within the normal range indicating no major distress, depression, nor elevated somatic complaints. Several significant differences were found between the two subgroups. On average, depressed/distressed subjects reported an increase in pain (p < .01) and further deterioration of their medical status since the time of their physical best subsequent to the onset of polio (p < .01). They consistently rated their health as poorer than did nondepressed/nondistressed subjects (p < .001). They also reported less satisfaction with life and their occupational status (p < .001) and displayed poorer coping behaviors combined (p < .001). Selected variables such as life satisfaction, pain, decrease in activity, and current living situation accounted for 51% of the variance when predicting distress and depression among this group of polio survivors.
Living with the late effects of disability: a five-year follow-up survey of coping among post-polio survivors
A follow-up survey of 176 people aged 33–77 yrs with postpolio syndrome found that while they were experiencing significantly less anxiety, uncertainty, depression, and helplessness concerning their increasing disability than 5 yrs ago, their feelings of anger persisted. Relationships were found between coping styles, breadth of coping attempted, and emotions experienced. Specifically, a coping style of focusing on symptoms while attempting to maintain previous activity levels characterized people who felt more helpless, depressed, and angry. Those who coped by accommodating to their symptoms had adopted more strategies. Coping strategies involving lifestyle and personal changes were rated as more effective than many treatments and interpersonal strategies. Findings highlight the need for health practitioners to tap into clients' knowledge when designing and evaluating appropriate rehabilitation programs.
Psychological resilience and depressive symptoms in older adults diagnosed with post-polio syndrome
Depression is a serious comorbidity in people with disabilities; however, few studies have focused on depressive symptoms in older adults with post-polio syndrome (PPS). This study used a resilience conceptual framework that focused on patient psychosocial strengths to investigate the relationship between psychological resilience factors (e.g., acceptance, self-efficacy, personal resources, interpersonal relationships, self-rated health, spiritual growth, stress management) and depressive symptoms in a large sample (N = 630) of people older than 65 years who were diagnosed with PPS. Forty percent of the sample scored > or = 10 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CES-D10), which is a higher percentage than what has been previously cited in other studies; however, 53% of the sample had good or excellent self-rated health, suggesting psychological resilience. Depression scores were regressed on seven selected resilience factors after controlling for functional limitations. Four of the seven variables accounted for 30% of the variance in depressive symptoms, with spiritual growth representing the main predictor (beta = -.26). The implications for rehabilitation nurses in developing a patient-strengths perspective in the assessment and counseling of older adults with PPS are discussed.
Long-standing poliomyelitis and psychological health
OBJECTIVE: To compare the psychological health of the individuals with long-standing poliomyelitis, with or without post-polio syndrome (PPS), to the general population and to identify the role of work as well as other variables with regard to their psychological health.

DESIGN: A cross-sectional study.

SUBJECTS: One hundred and ninety-five polio patients attending postpolio clinic in Jerusalem.

METHODS: Emotional distress (ED) was measured using the general health questionnaire (GHQ-12). Demographic, medical, social and functional data were recorded using a specific structured questionnaire. Each polio patient was compared to four age- and sex-matched controls.

RESULTS: ED was higher in the polio population as compared to the general population. Within the polio population ED was inversely correlated with work status. No correlation was found between ED and the functional level of polio participants and no difference was found in GHQ score between polio participants with or without post-polio. In addition, ED was less affected by subjective perception of physical health among polio patients as compared to the general population.
Illness narratives of persons with post-polio syndrome
This qualitative study investigated the lifetime illness experience of individuals with the 'late effects' of polio or post-polio syndrome. Fifteen individuals were interviewed twice about their illness experience and the interviews were transcribed verbatim. The empirical material first underwent a categorization process. The preliminary categories generated through this analysis were then condensed into broader categories which in the final analysis gave rise to the following temporal pattern or stages of the illness experience: (1) the acute phase of polio and subsequent treatment and care; (2) rehabilitation and care at institutions for the disabled; (3) adaptation to a new life; (4) living with the post-polio syndrome today, and finally, (5) memories of the past and apprehensions concerning the future. In spite of the difficult experiences of falling ill and slowly recovering from a life-threatening disease, these individuals have had a good life and accomplished most of their ambitions in the areas of work and family life. Their present psychosocial situation is complicated by the symptoms of the post-polio syndrome which make them more vulnerable to stress, but they are able to handle this burden except when any added strain makes it overwhelming. This potential vulnerability may sometimes express itself as a sudden flashback to traumatic polio experiences and it is therefore important that nurses are aware of the illness history of this patient group.
Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome: Assessment of Behavioral Features
Postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) is an increasingly recognized phenomenon characterized by late-onset weakness, pain, and fatigue. Psychiatric and cognitive disturbances have been noted in postpoliomyelitis patients, but the relationship of these symptoms to PPS is unknown. We examined postpoliomyelitis patients with and without PPS using objective neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric procedures. Our results suggest that disturbances of mood were common and that subtle cognitive deficits also occured in postpoliomyelitis patients. However, patients with PPS did not have greater depression or cognitive deficits compared to postpoliomyelitis patients without PPS. Key Words: Postpoliomyelitis syndrome, Mood disturbances, Cognitive deficits.
Stress and "Type A" Behavior as Precipitants of Post-Polio Sequelae: The Felician/Columbia Survey
A behavioral profile has begun to emerge from studies of persons who survived acute poliomyelitis and are now experiencing post-polio sequelae. Persons who had polio have been shown to be employed full time at four times the rate of the general disabled population (1,2). Persons who had polio have more years of formal education on average than the general population (3), and marry at approximately the same rate as those who are not disabled (4). These data, combined with our own experience with thousands of persons who had polio, indicated that "polio survivors" are competent, hard-driving and time-conscious overachievers who demand perfection in all aspects of their personal, professional, and social lives. It appeared that those who survived polio exhibit "Type A" behavior and would therefore experience chronic emotional stress.

The notion that individuals who had polio exhibit "Type A" behavior and experience chronic stress was thought to be extremely important for an understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of post-polio sequelae (PPS). Animal studies have demonstrated that stress accelerates the onset of muscle fatigue (5), augments age-related decreases in the terminal axon branch number (6), and accelerates age-related losses of neurons (7). Therefore, this study was designed to test 2 hypotheses: 1) persons who had poliomyelitis exhibit "Type A" behavior and symptoms pathognomonic of chronic stress, and 2) "Type A" behavior and stress precipitate or exacerbate PPS.
Childhood Health Shocks, Comparative Advantage, and Long-Term Outcomes: Evidence from the Last Danish Polio Epidemic
A large literature documents that childhood health shocks have lasting negative consequences for adult outcomes. This paper demonstrates that the adversity of childhood physical disability can be mediated by individuals' educational and occupational choices, which reflect their comparative advantage. We merge records on children hospitalized with poliomyelitis during the 1952 Danish epidemic to census and administrative data, and exploit quasi-random variation in paralysis incidence. While childhood disability increases the likelihood of early retirement and disability pension receipt at age 50, paralytic polio survivors obtain higher education and are more likely to work in white-collar and computer-demanding jobs than their non-paralytic counterparts.
Growing up with a disability following paralytic poliomyelitis: experiences from persons with late effects of polio
Purpose: To describe the experiences of growing up after acute paralytic poliomyelitis and strategies used to adapt to the new situation.

Methods: Seven women and seven men (mean age 70 years, min–max 61–78 years) with late effects of polio, who had contracted paralytic polio in their childhood. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by systematic text condensation.

Results: Memories of contracting acute paralytic poliomyelitis involved being immobilized and sent away from home for surgical and physiotherapeutic treatment. Growing up in a social context that was often tough and unfriendly resulted in the development of strategies, such as optimistic thinking, trying to blend in, trusting one’s ability to manage, and to handle the preconceptions and expectations of others. At the onset of late effects of polio, some of these strategies were still functioning, whereas overachieving, disregarding pain, and weariness were not.

Conclusion: The challenges of growing up with a disability following paralytic polio led to the development of various psychological strategies for managing daily life. By understanding these experiences and strategies, knowledge may be gained in assisting rehabilitation professionals to better support persons with late effects of polio in adapting to the new situation.
Psychological Trauma and Its Treatment in the Polio Epidemics
In this paper, I explore the kinds of psychological trauma experienced by polio patients in the mid-twentieth century in the United States. I argue that the trauma was the result of the experience of sudden paralysis, the conditions under which patients were treated, and the expectations for rehabilitation derived from the psychosocial context of the period. Psychiatric and psychological counseling in hospitals was only beginning to be offered in this period, and most polio patients received little or no counseling or assistance in dealing with their psychological problems. Contemporary psychological studies suggest that many polio patients suffered from psychological problems but that they were relatively mild. However, compared with the many studies of the physical problems of polio patients, there were relatively few studies of the psychological issues associated with the disease. The narratives and memoirs of polio survivors vividly testify to the psychological burden they experienced as patients during both the acute phase of the illness and during rehabilitation.
Healthy together: A systematic review of theory and techniques used in health interventions for persons with chronic neurological conditions and their caregivers
To evaluate the level of theory application and use of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) in dyadic health interventions for persons with chronic neurological conditions (CNCs) and their caregivers.

A systematic review of five databases was conducted to locate articles published before January 2019. Methodological quality was assessed, study characteristics, theory application and BCTs were narratively summarized.

More than half of the studies identified (59% [16/27]) did not mention theory, and only 22% (6/27) were explicitly theory-based. Across the 27 studies, two to 17 BCTs (mean = 6.8 ± 4.02) were used. Common BCTs were related to intervention implementation (e.g., credible source), knowledge (e.g., instruction on how to perform behaviour) and skill development (e.g., behavioural practice/rehearsal).
Psychiatric Approaches and Outcomes
In 1946, Morton Seidenfeld was appointed director of psychological services for the National Federation for Infantile Paralysis (NFIP). He believed that once polio’s acute phase ended, 75% to 90% of a patient’s needs had a psychological component that should be addressed by making psychological services an integral part of the care provided.1 Despite his advocacy (seen as newsworthy enough to be reported by The New York Times2), his vision never was realized. Few polio rehabilitation programs included mental health professionals. The vast majority of those that included mental health facets provided only the most cursory services. Seidenfeld’s 1952 survey of the polio literature showed that less than 2% focused on psychological needs.1

Based on the negative memories of interactions with mental health professionals reported in polio survivors’ memoirs,3,4 it may be just as well. Mid–twentieth century psychotherapy’s psychoanalytic framework was ill suited to address issues related to medical trauma or disability. The few pioneers in the new specialty of rehabilitation psychology subscribed to what had been referred to as the “polio zeitgeist,”5 guiding patients toward a form of emotional, social, and cognitive “adjustment” analogous to the physical and occupational therapist’s efforts to make polio bodies acceptable to the cultural surround they would need to inhabit in order to succeed.

And succeed they did, becoming the best educated, highest achieving, and most frequently married of all people with disabilities. This success came at a high price, exacting a physical toll in the form of post-polio syndrome (PPS). As Seidenfeld predicted, it exacted a psychological toll as well. In the postwar era, when the specialty of rehabilitation psychology was coming into being, providing psychological services in general hospitals and rehabilitation units was a radical idea. Now, although it is common to find mental health professionals providing care in rehabilitation settings, accessing polio-informed mental health care remains challenging due to lack of information and awareness about polio and the number of polio survivors in the population at large.

The goal of this article is to help those already working with this population, in particular
medical providers, infuse psychological principles into their work. Providers ought to know how to find and integrate mental health professionals into their teams and/or make appropriate community referrals. Mental health professionals currently working with polio survivors must consider ways of expanding this work and encourage those trained in working with chronic illness, physical disability, and psychological trauma to develop an interest in joining their ranks. After a brief review of the literature, discussions around the psychological issues polio survivors face, the provision of polioinformed mental health treatment, and ways providers and clinics can address mental health issues that may arise during medical treatment. Finally, this article explores future directions for providing polio-informed mental health services, including the promise of telehealth to expand such services and the need to train the next generation of providers.

A word about terminology. For the purposes of the article, ‘polio survivor’ is used to refer to any individual with a history of polio. Mental health professional or psychotherapist is used if a specialty (eg, psychiatry, psychology, social work, or licensed counseling) is irrelevant. Provider generically refers to any provider, including mental health professionals.

Although polio survivors benefit from addressing the energy drain created by unresolved mental health issues, their psychological needs often are overlooked.

Polio-informed psychological treatment and medical treatment informed by the survivor’s psychological needs enable patients to address polio within a whole-life context.

By providing empathic support for their patients’ mental health needs, physicians and other medical providers can create a culture of mental health within the polio clinic.

Post-polio syndrome, Psychotherapy, Medical trauma
Quality of Life
The association between post-polio symptoms as measured by the Index of Post-Polio Sequelae and self-reported functional status
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between self-reported severity of polio sequelae and current functional status among polio survivors.

METHODS: This was a cross sectional study of 195 polio survivors attending a polio outpatient clinic at a university hospital. The main outcome measures of demographic, medical, social, and functional data were gleaned from a questionnaire adapted for the polio population. The severity of polio sequelae was evaluated with the self-reported Index of Post-Polio Sequelae (IPPS).

RESULTS: The mean age of our sample was 57.6 ± 10.5 years, 53% were men, 38% had acquired higher education and 37% were employed. We found significant correlations between the total IPPS score and independence in activity of daily living (P<0.05), the use of walking aids (P<0.005) and mobility in and out-of-doors (P<0.0001). A positive correlation was also found between the total IPPS score and subjective assessment of physical and mental health (P<0.0001).
Quality of Life
Quality of life in Swedish patients with post-polio syndrome with a focus on age and sex
To investigate the health-related quality of life (QOL) in Swedish patients with post-polio syndrome (PPS), with a focus on sex and age. A total of 364 patients were recruited from five Swedish post-polio clinics. Analysis was carried out using SF-36 and data were compared with those of a normal population. QOL was significantly lower in PPS patients for all eight subdomains and the two main scores (physical compound score and mental compound score) when compared with the controls. Male patients had a significantly higher QOL than female patients for all subdomains and also for mental compound score and physical compound score, a phenomenon also observed in the normal population. There was a decrease in QOL in the physical domains and an increase in vitality with age. PPS decreases health-related QOL in both sexes, more in female patients. QOL for physical domains decreases whereas vitality increases with age in both sexes.
Quality of Life
Post-polio syndrome: impact of hope on quality of life
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of future-oriented coping strategies on the quality of life (QOL) of individuals with post-polio syndrome (PPS).

METHODS: A correlative study, in which a cohort of 61 patients was surveyed and a group of 40 healthy, age-matched individuals served as controls. Patients were surveyed as to their QOL, levels of hope and utilization of proactive coping, employment status and degree of functionality.

RESULTS: PPS patients had lower total, physical and mental QOL indices compared to controls. Future-oriented coping strategies associated with hope were positively associated with physical and mental QOL in the PPS group, but not in the controls. In a multivariate analysis, hope and employment status predicted higher QOL among those with PPS.
Quality of Life
Impact of post-polio-related fatigue on quality of life
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of post-polio-related fatigue on quality of life.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional case control study.

SUBJECTS: Patients without additional health problems that may induce fatigue were selected from among 82 polio survivors. Twenty-six patients with post-polio syndrome and 10 without post-polio syndrome were included. Control group consisted of 30 healthy volunteers.

METHODS: We assessed presence and severity of fatigue by Fatigue Severity Scale, quality of life by Nottingham Health Profile, and impact of fatigue on quality of life by Fatigue Impact Scale. Leg muscle strength was measured by manual muscle testing.

RESULTS: Strength of leg muscles showed no differences between the patients with and without post-polio syndrome. Patients with post-polio syndrome reported significantly higher levels of fatigue and reduced quality of life compared with both patients without post-polio syndrome and control group. Fatigue Impact Scale revealed that fatigue did not significantly impair mental health, but had a negative impact especially on physical and psychosocial functioning of the patients with post-polio syndrome.
Quality of Life
Health related quality of life in Turkish polio survivors: impact of post-polio on the health related quality of life in terms of functional status, severity of pain, fatigue, and social, and emotional functioning
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of postpolio-syndrome on quality of life in polio survivors.

METHODS: Forty polio survivors were included in the study. Twenty-one patients fulfilling the Halstead's postpolio-syndrome criteria participated in postpolio-syndrome group. The remaining nineteen patients formed non-postpolio-syndrome group. Control group was composed of forty healthy subjects. Quality of life was evaluated by Nottingham Health Profile, depression by Beck Depression Scale and fatigue by Fatigue Symptom Inventory. Isometric muscle strength was measured by manual muscle testing.

RESULTS: Total manual muscle testing score was 26.19 ± 13.24 (median: 29) in postpolio-syndrome group and 30.08 ± 8.9 (median: 32) in non-postpolio-syndrome group. Total manual muscle testing scores of non-postpolio-syndrome group were significantly higher than that of postpolio-syndrome group. Patients with postpolio-syndrome reported significantly higher levels of fatigue and reduced quality of life in terms of physical mobility, pain and energy when compared with patients without postpolio-syndrome and control group. It was not reported a statistically significant difference in social and emotional functioning and sleep quality between postpolio-syndrome, non-postpolio-syndrome and control groups. Also it was not found any statistically significant difference in Beck Depression Scale scores among the groups.
Quality of Life
Surviving polio in a post-polio world
Excitement mounts as the global health and international development communities anticipate a polio-free world. Despite substantial political and logistical hurdles, only 223 cases of wild poliovirus in three countries were reported in 2012. Down 99% from the estimated 350,000 annual cases in 125 countries in 1988—this decline signals the imminent global eradication of polio.

However, elimination of new polio cases should not also signal an end to worldwide engagement with polio. As many as 20 million continue to live with the disabling consequences of the disease. In developed countries where polio immunization became universal after dissemination of the polio vaccine in the 1950s, almost all individuals who have had polio are now above age 50. But in many developing countries where polio vaccination campaigns reached large segments of the population only after 1988, millions disabled by polio are still children or young adults. Demographically, this group is also different. After three decades of immunization efforts, those children unvaccinated in the late 1980s were more likely to be from poorer rural and slum communities and to be girls—groups not only harder to reach than more affluent members of the population but also individuals who, if they contract polio, are less likely to have access to medical and rehabilitation programs or education, job training, employment and social support services.

The commitment to eradicate polio should not be considered complete while those living with the disabling sequelae of polio continue to live in poor health, poverty and social isolation. This paper reviews what is currently known about disabled survivors of polio and highlights areas of need in public health research, policy and programming. Based on a literature review, discussion and field observations, we identify continuing challenges posed by polio and argue that the attention, funding and commitment now being directed towards eradication be shifted to provide for the rehabilitative, medical, educational and social needs of those for whom the disabling sequelae of polio will remain a daily challenge for decades to come.
Quality of Life
Polio survivors' perceptions of the meaning of quality of life and strategies used to promote participation in everyday activities
INTRODUCTION: The term ‘post-polio syndrome’ (PPS) is used to describe new and late manifestations of poliomyelitis that occur later in life. Research in this area has focused upon health status rather than its effect on quality of life.

AIM: To gain an in-depth understanding of the meaning of quality of life for polio survivors and to determine the type of strategies that are used by people with PPS and the support that they consider as important to facilitate participation in everyday life activities that have an impact on their quality of life.

METHOD: Six focus groups were conducted with 51 participants from two regions in England. Data were audio-taped and analysed using thematic analysis.

RESULTS: Our research found that polio survivors used terms used to describe quality of life which could be associated with that of happiness. Our research has identified resolvable factors that influence quality of life namely inaccessible environments, attitudes of health-care professionals and societal attitudes. Polio survivors have tried alternative therapies, chiefly acupuncture and massage, and found them to be effective in enhancing their quality of life.
Quality of Life
Factors associated with reduced quality of life in polio survivors in Korea
The purpose of this study is to assess health-related quality of life in polio survivors (PS) compared with that in the general population in Korea. Polio survivors (n = 120) from outpatient clinics at two hospitals, healthy controls (HC, n = 121) and members of the general population with activity limitations (AL, n = 121) recruited through a proportional-allocation, systematic sampling strategy from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were surveyed with self-rated health-related quality of life (Euro QoL five-dimensions). The proportion of participants who reported problems in mobility, usual activity, and symptoms of anxiety/depression were higher in the PS group compared with the HC and AL groups. There was no significant difference in the self-care dimension across the groups. Polio-specific questionnaire, pain, depression, fatigue, Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) were assessed in the PS group. Those with post-poliomyelitis syndrome had greater problems in mobility, usual activity, and depression/anxiety. Polio survivors, especially those with more pain and fatigue symptoms, and those who did not have access to medical services had poorer health-related quality of life. These findings afford useful information for potential intervention improving quality of life in polio survivors.
Quality of Life
The influence of post-polio syndrome on independence and life satisfaction
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to find out the influence of the new symptoms on life satisfaction and independent living and the most frequent disabilities in patients with post-polio syndrome that are affecting the satisfaction and independence.

METHOD: A questionnaire was sent to all the post-polio survivors (207) who visited the Rehabilitation Institute in Ljubljana at least once in the last ten years. We got 100 answers, which were analysed by SPSS (statistical package for social sciences).

RESULTS: Sixty nine reported that they had new symptoms that may be classified as post-polio syndrome.
Quality of Life
Survey of the Late Effects of Polio in Lothian
The Edinburgh Branch of the British Polio Fellowship (BPF) expressed the concern of members that the medical and related professions often appeared unfamiliar with the late consequences of polio and that services were not meeting their needs. In an attempt to determine the number of people affected and the nature of their experience, this postal survey was done in 1998.

A set of questionnaires were sent to 221 people, in Edinburgh and the Lothians, who had been identified as suffering polio in the past from those known to the BPF and hospital records. There were 125 replies which constituted the study population: 60% were female; the median age was 59 years; and the median time since original diagnosis was 51 years.

Common symptoms were: cold intolerance (70%); fatigue (66%); increased weakness in previously affected muscles (67%); new weakness in unaffected muscles (60%); muscle pain (64%); joint pain (61%); and joint stiffness (64%). These symptoms were often of recent onset. Other complaints included sleep disturbance (63%); exertional breathlessness (56%); headaches (33%); and swallowing difficulty (18%).

In terms of disability: 78% had difficulty with stairs; 72% with walking and 70% with bending. This was reflected in over a third reporting difficulty getting outdoors without help. Motor problems affecting upper limbs were present in over half the subjects. Daily activities were restricted because of severe pain in 38%. Over half (55%) the study population described difficulty living alone. The major factors restricting the lives of the subjects were physical problems, lack of energy and pain.

During the preceding 5 years, contact with health services were: hospital clinic 62%; physiotherapy 46%; occupational therapy 29%; speech therapy 2%; orthotics 40%; and wheelchair service 42%. The majority described satisfaction with these services but further study is warranted.

A conservative estimate is that there are about 300 people in Edinburgh and the Lothians with the range of difficulties demonstrated in this study and we suggest that special provision is made for them.
Quality of Life
The health-related quality of life of patients suffering from the late effects of polio (post-polio).
In Sweden alone, there are today approximately 10 000-16 500 polio survivors. Between 60% and 80% experience new symptoms several years after the initial attack of poliomyelitis. The aims of this study were to investigate and describe the self-rated health-related quality of life and functional status of a group of Swedish patients with post-polio, to investigate whether any differences within the group could be related to demographic or disease-specific data and to compare the post-polio patients with individuals sampled from the general population. Data were obtained by using two questionnaires, the Swedish Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWED-QUAL) and the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP). A total of 150 patients, 86 women and 64 men with median age 61 (20-82) years, were consecutively included. The study showed that the patients mainly reported that their physical, functional status was affected by their post-polio condition. Factors found to be associated with the physical, functional status were age and the number of parts of the body affected by the polio. On comparing the post-polio patients with two samples from the Swedish general population, it was found that the patients reported a poorer functional status and health-related quality of life. The women with post-polio reported more pain, as compared with both the men with post-polio and the women in the general population sample. The family life of the patients - in contrast to their physical abilities - did not seem to be affected by the new deteriorating condition. It is concluded that, owing to the wide range of symptoms, the patients with post-polio need care and support from multidisciplinary teams, including nurses and occupational therapists.
Quality of Life
Quality of life for post-polio syndrome: a patient derived, Rasch standard scale.
To design a disease-specific quality of life (QoL) questionnaire for people with post-polio syndrome (PPS).

Qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 people with PPS to identify themes and derive potential items reflecting impact upon QoL. After cognitive debriefing, these were made into a questionnaire pack along with comparative questionnaires and posted to 319 patients. The 271 (85%) returned questionnaires were subjected to exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Rasch analysis.

A 25 item scale, the post-polio quality of life scale (PP-QoL), showed good fit to the Rasch model (conditional chi-square p = 0.156), unidimensionality (% t-tests 2.0: CI 0.7-3.8), and Cronbach's alpha of 0.87. With the latent estimate transformed to a 0-100 scale, the mean score was 56.9 (SD 18.5) with only 3.3% of respondents at the floor or ceiling of the scale. Test-retest reliability showed an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (2.1) of 0.916, and correlation of 0.85.
Quality of Life
Growing older with post-polio syndrome: Social and quality-of-life implications
Objectives: To understand the quality-of-life implications for post-polio syndrome survivors.
Methods: For this qualitative study, a focus group methodology, with a case study design, was used. The data were analyzed
for themes using a social ecological conceptual framework.
Results: Three focus groups were conducted with a total of 24 participants (N=24). Participants defined quality of life as
being able to engage in meaningful activities of daily living. Participants shared experiences of adapting to declining physical
health and embracing new activities of daily living. They expressed hope and shared stories that demonstrated resiliency.
Quality of Life
Sleep Disorders in Neuromuscular Diseases
Disturbances in sleep are common in patients with neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) and are the source of a significant amount of morbidity.Underlying these disorders of sleep are the physiologic alterations that result from progressive changes in muscle strength, effective ventilation, and control of respiration. This review will discuss the normal changes that occur during sleep, how the physiologic alterations present in neuromuscular and chest wall disorders affect these normal processes, how to assess patients for the presence of sleep disorders, and how to approach treatment.
Quality of Life
Multiple Chronic Medical Conditions and Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Adults, 2004–2006
Understanding longitudinal relationships among multiple chronic conditions, limitations in activities of daily living, and health-related quality of life is important for identifying potential opportunities for health promotion and disease prevention among older adults.

This study assessed longitudinal associations between multiple chronic conditions and limitations in activities of daily living on health-related quality of life among older adults (≥65 years) from 2004 through 2006, using data from the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (N = 27,334).

Using a longitudinal path model, we found the numbers of chronic conditions at baseline and 2-year follow-up were independently associated with more limitations in activities of daily living at 2-year follow-up. In addition, more limitations in activities of daily living at 2-year follow-up were associated with worse health-related quality of life during the follow-up time period. The association between multiple chronic conditions and indices of health-related quality of life was mediated by changes in limitations in activities of daily living.
Quality of Life
Perceived consequences of ageing with late effects of polio and strategies for managing daily life: a qualitative study
New or increased impairments may develop several decades after an acute poliomyelitis infection. These new symptoms, commonly referred to as late effects of polio (LEoP), are characterised by muscular weakness and fatigue, generalised fatigue, pain at rest or during activities and cold intolerance. Growing older with LEoP may lead to increased activity limitations and participation restrictions, but there is limited knowledge of how these persons perceive the practical and psychological consequences of ageing with LEoP and what strategies they use in daily life. The aim of this qualitative study was therefore to explore how ageing people with LEoP perceive the their situation and what strategies they use for managing daily life.

Seven women and seven men (mean age 70 years) were interviewed. They all had a confirmed history of acute poliomyelitis and new impairments after a stable period of at least 15 years. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using systematic text condensation.

The latent analysis resulted in three categories ‘Various consequences of ageing with LEoP’, ‘Limitations in everyday activities and participation restrictions’, and ‘Strategies for managing daily life when ageing with LEoP’ and 12 subcategories. The new impairments led to decreased physical and mental health. The participants perceived difficulties in performing everyday activities such as managing work, doing chores, partaking in recreational activities and participating in social events, thereby experiencing emotional and psychological distress. They managed to find strategies that mitigated their worries and upheld their self-confidence, for example finding practical solutions, making social comparisons, minimising, and avoidance.
Quality of Life
Quality of life and health conditions reported from two post-polio clinics in Israel.
To evaluate the perceptions of health and quality of life among a group of polio survivors in Israel and to identify potential activities for improving their quality of life.

An observational study.

The sample consisted of 101 polio survivors who sought treatment at 2 post-polio clinics in Israel. The majority of participants were between the ages of 45 and 65 years, and approximately 25% were wheelchair-bound.

Participants were invited to attend a seminar, where they were invited to complete a questionnaire on demographic variables, mobility, perceptions of and satisfaction with health status and quality of life, and the potential contribution of 16 activities to improve their quality of life.

Participants had low physical scores and normative mental scores. Mean scores on the Short-Form-12 questionnaire for physical and mental components were 32.9 and 50.3, respectively. Approximately 70% expressed the belief that exposure to up-to-date information about post-polio, as well as participation in social activities, might improve their quality of life.
Quality of Life
Disability and quality of life in individuals with postpolio syndrome.
The purpose of the study is to investigate disability and quality of life in individuals with the characteristic symptoms of postpolio syndrome.

Disability is assessed by means of the self-report activities of daily living instrument, and quality of life by means of Kaasa's questionnaire and the quality of life profile.

The 39 subjects have on average lived with polio sequelae for 52 years. Their main difficulties are with moving, lifting and carrying. This means restricted mobility, sedentary activities and a need to prioritize. Half of them feel that polio has lessened their possibilities in life, and a quarter have still not accepted the limitations polio has involved. Nevertheless the majority report a high level of psychosocial well-being, and almost a quarter say that living with polio has meant personal development and strength. We found a significant correlation between on the one hand disability with regard to ambulation, arm strength and finger strength on the self-report ADL, and on the other hand the number of negative problems on the quality of life profile (0.33-0.45).
Quality of Life
Life satisfaction and self-reported impairments in persons with late effects of polio.
Decades after an acute poliomyelitis infection many persons experience new symptoms or impairments which may affect their life satisfaction. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between life satisfaction and self-reported impairments in persons with late effects of polio.

Material and methods
One hundred and sixty-nine persons (104 women and 65 men) with prior polio responded on admission to rehabilitation to the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LiSat-11) assessing satisfaction with life as a whole and 10 domains of life satisfaction and to a 13-item questionnaire assessing self-reported impairments related to late effects of polio.

A majority was to some degree satisfied with life as a whole and with all 10 domains of life satisfaction in LiSat-11, but less than 20% was very satisfied or satisfied with their somatic health. Muscle fatigue, muscle weakness, general fatigue, muscle and/or joint pain during physical activity and cold intolerance were the most frequently reported impairments. Overall, those who rated themselves as not satisfied (according to LiSat-11) reported significantly higher degrees of impairment than those who were satisfied. The relationships between the items of life satisfaction in LiSat-11 and the items in the self-report questionnaire varied from −0.01 to −0.64.
Quality of Life
Objectives: To examine the association of impairments and functional disabilities with health-related quality of life (QOL) of polio survivors in Japan.
Design: Cross-sectional survey.
Settings: Post-polio clinic at a university hospital.
Participants: Polio survivors (N=39) with mild muscle weakness living in the community who voluntarily participated in a health examination for post-polio syndrome.
Interventions: Not applicable.
Main Outcome Measures: The Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short-Form (SF-36).
Results: Mean score on the physical component scale (43.0) of the SF-36 was lower than that of the mental component scale (52.2), and the vitality subscale for men was higher than that for women. Multivariate analyses identified that the physical dimension of the SF-36 was affected by muscle weakness, while the mental dimension of the SF-36 was affected by personal care activities.
Quality of Life
Life satisfaction in persons with late effects of polio. Applied Research in Quality of Life
To assess the relationship between participation and problems with participation in life situations, and life satisfaction in persons with late effects of polio.

One hundred fifty-eight persons with late effects of polio responded to a postal questionnaire including the Swedish versions of the Impact on Participation and Autonomy Questionnaire (IPA-S) and Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LiSat-11).

The persons' perceived participation in the five domains of participation in the IPA-S was significantly correlated with their satisfaction with life as a whole and with most of the 10 domains of life satisfaction. Significant differences in satisfaction with life as a whole and with eight of the 10 domains in LiSat-11 were found between groups of increasing severe problems with participation. Greater number of reports of severe problems with participation corresponded with gradually decreased satisfaction with life as a whole and with satisfaction in the eight domains in LiSat-11.
Quality of Life
Life purpose: effect on functional decline and quality of life in polio survivors.
This article explores the protective effects that finding a purpose in life has on the level of physical and mental impairment and overall quality of life. Results were gathered from a national sample of 2,153 polio survivors. Although the combined social and physical experience of living with the disabling effects of polio has been associated with accelerated aging due to an increased allostatic load, finding a purpose in life may diminish these effects. The findings of this study indicate that purpose in life is associated with less perceived decline in health. Moreover, purpose in life is predictive of better quality of life despite levels of physical and mental impairment. Rehabilitation nurses should consider ways to help persons with polio maintain activities and interests that promote their sense of purpose in life.
Quality of Life
Long-term socio-economic consequences and health care costs of poliomyelitis: a historical cohort study involving 3606 polio patients.
Worldwide 10-20 million individuals are living with disabilities after acute poliomyelitis. However, very little is known about the socio-economic consequences and health care costs of poliomyelitis. We carried out a historical register-based study including 3606 individuals hospitalised for poliomyelitis in Copenhagen, Denmark 1940-1954, and 13,795 age and gender-matched Danes. Participants were followed from 1980 until 2012, and family, socio-economic conditions and health care costs were evaluated in different age groups using chi-squared tests, boot-strapped t tests or hazard ratios (HR) calculated in Cox-regression models. The analyses were performed separately for paralytic and non-paralytic polio survivors and their controls, respectively. Compared with controls a higher percentage of paralytic polio survivors remained childless, whereas no difference was observed for non-paralytic polio survivors. The educational level among paralytic as well as non-paralytic polio survivors was higher than that among their controls, employment rate at the ages of 40, 50 and 60 years was slightly lower, whereas total income in the age intervals of 31-40, 41-50 and 51-60 years were similar to controls. Paralytic and non-paralytic polio survivors had a 2.5 [HR = 2.52 (95 % confidence interval (CI); 2.29-2.77)] and 1.4 [HR = 1.35 (95 % CI; 1.23-1.49)]-fold higher risk, respectively, of receiving disability pension compared with controls. Personal health care costs were considerably higher in all age groups in both groups of polio survivors. Individuals with a history of poliomyelitis are well educated, have a slightly lower employment rate, an income similar to controls, but a considerably higher cost in the health care system.
Quality of Life
An explanatory model of health promotion and quality of life for persons with post-polio syndrome.
Although previous studies have examined selected factors influencing health promoting behaviors or quality of life, the complex interplay of these variables in persons with different chronic disabling conditions has not been investigated. This study tested an explanatory model of variables influencing health promotion and quality of life originally developed with a sample of persons with multiple sclerosis in a new sample of persons living with post-polio syndrome (PPS) in the USA. The sample of 1603 persons with PPS (1123 females, 478 males and 2 unknown) completed a battery of instruments including measures of severity of polio-related impairment, barriers to health promoting behaviors, resources, self-efficacy, acceptance, health promoting behaviors and perceived quality of life. A model originally developed in a sample of 786 persons with multiple sclerosis was assessed and modified using the weighted least squares procedure (WLS) which is implemented by LISREL8. The structural equation analyses resulted in a proper solution that exhibited adequate fit: chi2 (8, N = 1549)=84.22, p<0.05; GFI=0.96, IFI=0.90, CFI=0.90. The antecedent variables accounted for 65% of the variance in the frequency of health promoting behaviors and 53% of the variance in perceived quality of life. The model test supports the hypothesis that quality of life is the outcome of a complex interplay between contextual factors (severity of impairment), antecedent variables, and health promoting behaviors. It also suggests that the relationships among these variables are similar in samples of persons with two different chronic conditions. Further research using a qualitative approach is needed to clarify other contributors to quality of life in persons with post-polio syndrome.
Quality of Life
Depression and life satisfaction among people ageing with post-polio and spinal cord injury.
Attention has recently begun to focus on the ageing of individuals with disability, not only as a long-term follow-up issue but as a unique developmental issue itself. The majority of individuals with an onset of disability before age 30 can now expect to live into their 60s, 70s and beyond. Most of the secondary medical conditions that foreshortened life expectancy have been controlled and improved rehabilitation techniques have evolved over the last 50 years. The average age of persons with post-polio in the United States is over 50 and the average age of persons with spinal cord injury is in the late 40s. New medical, functional and psychosocial problems have been discovered among persons ageing with these and other disabilities. Most of these problems lack sufficient scientific explanation, and therefore, clinical interventions. Quality of life (QOL) issues become involved as these changes occur. From a psychological perspective, QOL can be either positive, as reflected in high life satisfaction, or negative, as reflected in distress and depression.

This study reports on life satisfaction and depression in 360 persons, 121 with post-polio, 177 with SCI and 62 non-disabled age-matched comparisons. The Geriatric Depression Scale and the Older Adult Health and Mood Questionnaire assess depressive symptomatology and a 10-item life satisfaction scale with four-point ratings on each item used.

Life satisfaction varied by the group, with the non-disabled group higher than one or both of the other two groups on all scales and the post-polio group higher than the SCI group on six scales. Satisfaction with health, finances, work and overall life were most different. 22% of the post-polio group, 41% of the SCI group and 15% of the non-disabled group had at least significant repressive symptomatology.
Quality of Life
Quality of life in Hungarian polio survivors
The number of Hungarian polio patients can be estimated at approximately 3000. Polio infection is currently affecting people 56–65 years of age. The aim of the study was to reveal the quality of life of patients living with polio virus in Hungary.

The quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted in January–April 2017 among polyomyelitis patients living in Hungary. In the non-random, targeted, expert sample selection, the target group was composed of patients infected with poliovirus (N = 268). We have excluded those who refused to sign the consent statement. Our data collection method was an SF-36 questionnaire. Using the IBM SPSS Statistics Version 22 program, descriptive and mathematical statistics (χ2-test) were calculated (p < 0.05).

The mean age of the members of the examined population is 63.5 years; 68.1% were women and 31.90% were men. The majority of the respondents were infected by the polyovirus in 1956 (11.9%), 1957 (24.3%), and 1959 (19.5%). Polio patients, with the exception of two dimensions (mental health, social operation), on the scale of 100 do not reach the “average” quality of life (physical functioning 23 points, functional role 36 points, emotional role 47 points, body pain 48 points, general health 42 points, vitality 50 points, health change 31 points).

The quality of life of polio patients is far below the dimensions of physical function, while the difference in mental health compared to healthy people is minimal. It would be important to educate health professionals about the existing disease, to develop an effective rehabilitation method.
Renal Complications
Renal failure in a patient with postpolio syndrome and a normal creatinine level
Patients with renal failure who are taking trimethoprim have an increased risk of developing hyperkalemia, which can cause muscle weakness. In patients with postpolio syndrome, a normal creatinine level could be abnormally high, renal failure is possible because of lack of creatinine production, and the muscle weakness from resultant hyperkalemia could be more severe because of their underlying condition. This abnormally high creatinine level has been termed from this point relative renal failure. The objective of the study was to review a case in which relative renal failure and hyperkalemia caused muscle weakness that manifested as shortness of breath and confusion with electrocardiographic changes. A dehydrated patient with relative renal failure and postpolio syndrome had taken trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole that caused symptomatic hyperkalemia. The patient presented with muscle weakness, shortness of breath, and confusion, with her postpolio syndrome compounding the situation and likely making the muscle weakness more severe. A patient on trimethoprim with renal failure is at an increased risk of developing hyperkalemia. Patients with postpolio syndrome could have severe muscle weakness from the hyperkalemia and could have renal failure even with a normal creatinine level. This case report will remind treating physicians to evaluate such patients for hyperkalemia if they present with muscle weakness, especially if the patient has renal failure and is on trimethoprim.
Respiratory Complications and Management
Poliomyelitis: late respiratory complications and management
One hundred forty-six respiratory polios have been reviewed for complications and current respiratory aids. One hundred thirty-eight of these people required respirator assistance at the onset of their poliomyelitis infection. Fifteen patients have kyphoscoliosis. Seventy-five percent of the total patients require some assisted ventilation. Fifty-two percent have tracheostomies. Most of these people have been followed at Rancho Los Amigos Medical Center for many years. The literature regarding late respiratory complications of polio is reviewed.
Respiratory Complications and Management
Lung function in post-poliomyelitis syndrome: a cross-sectional study
OBJECTIVE: To compare lung function between patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome and those with sequelae of paralytic poliomyelitis (without any signs or symptoms of post-poliomyelitis syndrome), as well as between patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome and healthy controls.

METHODS: Twenty-nine male participants were assigned to one of three groups: control; poliomyelitis (comprising patients who had had paralytic poliomyelitis but had not developed post-poliomyelitis syndrome); and post-poliomyelitis syndrome. Volunteers underwent lung function measurements (spirometry and respiratory muscle strength assessment).

RESULTS: The results of the spirometric assessment revealed no significant differences among the groups except for an approximately 27% lower mean maximal voluntary ventilation in the post-poliomyelitis syndrome group when compared with the control group (p = 0.0127). Nevertheless, the maximal voluntary ventilation values for the post-poliomyelitis group were compared with those for the Brazilian population and were found to be normal. No significant differences were observed in respiratory muscle strength among the groups.
Respiratory Complications and Management
Sleep-disordered breathing in neuromuscular disease
Sleep-disordered breathing in neuromuscular diseases is due to an exaggerated reduction in lung volumes during supine sleep, a compromised physiologic adaptation to sleep, and specific features of the diseases that may promote upper airway collapse or heart failure. The normal decrease in the rib cage contribution to the tidal volume during phasic REM sleep becomes a critical vulnerability, resulting in saw-tooth oxygen desaturation possibly representing the earliest manifestation of respiratory muscle weakness. Hypoventilation can occur in REM sleep and progress into non-REM sleep, with continuous desaturation and hypercarbia. Specific characteristics of neuromuscular disorders, such as pharyngeal neuropathy or weakness, macroglossia, bulbar manifestations, or low lung volumes, predispose patients to the development of obstructive events. Central sleep-disordered breathing can occur with associated cardiomyopathy (e.g., dystrophies) or from instability in the control of breathing due to diaphragm weakness. Mitigating factors such as recruitment of accessory respiratory muscles, reduction in REM sleep, and loss of normal REM atonia in some individuals may partially protect against sleep-disordered breathing. Noninvasive ventilation, a standard-of-care management option for sleep-disordered breathing, can itself trigger specific sleep-disordered breathing events including air leaks, patient-ventilator asynchrony, central sleep apnea, and glottic closure. These events increase arousals, reduce adherence, and impair sleep architecture. Polysomnography plays an important role in addressing pitfalls in the diagnosis of sleep-disordered breathing in neuromuscular diseases, identifying sleep-disordered breathing triggered by noninvasive ventilation, and optimizing noninvasive ventilation settings.
Respiratory Complications and Management
Feasibility of lung volume recruitment in early neuromuscular weakness: a comparison between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, myotonic dystrophy, and postpolio syndrome
BACKGROUND: Lung volume recruitment (LVR) is a cough assistance technique used in persons with neuromuscular disorders (NMDs), most typically in those requiring noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Whether it may be useful in persons with NMDs who have milder respiratory impairment is unknown.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility, impact on quality of life (QOL), and preliminary physiological effects of daily LVR in different categories of persons with NMDs who have an early stage of respiratory impairment.

DESIGN: Feasibility study.

SETTING: Academic tertiary care center.

PARTICIPANTS: Outpatients diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (n = 8), postpolio syndrome (n = 10), and myotonic dystrophy (n = 6) who had restrictive respiratory defects but were not yet using NIV.

METHODS: Participants were asked to perform LVR up to 4 times daily and log their LVR use in a diary. Physiological measurements and questionnaires were completed at baseline and after 3 months.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Compliance with LVR use was assessed, along with QOL and willingness to continue the treatment. Physiological measurements included forced vital capacity (FVC), lung insufflation capacity (LIC), and the LIC minus FVC difference.

RESULTS: Of the 24 recruited subjects, 7 with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 7 with postpolio syndrome, and 5 with myotonic dystrophy completed the study (n = 19). At baseline, mean values for FVC and spontaneous peak cough flow were 59.9% predicted and 373.1 L/min, respectively. For subjects completing the study, 74% were willing to continue long-term LVR use, and QOL scores were not adversely affected by LVR in any NMD subgroup. The LIC-FVC difference increased from baseline to follow-up by a mean of 0.243 L (P = .006) in all subjects (n = 19), suggesting a possible improvement in respiratory system mechanics.
Respiratory Complications and Management
1246: Missed chronic respiratory failure in a post-polio syndrome patient
This is a brief Case Report which does not have an abstract. This is an extract:

INTRODUCTION: Prior to the introduction of the polio vaccine, paralytic poliomyelitis was a major cause of morbidity and death. Twenty-five to fifty percent of the survivors are known to develop post-polio syndrome. Symptoms include fatigue, insidious respiratory failure, obstructive sleep apnea, bulbar neuropathy, central ventilatory abnormalities, hemi-diaphragmatic paralysis and progressive functional decline with new onset weakness, among others. We present a case of post-polio syndrome presenting with hypercapnic respiratory failure.
Respiratory Complications and Management
Pulmonary dysfunction and its management in post-polio patients
Respiratory dysfunction is extremely common and entails considerable risk of morbidity and mortality for individuals with past poliomyelitis. Although it is usually primarily due to respiratory muscle weakness, post-poliomyelitis individuals also have a high incidence of scoliosis, obesity, sleep disordered breathing, and bulbar muscle dysfunction. Although these factors can result in chronic alveolar hypoventilation (CAH) and frequent pulmonary complications and hospitalizations, CAH is usually not recognized until acute respiratory failure complicates an otherwise benign upper respiratory tract infection. The use of non-invasive inspiratory and expiratory muscle aids, however, can decrease the risk of acute respiratory failure, hospitalizations for respiratory complications, and need to resort to tracheal intubation. Timely introduction of non-invasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV), manually assisted coughing, and mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MI-E) and non-invasive blood gas monitoring which can most often be performed in the home setting, are the principle interventions for avoiding complications and maintaining optimal quality of life.
Respiratory Complications and Management
Pulmonary Dysfunction and Sleep Disordered Breathing as Post-Polio Sequelae: Evaluation and Management
Post-polio sequelae can include sleep disordered breathing and chronic alveolar hypoventilation (CAH). Both conditions develop insidiously and can render the post-polio survivor susceptible to cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality when not treated in a timely and appropriate manner. These conditions can be diagnosed by a combination of spirometry, noninvasive blood gas monitoring, and ambulatory polysomnography. Sleep disordered breathing is most frequently managed by nasal continuous positive airway pressure, while tracheostomy ventilation is the most common treatment for ventilatory failure. We report the more effective and comfortable techniques recently made available for managing sleep disordered breathing and the use of noninvasive treatment options for CAH, respiratory failure, and impaired airway clearance mechanisms. One hundred forty-three cases are reviewed.
Respiratory Complications and Management
Airway Secretion Clearance by Mechanical Exsufflation for Post-Poliomyelitis Ventilator-Assisted Individuals
Pulmonary complications from impaired airway secretion clearance mechanisms are major causes of morbidity and mortality for post-poliomyelitis individuals. The purpose of this study was to review the long-term use of manually assisted coughing and mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MI-E) by post-poliomyelitis ventilator-assisted individuals (PVAIs) and to compare the peak cough expiratory flows (PCEF) created during unassisted and assisted coughing. Twenty-four PVAIs who have used noninvasive methods of ventilatory support for an average of 27 years, relied on methods of manually assisted coughing and/or MI-E without complications during intercurrent respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Nine of the 24 individuals were studied for PCEF. They had a mean forced vital capacity (FVC) of 0.54 ± 0.47L and a mean maximum insufflation capacity achieved by air stacking of ventilator insufflations and glossopharyngeal breathing of 1.7L. The PCEF were as follows: unassisted, 1.78 ± 1.16L/sec; following a maximum assisted insufflation, 3.75 ± 0.73L/sec; with manual assistance by abdominal compression following a maximum assisted insufflation, 4.64 ± 1.42L/sec; and with MI-E, 6.97 ± 0.89L/sec. We conclude that manually assisted coughing and MI-E are effective and safe methods of airway secretion clearance for PVAIs with impaired expiratory muscle function who would otherwise be managed by endotracheal suctioning. Severely decreased maximum insufflation capacity but not vital capacity indicate need for a tracheostomy.
Respiratory Complications and Management
Protocol for diaphragm pacing in patients with respiratory muscle weakness due to motor neurone disease (DiPALS): a randomised controlled trial.
Motor neurone disease (MND) is a devastating illness which leads to muscle weakness and death, usually within 2-3 years of symptom onset. Respiratory insufficiency is a common cause of morbidity, particularly in later stages of MND and respiratory complications are the leading cause of mortality in MND patients. Non Invasive Ventilation (NIV) is the current standard therapy to manage respiratory insufficiency. Some MND patients however do not tolerate NIV due to a number of issues including mask interface problems and claustrophobia. In those that do tolerate NIV, eventually respiratory muscle weakness will progress to a point at which intermittent/overnight NIV is ineffective. The NeuRx RA/4 Diaphragm Pacing System was originally developed for patients with respiratory insufficiency and diaphragm paralysis secondary to stable high spinal cord injuries. The DiPALS study will assess the effect of diaphragm pacing (DP) when used to treat patients with MND and respiratory insufficiency.

108 patients will be recruited to the study at 5 sites in the UK. Patients will be randomised to either receive NIV (current standard care) or receive DP in addition to NIV. Study participants will be required to complete outcome measures at 5 follow up time points (2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months) plus an additional surgery and 1 week post operative visit for those in the DP group. 12 patients (and their carers) from the DP group will also be asked to complete 2 qualitative interviews.

The primary objective of this trial will be to evaluate the effect of Diaphragm Pacing (DP) on survival over the study duration in patients with MND with respiratory muscle weakness. The project is funded by the National Institute for Health Research, Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Programme (project number 09/55/33) and the Motor Neurone Disease Association and the Henry Smith Charity.
Respiratory Complications and Management
Sleep disordered breathing in adult with polio sequelae: A case control study of predictive factors
Estimates of sleep disorder breathing (SDB) prevalence are higher in patients with polio sequelae than in general population, ranging from 50% to 65%. No specific predictive factors have been described in our knowledge. The aim of this study was to identify SDB predictive factors among polio survivors.

Material and method
A case control study including patients with polio sequelae with confirmed SDB (apnea hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 5; n = 38) compared to polio patients with AHI ≤ 5 or negative Berlin questionnaire (n = 114). Matching criteria were: sex, age at evaluation, and body mass index (BMI). For each patient, age at acute polio, bulbar, trunk, and lower limbs involvement, scoliosis, current walking abilities and history of arthrodesis, brace or iron lung were assessed using preexisting database and medical charts. SDB symptoms, Berlin questionnaire and AHI using polysomnographic reports were also assessed retrospectively.

Among the 362 polio patients from our systematic database 152 (38 cases and 114 controls) were matched for comparison. SDB ratio was significantly higher in patients with bulbar involvement at acute polio (100% vs. 22.5%), trunk involvement at acute polio (41.9% vs. 18.4%), bulbar involvement at evaluation (100% vs. 23%), scoliosis (38.6% vs. 13.8%) and non-walking patients (50% vs. 22.5%) compared with polio controls. Multivariate analysis only shown scoliosis to be associated with SDB in those patients (OR = 2.72 (95% CI: 1.10–6.95); P = 0.03).
Respiratory Complications and Management
Comparison of activity and fatigue of the respiratory muscles and pulmonary characteristics between post-polio patients and controls: A pilot study
To compare pulmonary function measures, maximal respiratory pressure and fatigue of respiratory muscles between patients with Post-Polio Syndrome (PPS) and controls.

Cross-sectional study.

Patients with PPS (N = 12; age 62.1±11.6 years) able to walk for 6 minutes without human assistance; age-matched controls with no history of polio or pulmonary dysfunction (N = 12; age 62.2±6.5 years).

A body plethysmograph was used to quantify Residual Volume (RV), Total Lung Capacity (TLC), and Thoracic Gas Volume (TGV) etc. A manometer was used to measure Maximal Inspiratory Pressure (MIP) and Maximal Expiratory Pressure. A spirometer was used to measure Maximal Voluntary Ventilation (MVV). Surface electromyography (sEMG) recorded diaphragmatic muscle activity while performing MVV.

The control group had significantly higher TGV and showed improvement in MIP following the effort (difference of 5.5±4.0cmH2O) while the PPS group showed deterioration in MIP (difference of -2.5±5.0cmH2O). Subjects with scoliosis had significantly higher RV/TLC values compared with subjects without scoliosis. The 25th frequency percentile of the sEMG signal acquired during MVV was reduced in the PPS group.
Respiratory Complications and Management
Bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation maintains adequate ventilation in post-polio patients with respiratory failure.
Patients suffering from post-polio syndrome still contribute significantly to the number of patients with chronic respiratory failure requiring home mechanical ventilation (HMV). Many of these patients are treated either with invasive (tracheostomy) or non-invasive (nasal mask) controlled mechanical ventilation i.e. volume-controlled ventilation (VCV). In this group of patients, we have previously shown that bi-level pressure support ventilation (bi-level PSV) decreases the oxygen cost of breathing. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of bi-level PSV, with special regard to the adequacy of ventilation and the oxygen cost of breathing, during the patients' ordinary VCV and spontaneous breathing.

Eight post-polio patients on nocturnal VCV were investigated. Five of them were tracheostomized and three of them used a nasal mask. Work of breathing was analysed by assessing differences in oxygen consumption (VO2) using indirect calorimetry. Blood gases were obtained regularly to assess adequacy of ventilation.

Bi-level PSV decreases the oxygen cost of breathing in post-polio patients with respiratory failure without decreasing ventilation efficiency. Furthermore, PaCO2 decreased significantly using this mode of ventilation (P < 0.05).
Respiratory Complications and Management
Respiratory adjuncts to NIV in neuromuscular disease
Muscle weakness is an intrinsic feature of neuromuscular diseases (NMD). When the respiratory muscles are involved, the ability to take a deep breath is compromised, leading to reduced lung volumes and a restrictive ventilatory impairment. Inspiratory, expiratory and bulbar muscle weakness can also impair cough, which may impede secretion clearance. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is an established and indispensable therapy to manage hypoventilation and respiratory failure. The role of other therapies that support respiratory health is less clearly defined, and the evidence of efficacy is also harder to summarize as the underlying data are of a lesser quality. This narrative review appraises the evidence for respiratory therapies in adults with NMD and respiratory system involvement. Techniques that assist lung inflation and augment cough, such as lung volume recruitment (LVR) and mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MI-E), are a particular focus of this review.The evidence suggests that LVR, MI-E and various com-binations thereof have clinical utility generally, but important methodological limitations limit the strength of clinical recommendations and hamper the integration of evidence into practice.
Respiratory Complications and Management
Diaphragmatic dysfunction
The diaphragm is the main breathing muscle and contraction of the diaphragm is vital for ventilation so any disease that interferes with diaphragmatic innervation, contractile muscle function, or mechanical coupling to the chest wall can cause diaphragm dysfunction. Diaphragm dysfunction is associated with dyspnoea, intolerance to exercise, sleep disturbances, hypersomnia, with a potential impact on survival.

Diagnosis of diaphragm dysfunction is based on static and dynamic imaging tests (especially ultrasound) and pulmonary function and phrenic nerve stimulation tests. Treatment will depend on the symptoms and causes of the disease. The management of diaphragm dysfunction may include observation in asymptomatic patients with unilateral dysfunction, surgery (i.e., plication of the diaphragm), placement of a diaphragmatic pacemaker or invasive and/or non-invasive mechanical ventilation in symptomatic patients with bilateral paralysis of the diaphragm. This type of patient should be treated in experienced centres.

This review aims to provide an overview of the problem, with special emphasis on the diseases that cause diaphragmatic dysfunction and the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures most commonly employed in clinical practice. The ultimate goal is to establish a standard of care for diaphragmatic dysfunction.
Respiratory Complications and Management
Respiratory Muscle In Post-Polio Syndrome: Highlights
The main function of the respiratory muscles is the movement
of the thoracic wall, thus exerting ventilation, and the increase in
the work of this muscle is directly proportional to the intensity
of the activity performed De Troyer et al. [1-3]. During basal
respiration, the slow-twitch fibers are used, while the fast-twitch
fibers are recruited because of increased heart rate Sinderby et
al. [4]. The diaphragm moves caudal approximately 1 to 3cm.
Under conditions of ventilatory effort this incursion can reach
up to 10cm. For an adequate work performed by the ventilatory
muscles, approximately 1 to 3% of the oxygen consumption
(VO2) Kress et al. [5,6]. Several clinical conditions can modify
this process, leading to a greater demand for breathing muscles,
such as obesity Sant Anna Junior M et al. [7], chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease, heart failure, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
among others.
Respiratory Complications and Management
A Short History of Medical Expert Guidelines and How They Pertain to Tracheostomy Tubes and Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Continuous noninvasive ventilatory support (CNVS) and mechanical insufflation exsufflation (MIE) have been used since 1953 to spare patients with ventilatory pump failure from ever requiring tracheostomy tubes for ventilatory support or secretion management. Today there are patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 who are 25 years old and CNVS dependent since 4 months or age, post-polio survivors CNVS dependent for 64 years, Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients over age 45 CNVS dependent for over 25 years, high level spinal cord injured patients CNVS dependent for over 20 years, and even lung disease patients dependent on CNVS. All these patients, although unweanable from ventilatory support and with little or no measurable vital capacity, can also be extubated to CNVS and MIE without resort to tracheotomies when necessary to continue CNVS. However, for various reasons, this is not cited in academic society expert guidelines. This article considers the extent of the damage being caused by this.
Respiratory Complications and Management
Physiologic events initiating REM sleep in patients with the postpolio syndrome
Background: We previously studied the occurrence of muscle tone reduction (MTR), sawtooth waves (STW), and REM in sleep, and found a stereotypical sequence of these events in normal subjects. Patients with the postpolio syndrome may have involvement of the reticular formation in the brainstem, an area known to mediate initiation of REM sleep. We hypothesized that such brainstem pathology might affect the stereotyped sequence of events initiating REM sleep.

Methods: We measured the latencies to the onsets of the first MTR, the first STW, and the first REM in 13 patients with postpolio syndrome, 7 of whom had bulbar involvement. All latencies were calculated from the last body movement before the onset of REM sleep.

Results: Using analysis of variance, we found highly significant differences among the overall mean latencies of the three types of onset (MTR, STW, REM) and also between the mean latencies of the two subgroups of patients (bulbar, nonbulbar). Although the latencies for the entire group were longer than those of the normal volunteers, the differences were not significant. However, when the bulbar and nonbulbar groups were compared, analysis of variance showed significantly longer latencies for the bulbar group than for the nonbulbar group (p < 0.0001). The values for the nonbulbar patients closely resembled those for the normal controls. Although the latencies differed, the slopes of the regressions of REM on STW, STW on MTR, and REM on MTR resembled each other closely (p = 0.924).
Respiratory Complications and Management
Central Sleep Apnea: a Brief Review
Purpose of Review
The purpose of this review is to discuss the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment, including areas of controversy and uncertainty.

Recent Findings
Central apnea may be due to hypoventilation or to hypocapnia following hyperventilation. The occurrence of central apnea initiates a cascade of events that perpetuates breathing instability, recurrent central apnea, and upper airway narrowing. In fact, breathing instability and upper airway narrowing are key elements of central and obstructive apnea. Clinically, central apnea is noted in association with obstructive sleep apnea, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, cerebrovascular accident tetraplegia, and chronic opioid use. Management strategies for central apnea aim to eliminate abnormal respiratory events, stabilize sleep, and alleviate the underlying clinical condition. Positive pressure therapy (PAP) remains a standard therapy for central as well as obstructive apnea. Other treatment options include adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV), supplemental oxygen, phrenic nerve stimulation, and pharmacologic therapy. However, ASV is contraindicated in patients with central sleep apnea who had heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, owing to increased mortality in this population.
Restless Legs Syndrome
Restless legs syndrome and post polio syndrome: a case−control study
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim was to investigate the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS), fatigue and daytime sleepiness in a large cohort of patients affected by post polio syndrome (PPS) and their impact on patient health-related quality of life (HRQoL) compared with healthy subjects.

METHODS: PPS patients were evaluated by means of the Stanford Sleepiness Scale and the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). The Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire was utilized to assess HRQoL in PPS. RLS was diagnosed when standard criteria were met. Age and sex matched healthy controls were recruited amongst spouses or friends of PPS subjects.

RESULTS: A total of 66 PPS patients and 80 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. A significantly higher prevalence of RLS (P < 0.0005; odds ratio 21.5; 95% confidence interval 8.17–57) was found in PPS patients (PPS/RLS+ 63.6%) than in healthy controls (7.5%). The FSS score was higher in PPS/RLS+ than in PPS/RLS− patients (P = 0.03). A significant decrease of SF-36 scores, including the physical function (P = 0.001), physical role (P = 0.0001) and bodily pain (P = 0.03) domains, was found in PPS/RLS+ versus PPS/RLS− patients. Finally, it was found that PPS/RLS+ showed a significant correlation between International Restless Legs Scale score and FSS (P < 0.0001), as well as between International Restless Legs Scale score and most of the SF-36 items (physical role P = 0.0018, general health P = 0.0009, vitality P = 0.0022, social functioning P = 0.002, role emotional P = 0.0019, and mental health P = 0.0003).
Restless Legs Syndrome
Restless legs syndrome in post-polio syndrome: a series of 10 patients with demographic, clinical and laboratorial findings
BACKGROUND: Few studies have described the occurrence of restless legs syndrome in post-polio syndrome.

METHODS: We studied 10 consecutive patients with post-polio syndrome and symptoms of restless legs syndrome. We look at demographic, clinical and laboratorial data.

RESULTS: A remarkable finding was the concomitant onset of symptoms of both diseases, suggesting a possible underlying mechanism. Severity of restless legs symptoms was moderate to very severe.
Restless Legs Syndrome
Restless legs syndrome in patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis
BACKGROUND: No studies have examined the association between RLS and the sequelae of poliomyelitis (PM). We studied the frequency and severity of RLS in a group of consecutive patients with the sequelae of poliomyelitis (PM) and the effect of treatment with dopaminergic drugs.

METHODS: A diagnosis of RLS was made according to the criteria of the International RLS Study Group, and severity was assessed by the RLS rating scale. Information on sex, age, age at onset, site affected by PM, disease duration of PM, and history of post-polio syndrome (pPS) was obtained in a cohort of 52 PM patients.

RESULT: The mean age was 55.9 ± 6.5 years; 39 patients had post-polio syndrome (75%). RLS was diagnosed in 21 (40.4%) patients. Sixteen of the 21 patients (76.2%) with RLS had pPS, which was similar to the non-RLS group (74.2% patients with pPS). RLS symptoms were very severe in 5 patients, severe in 13, moderate in 2 and mild in 1. Nineteen of the 21 patients with RLS had symptoms predominantly in the more affected lower limb (90% of patients). Sixteen patients received dopaminergic agonist treatment with a significant reduction in their scores on the RLS severity scale from 28.3 ± 4.7 to 6.9 ± 7.3 (p < 0.001).

DISCUSSION: RLS occurs frequently in patients with PM, both in those with and without pPS, and responds well to treatment with dopaminergic drugs.
Restless Legs Syndrome
Do you have restless leg syndrome? I understood from your eyes
According to many studies in the literature, there is a strong association between restless leg syndrome and dopaminergic dysfunction. Dopamine is also the major catecholamine in the retina and is also a possible transmitter of the amacrine and interplexiform cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible association between RLS and retinal thickness.

In this study, we included 33 patients who were diagnosed with idiopathic RLS according to the “International RLS Study Group” criteria and 31 healthy subjects. All the patients and controls underwent routine ophthalmologic examination and had spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) performed. We compared the retinal thickness of the patients and control subjects.

In the RLS group, foveal thickness was thinner then controls. Also, only inferior, superior, and temporal quadrant retina nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness were significantly thinner in the RLS group. The parafoveal ganglion cell complex (GCC) in the superior temporal, inferior temporal, inferior nasal quadrant, and perifoveal superior nasal thickness was also significantly thinner in the patient group. Pearson correlation analyses showed that there were statistically significant negative correlations between disease duration and macular GCC and RNFL thickness. Negative correlations were also detected between parafoveal superior, temporal, inferior and nasal macular thickness, parafoveal superior nasal, inferior temporal GCC thickness, and perifoveal superior nasal GCC thickness and disease duration.
Restless Legs Syndrome, Sleep Analysis
Sleep disorders frequency in post-polio syndrome patients caused by periodic limb movements
Post-polio syndrome (PPS) in individuals with polio longer than 15 years is characterized by weakness and/or muscle fatigue, deficit of deglutition and breath and periodic limb movements (PLM) during sleep. We undertook a review of 99 patients with PPS, and assessed the frequency of PLM through polysomnographic recordings at our sleep disorders unit. The total number of PLM, total time of sleep (TTS), efficiency of sleep (EfS), awaking index (AI) and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) were analyzed. Sixteen patients presented PLM in excess of 5 for the entire night. When comparing these with the group without PLM, a correlation was found (p=0.001). Significant difference was found for the correlation of the parameters: IAH, ID, TTS and EfS when compared the two groups. There is a close relationship between PPS and PLM.
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for sleep disturbances and fatigue in patients with post-polio syndrome
PURPOSE: Post-polio syndrome develops about 20-40 years after acute paralytic poliomyelitis, and manifests with progressively deteriorating muscle strength and endurance. Here, we assessed whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improves sleep and fatigue symptoms in patients with post-polio syndrome.

METHODS: We enrolled 32 patients with a diagnosis of post-polio syndrome. tDCS (1.5 mA, 15 min) was delivered by a direct current stimulator connected to three electrodes: two anodal electrodes on the scalp over the right and left pre-motor cortex and the other above the left shoulder (cathode). 16 patients received anodal tDCS and the remainder sham tDCS. We evaluated changes induced by tDCS (daily for five days a week, for three weeks) on clinical scales (Short Form Health Survey [SF-36], Piper Fatigue Scale [PFS], Fatigue Severity Scale [FSS], 101-Point Numerical Rating [PNR-101], Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HRSD], Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]) at baseline (T0) and three weeks later (T1).

RESULTS: At T1 SF-36 sub-items physical functioning, role physical, vitality, social functioning and role emotional improved significantly more in patients who received tDCS (p < 0.01) than in sham-treated patients. Also, PSQI scores improved more in treated patients (p < 0.05, two-way ANOVA with "stimulation" and "time" as factors: p < 0.01). tDCS-induced benefits were more pronounced in patients who were younger at primary infection (p < 0.05).
Sleep Analysis
Analysis of sleep characteristics in post-polio syndrome patients
The main post-polio syndrome (PPS) symptoms are new weakness, new atrophy, fatigue, pain and sleep disturbances. Polysomnography is the gold standard for sleep analysis.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze sleep patterns in PPS patients.

METHOD: Sixty patients (mean age 46.8+/-11.3 years) at the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM) complaining of sleep disturbances were evaluated by means of polysomnography, performed at the Sleep Institute.

RESULTS: Sleep efficiency was lower due to high sleep latency and arousal index. The apnea and hypopnea index (AHI) and the periodic limb movements (PLM) index were higher. Sleep architecture was also impaired. There were no abnormalities of oxygen saturation, carbon dioxide levels, respiratory rate or heart rate.
Speech Pathology
Otolaryngology manifestation of postpolio syndrome
Twenty-one patients with postpolio syndrome were surveyed to determine otolaryngologic symptoms. An alteration in voice, dysphagia, and fatigue were the most common symptoms reported. Prevailing etiologic theories are presented, and treatment recommendations are offered.
Speech Pathology
Incidence and nature of dysphagia in polio survivors
Questionnaires pertaining to swallowing function were mailed to 220 members of postpolio support groups in Connecticut. Of the 109 responses, 80 individuals reported having no difficulty with swallowing, while 29 reported having either intermittent or consistent swallowing problems. Twenty-one of the 29 were seen for videofluoroscopic swallowing studies and pulmonary function testing. The swallowing studies showed that 43% of these individuals had difficulty with bolus control, 19% with delayed swallow response, and 81% with decreased pharyngeal transit. Although none of these individuals were observed to aspirate, two were judged to be at significant risk. Incidence of dysphagia within the group of polio survivors was estimated to be approximately 18%. Seventeen of the 20 postpolio subjects with dysphagia also demonstrated decreased breathing capacity. Although moderately to severely depressed values in the pulmonary function measures accompanied moderate dysphagia in certain postpolio individuals, reduced values in these same measures were also present in individuals with minimal swallowing dysfunction. Therefore, although impaired breathing may complicate swallowing dysfunction and vice versa, it does not appear that one can be predicated from the other. Management of dysphagia in postpolio individuals is discussed.
Speech Pathology
Evaluation, treatment, and follow-up results of post polio patients with dysphagia
Twenty consecutive patients were evaluated for reports of dysphagia from post-polio clinics. Only half the patients reported a history of swallowing problems at the time of their acute poliomyelitis. Each patient received a videofluorographic evaluation of the oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing, and then was provided with recommendations to improve swallowing skills. A follow-up questionnaire was sent to all patients. The respondents had an average interval of 12 months since the initial evaluation. Of the 18 patients responding to the questionnaire, 14 (77%) reported regular use of the swallowing suggestions. Comparison of pre-evaluation results to followup of the 18 respondents yielded a statistically significant decline in the frequency of choking (p = 0.0156) and food sticking in the throat (p = 0.0195). We conclude that a dysphagia program can result in significant improvement of the swallowing symptoms reported with the post-polio population.
Speech Pathology
Myasthenia gravis masquerading as post-poliomyelitis syndrome
A 79-year-old man with previous bulbar poliomyelitis developed dysphagia and was diagnosed as having post-polio syndrome. Over 2 years, his swallowing deteriorated and he suffered an aspiration pneumonia. Only after the subsequent development of fatigue and facial weakness was myasthenia gravis diagnosed. Diagnostic criteria for post-polio syndrome include the exclusion of all other neurological conditions such as myasthenia gravis. Moreover, in any instance where a patient develops new symptoms, it is advisable to reconsider the original diagnosis.
Speech Pathology
Dysphagia and dysphonia among persons with post-polio syndrome – a challenge in neurorehabilitation
OBJECTIVE: To study the occurrence of dysphagia and dysphonia in persons with post-polio syndrome admitted into the centre for neurological rehabilitation in Finland.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:  Fifty-one persons with post-polio syndrome who were rehabilitated at Käpylä Rehabilitation Centre, Helsinki, Finland, in 2003–2004 were interviewed on problems with swallowing and voice production. Pulmonary function testing and grip strength measurement were performed. A clinical assessment of oral motor and laryngeal functions was carried out for those who reported daily problems with voice production or swallowing.

RESULTS: Fifteen persons (29.4%) reported daily problems with swallowing or voice production. In the clinical assessment, the most commonly observed deficits in swallowing included decreased pharyngeal transit (n = 13) and the food catching in the throat (n = 4). The disturbance of co-ordination of breathing and voice production was seen in 12 persons. There were no significant differences in any of the potential predictors between the groups.
Speech Pathology
Dysphonia as the initial presenting symptom in postpolio syndrome: a case report
Post-polio syndrome is a slowly progressive condition that affects polio survivor’s years after their initial infection with polio virus. Individuals with post-polio syndrome suffer from a variety of symptoms that negatively impact their independence and overall happiness, including daily general fatigue (48- 93%), pain (72-91%), respiratory issues (11- 41%), depression (13.45%), and sleep disorders (13-48%). Here, we present a patient with post-polio syndrome who presents with an unusual symptom manifestation of hoarseness.
Postpolio syndrome and anesthesia
The development of polio vaccines 50 years ago essentially halted childhood polio epidemics in the industrialized world. During the past quarter century, a constellation of delayed neuromuscular symptoms, called postpolio syndrome, became recognized among the aging polio survivors. The prevalence of postpolio syndrome in the US population is estimated to be in the hundreds of thousands. The most common symptoms are fatigue, pain, and new onset weakness thought to be related to delayed deterioration of motor neuron function. When a patient with postpolio syndrome presents for surgery, special precautions are warranted, because these patients may have respiratory impairment, sleep apnea, swallowing difficulties, and cold intolerance. This article first reviews clinical features and some pathoetiologic theories of postpolio syndrome and then focuses on anesthetic considerations including the use of common anesthetics, neuromuscular blockade, regional anesthesia, and general anesthetic management strategies.
Anesthetic implications of postpolio syndrome: new concerns for an old disease
Poliomyelitis was pandemic in the United States and much of the world in the first half of the 20th century. The uses of polio vaccines have essentially eradicated the disease in the United States today. But poliovirus infection survivors who had experienced a paralytic attack can see a return of some symptoms, which is a syndrome called postpolio syndrome (PPS). The anesthetist must preoperatively assess reported amounts of patient physical activity and patient age, which can indicate the amount of muscle degeneration that may have already occurred. Patients with PPS demonstrate altered respiratory function, cold intolerance, a risk for aspiration, and experience chronic pain in muscles and joints. Patients with PPS display an increased sensitivity to some anesthetic agents such as long-acting narcotics and potent inhaled anesthetic gases with a high blood-gas partition coefficient, along with report of increased fatigue, weakness, and somnolence after anesthesia. Anesthesia care must center on the preservation of muscle function postoperatively. The anesthetist should consider the use of short-acting anesthetic agents, increased doses of analgesics, the use of warming devices, and careful attention to patient positioning. Prolonged postoperative care and hospital admission after surgery are possible.
Anaesthetists need to be wary of postpolio syndrome
This is a brief Safety and Quality news item which does not have an abstract. This is an extract:

Postpolio syndrome (PPS) occurs in a significant proportion of polio survivors years after recovering from the original illness. Anaesthetists need to be aware of the syndrome as polio survivors are relatively numerous (40,000 cases of paralytic polio in Australia from the 1930s to the 1960s), they are of an age where they will be increasingly presenting for elective and emergency procedures and the syndrome has important. Postpolio syndrome patients present a number of potential problems for the anaesthetist. However for those who are aware depressant effects of analgesics of the syndrome, careful assessment and planning should minimise the risk of perioperative complications and provide optimal patient outcomes.
Long-term results after triple arthrodesis: Influence of alignment on ankle osteoarthritis and clinical outcome
Pain, deformity and instability are the main reasons for fusion of the tarsal joints, a triple arthrodesis. The short and midterm results show that mobility, function and satisfaction increase postoperatively. However, osteoarthritis (OA) of the adjacent ankle joint is described as a long-term complication. Alignment of the foot could be an influencing factor. The aim of this study was to examine whether malalignment after triple arthrodesis leads to a higher grade of OA at long-term follow-up.

Triple arthrodesis is a salvage procedure in patients with a painful and deformed hindfoot and results in a clinically beneficial outcome, even 15 years after surgery. The present study did not show that malalignment after triple arthrodesis results in a higher grade of OA of the ankle joint in the long-term. The cause of the aggravation of OA is still not fully understood and needs further research. Nevertheless, clinical results are satisfying 15 years postoperatively.
Ultrasound-Guided Carpal Tunnel Release Using Dynamic Expansion of the Transverse Safe Zone in a Patient With Postpolio Syndrome: A Case Report
The prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in patients with postpolio syndrome occurs at a rate of 22%. Irrespective of those with CTS, 74% of postpolio patients weight bear through their arms for ambulation or transfers. As open carpal tunnel release is performed along the weight-bearing region of the wrist, their functional independence may be altered while recovering. This case demonstrates that ultrasound-guided carpal tunnel release was successfully performed in a patient with postpolio syndrome allowing him to immediately weight bear through his hands after the procedure so he could recover at home.
A Two-Stage Foot Repair in a 55-Year-Old Man with Poliomyelitis
A 55-year-old man with poliomyelitis presented with a plantarflexed foot and painful ulceration of the sub–first metatarsophalangeal joint present for many years. A two-stage procedure was performed to bring the foot to 90°, perpendicular to the leg, and resolve the ulceration. The first stage corrected only soft-tissue components. It involved using a hydrosurgery system to debride and prepare the ulcer, a unilobed rotational skin plasty to close the ulcer, and a tendo Achillis lengthening to decrease forefoot pressure. The second stage corrected the osseous deformity with a dorsiflexory wedge osteotomy of the first metatarsal. The ulceration has remained closed since the procedures, with complete resolution of pain.
Outcome of total knee arthroplasty in patients with poliomyelitis
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients affected by poliomyelitis is technically challenging owing to abnormal anatomical features including articular and metaphyseal angular deformities, external rotation of the tibia, excessive valgus alignment, bone loss, narrowness of the femoral and tibial canals, impaired quadriceps strength, flexion contractures, genu recurvatum and ligamentous laxity. Little information is available regarding the results and complications of TKA in this challenging group of patients.

We carried out a systematic review of the literature to determine the functional outcome, complications and revision rates of TKA in patients with poliomyelitis-affected knees. Six studies including 82 knees met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. The mean patient age was 63 years (45 to 85) and follow-up was 5.5 years (0.5 to 13).

All studies reported significant improvement in knee function following TKA. There were six failures requiring revision surgery in 82 cases (7%) occurring at a mean of 6.2 years (0.4 to 12). The reasons for revision surgery were aseptic loosening (17%, n=1), infection (33%, n=2), periprosthetic fracture (17%, n=1) and instability (33%, n=2). Thirty-six knees had a degree of recurvatum pre-operatively (44%), which was in the range of 5° to 30°. Ten of these knees (28%) developed recurrent recurvatum post-operatively.

The findings support the use of TKA in patients with poliomyelitis-affected knees. The post-operative functional outcome is similar to other patients; however, the revision rate is higher. Quadriceps muscle power appears to be an important prognostic factor for functional outcome and the use of constrained implant designs is recommended in the presence of less than antigravity quadriceps strength.
Vocational Implications
Occupations that people with late effects of polio perceive difficult to perform
The aims of this study were to describe which occupations that people with late effects of polio perceive difficult to perform, which occupational area the occupations were related to and their level of complexity. The aims were also to describe their own perception of the importance, performance and satisfaction with these occupations. Sixty-two participants (mean age 61 years) were assessed with the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. A total of 431 occupations were reported (43% self-care, 32% productivity and 25% leisure). Two subcategories, household management (27 %) and functional mobility (23 %), represented half of all the reported occupations. Ratings for prioritized occupations (N = 300) were high for importance and generally low for performance and satisfaction. A wide variety of occupations were reported, related to both occupational areas and different levels of complexity within an occupational area. The results underscore the importance of using assessment tools that can capture both the variety and complexity of occupations. By obtaining more detailed information about occupations that people with late effects of polio perceive difficult to perform, this will enable occupational therapists to offer targeted interventions that can facilitate engagement in meaningful and purposeful occupations. A larger and more heterogeneous sample may enable the results to be generalized to more people with late effects of polio. Future studies should focus on methods that can facilitate engagement in meaningful and purposeful occupations for people with late effects of polio.
Vocational Implications
Vocational implications of post-polio syndrome
Of more than 1,000,000 survivors of poliomyelitis living in the United States, about 80% experience symptoms associated with post-polio syndrome (PPS). New weakness, fatigue, and pain are the most common symptoms that may appear years after acute polio. PPS is reported to be the most prevalent progressive neuromuscular disease in North America. The physical symptoms of PPS can be severe enough to decrease an individual's quality of life, significantly alter work function, and impose lifestyle changes. The psychological implications of battling once again with a disease that had stabilized decades ago can be devastating. Rehabilitation physicians and counselors knowledgeable of post-polio syndrome and its possible impact on employment can have a positive influence on persons with PPS.
Vocational Implications
Overcoming barriers to work participation for patients with postpoliomyelitis syndrome
PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the perceived work ability of patients with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS), to identify barriers and factors that are impeding or conducive, respectively, to work participation, and to identify possible interventions.

METHODS: Qualitative cross-sectional interview study with 17 subjects with PPS, 12 women and 5 men, mean age 49 years (SD: 11). Semi-structured interviews were held with the subjects in their homes, with the aid of a topic list. The COREQ criteria list for qualitative research was used as guideline in design and analysis.

RESULTS: Thirteen out of 17 subjects rated their work ability six or higher on a scale from 0 to 10. Most subjects worked in an administrative, educational or managerial function. Five subjects stopped working, four worked between 0 and 20 h/week and eight worked between 20 and 40 h/week. Factors conducive to working were physical adaptations in the workplace, accessibility of the workplace and high decision latitude. Barriers to full work ability in PPS patients were high physical job demands, low social support and the symptoms of PPS, especially fatigue and pain.
Vocational Implications
Workplace disability management in postpolio syndrome
Postpolio syndrome (PPS) is generally defined as a clinical syndrome of new weakness, fatigue, and pain in individuals who have previously recovered from acute paralytic poliomyelitis. These new problems may lead to loss of employment as well as new deficits in instrumental activities in daily living (cleaning, washing, shopping, transportation, etc.), walking, climbing stairs, and personal assistance. We presented three cases of PPS with working disabilities in Japan, and stated the issues confronted with. Particularly at the workplace, PPS individuals need special supports from both rehabilitation medicine and occupational health services, including improved nutrition, achieving ideal body weight, regular and sensible exercise, frequent checkups, and modifying working conditions.
Vocational Implications
Developing vocational rehabilitation services for people with long-term neurological conditions: Identifying facilitators and barriers to service provision
This study aimed to understand existing vocational rehabilitation service provision in one locality in London (population 3.74 million), identify any gaps and explore reasons for this, to support service development.

Using soft systems methodology to guide the research process, semi-structured interviews were completed with nine participants, who were clinicians and managers providing vocational rehabilitation within a National Health Service context. Data were analysed thematically to build a ‘rich picture’ and develop a conceptual model of vocational rehabilitation service delivery. Findings were then ratified with participants at an engagement event.

The findings indicate a spectrum of vocational rehabilitation service provision for long-term neurological conditions with differing levels of funding in place. Vocational rehabilitation often takes place ‘under the radar’ and therefore the true vocational rehabilitation needs of this population, and the extent of service provision, is not known. There is inconsistency of understanding across the services as to what constitutes vocational rehabilitation and outcomes are not routinely measured.
Vocational Implications
University of Alberta Hospital Acute and Convalescent Polio Care and the Reintegration of Polio Patients into Albertan Communities, 1953–80
Following Canada’s largest polio epidemic in 1953, Station 67 at the University of Alberta Hospital (UAH) in Edmonton became home to patients who contracted the virus. As young as nine years old, some of these patients lived at the UAH for more than three decades. Akin to wartime services, the epidemic banded together families, patients, doctors, nurses, community members, and later respiratory, physical, and occupational therapists. The nature of the disease, the government response, and the social and economic climate dramatically affected the lived experiences of patients in Alberta’s fight against polio. Drawing on archival research and oral interviews, this article argues that it was the agency and resilience of patients, the contributions of healthcare providers to rapid developments in acute and convalescent care, and the dedication of families that were primarily responsible for the recovery and reintegration of polio patients back into the community.
Vocational Implications
Education, occupation, and perception of health amongst previous polio patients compared to their siblings.
Patients with previous polio represent a challenge for neurological rehabilitation. We examined 168 previous polio patients and 239 of their siblings, the patients either from the 1950-1954 epidemic cohort, or from a cohort of hospital-admitted rehabilitation patients. Ninety-four paralytic patients and 74 non-paralytic patients were included. All patients and siblings answered the same questionnaires for socioeconomic and health factors and chi-square comparisons were performed. Previous polio did not affect the level of education. Both patients and siblings rated their educational options to have been good. Significantly less patients were full-time employed at the age of 40 years compared to their siblings (P=0.015). This was the result of a lower full-time employment rate amongst the paralytic patients, only 52% of this group being employed full-time. Male patients and paralytic patients reported to have experienced reduced professional options. More patients were living alone compared to their siblings (P=0.035). The perception of general health was lower amongst patients than siblings, as was assessment of total life situation and patients reported more frequently symptoms like pain and tiredness. In conclusion, previous polio had not lowered the polio patients' educational status, but fewer patients were employed full-time at the age of 40 years.
Women's Health
Pregnancy following Poliomyelitis
A review of forty-nine pregnancies in thirty-seven patients who had previously suffered from poliomyelitis found that obstetric complications were proportional to the clinical disabilities of the patient. A simple test of unilateral weight-bearing gives a good clue as to whether pelvic asymmetry is present.
Women's Health
Caesarean Section in Post-polio Patient
A 26-year-old primigravida patient, ASA I, 39-week gestation, presented with 24 h premature rupture of membranes, without active labor. She had been in anesthetic pre-operative clinic 2 weeks before and had described poliomyelitis with 1 year old and complete recovering in childhood. With 16-year-old, she was submitted to appendicectomy through spinal anesthesia presenting weakness in entire body for approximately 24 h. At physical examination, the only sign was shorter tibial tendon of both legs.
For the cesarean, after volume expansion with cristaloids, the choice was an epidural anesthesia with 15mg of bupivacaine 0.3% (without epinephrine) and morphine 2 mg. “The surgery was initiated after 4min of blockade with T4 sensitive level reached. Hypotension and tachycardia were corrected with metaraminol 1 mg.” After 50 min, the procedure was finished with the same metameric level of anesthesia, but with cardiovascular stability. The entire recovering from anesthesia has occurred after 11h. An elevated consume of analgesics (nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs and opioids) and antiemetics was observed.
Women's Health
Cesarean delivery under ultrasound-guided spinal anesthesia [corrected] in a parturient with poliomyelitis and Harrington instrumentation.
To describe the anesthetic implications, and management of a medically complex parturient, who presented for Cesarean delivery (CD). The patient had poliomyelitis complicated with severe kyphoscoliosis, which had been treated with extensive spinal surgery. We used ultrasound guidance to facilitate successful spinal analgesia and anesthesia.

A 27-yr-old woman, with a history of poliomyelitis and moderate restrictive lung disease secondary to kyphoscoliosis, presented at 38 weeks gestation for elective CD because of cephalopelvic disproportion. The woman had Harrington rods in situ from the level of the second thoracic vertebra, to the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra. Ultrasound guidance enabled one intervertebral space to be visualized (L5-S1), 3 cm from the expected spinal midline, and spinal anesthesia was performed at this interspace without any complications. A healthy infant was delivered, and the mother recovered uneventfully.

Spinal anesthesia can be effectively performed in patients with poliomyelitis and severe kyphoscoliosis, that has been treated with extensive Harrington instrumentation. To facilitate regional techniques in such patients, bedside ultrasound may be greatly beneficial in identifying the correct spinal interspace.
Women's Health
Successful Use of Succinylcholine for Cesarean Delivery in a Patient with Postpolio Syndrome [letter to the Editor]
There have been a few reports over the years using succinylcholine in patients with pathology similar to that seen in PPS. For example, succinylcholine-induced hyperkalemia and circulatory collapse were reported in a patient with acute idiopathic anterior horn cell disease4; the serum potassium during this cardiac arrest was 7.9 mEq/l. Another study of denervated baboons found an increase in intravascular potassium up to 5.5 mEq/l.5 PPS is similar in pathophysiology to the baboon denervation study, and one could assume that hyperkalemia could also be seen in PPS patients. There have been numerous reports of hyperkalemia in patients with neuromuscular disease.4–8 It would have been informative to have had the prepotassium and postpotassium measurements from the patient in the report of Wernet et al. 1 to determine the magnitude and time frame of the increase of serum potassium.
The avoidance of neuraxial anesthesia was also discussed by Wernet et al. Successful neuraxial anesthesia in patients with PPS has been reported without adverse complications.9,10 Many clinicians provide regional anesthesia for labor and delivery in patients with a history of PPS.11
If general anesthesia needs to be induced, the potential hazard of using succinylcholine in patients with PPS has been acknowledged.12 If the need for rapid sequence induction exists in a PPS patient, we believe one should choose a short-acting nondepolarizing muscle relaxant in lieu of succinylcholine; the only caveat would be to consider using a decreased dose because of the increase risk of muscular weakness.13
The mere fact that succinylcholine was used in the current case does not preclude the possible occurrence of severe, acute hyperkalemia in subsequent cases in patients with PPS.
Women's Health
Pregnancy, delivery and perinatal outcome in female survivors of polio.
To investigate possible effects on pregnancy, delivery and perinatal outcome in female survivors of polio.

In a cohort design, data from the national population based Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN) were used to compare all 2495 births recorded 1967-1998 by female survivors of polio with all 1.9 mill non-polio deliveries. The results were adjusted for time period, maternal age, and birth order by unconditional logistic regression, with effects presented as adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) with a corresponding 95% Confidence Interval (CI) and p values.

Female polio survivors had a higher occurrence of pre-eclampsia (3.4% vs. 2.8%, p=0.003, OR=1.4, CI=1.1-1.7), gestational proteinuria (1.3% vs. 0.5%, p<0.001, OR=2.0, CI=1.4-2.8), renal disease prior to pregnancy (1.4% vs. 0.9%, p=0.001, OR=1.8, CI=1.2-2.5), vaginal bleeding (3.8% vs. 2.0%, p<0.001, OR=1.7, CI=1.4-2.1), and urinary tract infection during pregnancy (3.5% vs. 2.4%, p<0.001, OR=1.7, CI=1.4-2.1). Deliveries complicated by obstruction of the birth process were more common in the polio group (6.1% vs. 2.0%, p<0.001, OR=4.8, CI=4.0-5.6), and cesarean section was performed at a higher rate throughout the time period (13.2% vs. 8.3%, p<0.001, OR=2.7, CI=2.4-3.1). Infants of polio mothers had a lower mean birth weight (3383 g vs. 3483 g, p<0.001), and more often had a birth weight below 2500 g (6.9% vs. 5.2%, p=0.001, OR=1.3, CI=1.1-1.5). There was no difference regarding pregnancy length. The risk of perinatal death was increased (2.1% vs. 1.1%, p=0.05, OR=1.3, CI=1.0-1.7).

Pregnancy in female survivors of polio is associated with an increased risk for complications during pregnancy and delivery, as well as an adverse perinatal outcome. Awareness towards risk factors should improve pre-natal care and possibly prevent complications.
Women's Health
Menopause and post-polio symptoms as predictors of subjective sleep disturbance in poliomyelitis survivors.
Sleep disturbance in polio survivors is a common complaint, yet little is known about the effects of the interaction of physical disability and menopause on sleep. The purpose of this study was to understand the relative contribution of menopause factors and disability to subjective sleep disturbance.

Participants were 465 women aged 50-65 years who had physical disabilities due to poliomyelitis. Hierarchical regression modeling was used to examine menopause (symptoms, status, hormone replacement use, ovarectomy status) and disability factors (post-polio symptoms) in sleep disturbance.

In the final model, 19% (frequency) and 17% (severity) of sleep disturbance variance was explained. Psychological symptoms exerted the most influence (for both outcomes) followed by post-polio symptoms, vasomotor symptoms, an interaction of vasomotor and post-polio symptoms and estrogen use. For women with fewer post-polio symptoms, vasomotor symptoms exerted greater influence on sleep disturbance than for women with greater post-polio symptoms.

Psychological symptoms had the strongest association with sleep disturbance in these women. Controlling for the influence of various menopause factors, our findings show that vasomotor symptoms were only one of several influences on sleep disturbance.
Women's Health
Menopause characteristics of women with physical disabilities from poliomyelitis.
To describe menopause characteristics of women with physical disabilities from poliomyelitis.

Nine hundred and nine women with a history of poliomyelitis completed a survey on health, physical functioning, emotional well being and menopause.

The majority of the sample was postmenopausal having had a natural menopause around the average age of 50.3 years; 34.7% of the sample had had hysterectomies. Thirty-nine percent were using some form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Menopause symptoms were clustered into psychological, somatic-sensory, somatic-sleep and vasomotor factors. Among never and past HRT users, there were significant differences in menopause factor severity by menopause status. Somatic/sleep symptoms were lowest in never users; past users had significantly higher vasomotor symptoms; desire for sexual activity and painful intercourse did not vary by HRT use. Compared to population estimates, post-polio women had similar rates of hysterectomies overall, but among some age cohorts they had significantly lower rates, contrary to expectations. However, they used HRT at significantly higher rates than expected.

This study suggests that basic menopause characteristics of women with polio are generally similar to those of their non-disabled peers. There were few substantial differences in severity of menopause symptoms by HRT use, which is critical in light of the dearth of studies examining its risk-benefit ratio among women with physical disabilities. Until such studies provide some evidence of the specific risks or benefits to women with physical disability, each woman should carefully weigh the known risks and benefits with her physician.
Women's Health
Primary breast cancer patient with poliomyelitis: A case report

Poliomyelitis is an acute infection caused by an enterovirus, which primarily infects the human gastrointestinal tract. In general, patients with polio have no association with the occurrence of cancer. The present case study presents a rare case of poliomyelitis combined with primary breast cancer.

A 61-year-old woman who was diagnosed with poliomyelitis at 5 years old and confirmed invasive breast cancer by core needle biopsy (CNB) after hospitalization. The patient received a modified radical mastectomy and four cycles of chemotherapy with the TC (docetaxel and cyclophosphamide) regimen. The patient was also prescribed endocrine therapy without radiotherapy after chemotherapy. The patient had no evidence of lymphedema in the right upper extremities and no evidence of either regression or distant metastasis at the 1-year follow-up.

The pectoral muscles of patients with polio are easily damaged in traumatic procedures, such as CNB, local anesthesia for tumor excision, and general anesthesia for surgery. A CNB, modified radical mastectomy, and four cycles of TC chemotherapy were successfully completed for the present case and the adverse reactions were found to be tolerable. This case may indicate the relationship between breast cancer and polio, and the examination and treatment methods used could be used as a guide for similar cases in the future.

Keywords: Breast cancer, Diagnostic imaging, Follow-up, Poliomyelitis, Surgery, Case report

Core Tip: This is the first case report on poliomyelitis combined with primary breast cancer. Due to the poliomyelitis, the pectoral muscles of patients with polio are easily damaged in traumatic procedures, such as core needle biopsy (CNB), local anesthesia for tumor excision, and general anesthesia for surgery. A CNB, modified radical mastectomy, and four cycles of TC chemotherapy were successfully completed for the present case and the adverse reactions were found to be tolerable. This case may indicate the relationship between breast cancer and polio, and the examination and treatment methods used could be used as a guide for similar cases in the future.
Women's Health
Paralysed with Fear a Literature Review on Aspects of Pregnancy in Polio Survivors
After several decades of stability, female polio survivors often experience new signs and symptoms of their condition, characterized by global and muscular fatigue, decreased muscular strength and pain along with secondary changes in body anatomy and physiology with respect to pregnancy. Problems of ante-partum care and delivery of women who have been victims of poliomyelitis are fortunately rarely encountered. These women have a higher occurrence of pre-eclampsia, gestational proteinuria, renal disease prior to pregnancy, vaginal bleeding and urinary tract infection during pregnancy. Deliveries complicated by obstruction of the birth process are more common in the polio group, and cesarean section is performed at a higher rate throughout the time period. The prognosis of the disease when it occurs during pregnancy may be less predictable, but it is generally good for both mother and infant. Although the incidence of abortion is relatively high, if the pregnancy goes to term parturition is expected to be normal. An amalgamation of good antenatal assessment & care, psychological counselling and support groups have been found to be successful in providing them with the best possible outcome. This paper reviews what is currently known about disabled survivors of polio and highlights areas of need in public health research, policy and programming along with the effects of post-polio syndrome on pregnancy and possible interventions to achieve symptomatic relief & aid in better quality of life.

Keywords: Polio pregnancy post-polio syndrome disability rehabilitation

Outcomes of Research or Clinical Trials Activity Levels Acute Flaccid Paralysis Ageing Anaerobic Threshold Anaesthesia Assistive Technology Brain Cardiorespiratory Cardiovascular Clinical Evaluation Cold Intolerance Complementary Therapies Continence Coping Styles and Strategies Cultural Context Diagnosis and Management Differential Diagnosis Drugs Dysphagia Dysphonia Epidemiology Exercise Falls Fatigue Fractures Gender Differences Immune Response Inflammation Late Effects of Polio Muscle Strength Muscular Atrophy Orthoses Pain Polio Immunisation Post-Polio Motor Unit Psychology Quality of Life Renal Complications Respiratory Complications and Management Restless Legs Syndrome Sleep Analaysis Surgery Vitality Vocational Implications