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Title order Author order Journal order Date order
Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Bone Mineral Density Among Individuals With Residual Lower Limb Weakness After Polio
Author: Beth Grill PT, DPT, NCSa, Pamela K. Levangie PT, DSc, DPT, FAPTA, Maria ColeOTR/L, Darren Rosenberg DO, Leah Jensen PT, DPT
Affiliation: Spaulding Outpatient Center Framingham, MA

MGH Institute of Health Professions, Boston, MA; and 500 Lexington Street, Unit 3, Woburn, MA 01801

Spaulding Outpatient Center Framingham, MA

Spaulding Outpatient Center Framingham, MA

Spaulding Outpatient Center Framingham, MA
Journal: PM&R: The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Citation: Available online 7 September 2018
Publication Year and Month: 2018 09

Abstract: Background
Literature indicates that individuals with long-term residual lower extremity (LE) weakness after polio have decreased bone mineral density (BMD) deficiencies related to muscle weakness. Where weakness is asymmetrical, bone densitometry (BDt) measured only on the stronger LE may misclassify BMD.

Objective
To determine (1) whether femoral neck BMD differed from side to side in individuals with asymmetrical LE muscle weakness, and (2) the proportion of individuals at risk for underdiagnosis of low bone density or osteoporosis given unilateral assessment of the femoral neck.

Design
Retrospective study.

Setting
Outpatient postpolio center.

Participants
Patients >18 years old with complete relevant data.

Main Outcome Measures
BDt T scores, BMD categories based on standard T-score ranges, and side of LE weakness determined by a strength score.

Results
Forty-three subjects had at least 1 femoral neck T score and bilateral LE strength scores. Fourteen (32.5%) had BDt only on their weaker LE and 14 (32.5%) had BDt only on their stronger LE. Of the 15 subjects with BDt done on both femoral necks, T scores (mean [standard deviation]) were lower in the weaker LE (–1.73 [1.09]) than the stronger LE (–0.88 [1.0]) (P = .001). Classification of low bone density or osteoporosis was more frequent based on T scores taken on a weaker LE (48.3% and 24.1%, respectively) than from T scores from a stronger LE (41.4% and 6.9%, respectively).

Conclusions: In this small sample, using strong-limb T scores resulted in fewer individuals categorized as having low bone density or osteoporosis than when weak-limb T scores were used. Underestimating BMD loss may lead to undertreatment and increased risk of morbidity, mortality, and costs associated with femoral neck fractures in this high-fall-risk group.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Circumstances and consequences of falls in polio survivors
Author: Bickerstaffe A, Beelen A, Nollet F
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2010 Nov;42(10):908-15. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0620
Publication Year and Month: 2010 11

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Many polio survivors have symptoms that are known risk factors for falls in elderly people. This study aims to determine the: (i) frequency; (ii) consequences; (iii) circumstances; and (iv) factors associated with falls in polio survivors.

METHODS: A survey was conducted among 376 polio survivors. Participants completed a falls history questionnaire and additional information was obtained from their medical files.

RESULTS: Of the 305 respondents, 74% reported at least one fall in the past year and 60% two or more. Sixteen percent of fallers described a major injury after a fall in the last year and 69% reported fear of falling. One-third of fallers had reduced the amount they walked because of their fear of falling. Most reported falls in a familiar environment (86%), during ambulation (72%) and in the afternoon (50%). Quadriceps weakness of the weakest leg (Medical Research Council (MRC) ≤ 3), fear of falling and complaints of problems maintaining balance were independently associated with both falls and recurrent falls, while increasing age and medication use were not.

Conclusions: The high rate of falls and consequences thereof, merit the implementation of fall intervention strategies. To maximize effect, they should be tailor-made and target the fall mechanisms specific to polio survivors.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Falls among adults aging with disability
Author: Matsuda PN (1), Verrall AM (2), Finlayson ML (3), Molton IR (2), Jensen MP (2)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Electronic address: [email protected]; (2) Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA; (3) School of Rehabilitation Therapy, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015 Mar;96(3):464-71. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2014.09.034
Publication Year and Month: 2015 03

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for falling among individuals aging with multiple sclerosis (MS), muscular dystrophy (MD), postpolio syndrome (PPS), and spinal cord injury (SCI).

DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey data from 2009 to 2010 were analyzed. We used forward logistic regression models to examine whether risk factors such as age, sex, mobility level, years since diagnosis, vision, balance, weakness, number of comorbid conditions, and physical activity could distinguish participants who reported falling from those who did not.

SETTING: Surveys were mailed to community-dwelling individuals who had 1 of 4 diagnoses (MS, MD, PPS, or SCI). The survey response rate was 91%.

PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of community-dwelling individuals (N=1862; age, 18-94y) with MS, MD, PPS, or SCI in the United States.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Self-reported fall within the last 6 months.

RESULTS: Fall prevalence for people with MS (54%), MD (70%), PPS (55%), and SCI (40%). Across all 4 groups, fall rates peaked in middle age (45-64y) and among people with moderate mobility limitations. Seven risk factors differentiated participants who fell from those who did not: mobility level, imbalance, age, curvilinear age (age(2)), number of comorbid conditions, duration of diagnosis, and sex. The models differed across diagnostic groups.

Conclusions: People aging with long-term physical disabilities experience unique challenges that affect their risk of falls. A better understanding of the frequency, severity, and risk factors of falls across diagnostic groups is needed to design and implement customized, effective fall prevention and management programs for these individuals.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Fractures in an aging population of poliomyelitis survivors: a community-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota
Author: Goerss JB, Atkinson EJ, Windebank AJ, O'Fallon WM, Melton LJ 3rd
Affiliation: Department of Medical Genetics, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Minnesota 55905
Journal: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Citation: Mayo Clin Proc. 1994 Apr; 69(4):333-9
Publication Year and Month: 1994 04

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of fractures in a cohort of survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis (“polio”).

DESIGN: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, who had an initial diagnosis of polio between 1935 and 1959 and survived the acute illness.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive medical records-linkage system was used to retrieve all diagnoses of poliomyelitis in residents of the county for the specified 25-year period. For the 277 study subjects, the medical records were searched for the occurrence of fracture from the time of initial diagnosis of polio until death or the most recent clinical contact. All fractures were classified on the basis of type of associated injury and skeletal site of involvement. The influence of polio on the incidence of fractures was evaluated by estimating the cumulative incidence of new fractures after the diagnosis of polio and the standardized morbidity ratio. The relative influence of various factors on the risk of fracture was determined.

RESULTS: Of the 277 Olmsted County residents with polio, 87 experienced 161 fractures, and the estimated cumulative incidence of any fracture after 40 years was 48%. The cumulative incidence of any limb fracture was 41% and was less than the expected value of 44% (P = 0.001). Only the risk of distal femoral and proximal humeral fractures was significantly higher than that among Olmsted County residents in general. The increased risk seemed to be associated with weakness and disuse of the involved limbs rather than with generalized osteoporosis. Theoretically, a greater capacity for bone remodeling in response to changes in muscle use might have protected patients with polio in childhood, but such persons were as likely to sustain a fracture as those with adult-onset poliomyelitis.

Conclusions: These data indicate that survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis do not have an unusual risk of fracture except in affected limbs.

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: High incidence of osteoporosis and fractures in an aging post-polio population
Author: Mohammad AF (1), Khan KA (1), Galvin L (2), Hardiman O (2), O’Connell PG (1)
Affiliation: Departments of (1) Rheumatology, and (2) Neurology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
Journal: European Neurology
Citation: Eur Neurol. 2009 Nov; 62(6):369–374. doi:10.1159/000242444
Publication Year and Month: 2009 11

Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIMS: Since the polio epidemic in Ireland in the 1950s, most polio survivors are approaching into the 6th and 7th decade of their lives. There is little data about bone density and risk of fractures in these patients. In 2006, we undertook an audit of post-polio patients attending rheumatology and neurology outpatient clinics in a university teaching hospital. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis (OP), falls and fractures and to evaluate the association of bone density with other potential contributing factors to OP.

METHODS: Over a 6-month period, 50 post-polio patients attending outpatient clinics completed a questionnaire, and subsequently their medical records were reviewed. Demographic data and details of treatment were extracted. The patients underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning to quantify bone mineral density. Results: Thirty subjects (60%) were females (26 were postmenopausal). The average age of females was 60 ± 13.4 years and of men 59 ± 16.8 years. Overall, 41 (82%) of the patients had experienced falls in the last 5 years and 32 (64%) in the last 6 months. Nineteen (38%) of the patients had experienced a bone fracture in the last 5 years. Based on the bone mineral density data, 28 (56%) of the patients were diagnosed with OP and 20 (40%) had osteopenia, but only 8 (16%) received anti-resorptive therapy. Of the 19 patients who had a fracture, 14 (74%) had OP and 5 (26%) had osteopenia, of whom only 6 (32%) received anti-resorptive therapy. Eight out of 9 fractures of the neck of femur occurred in the weaker leg.

Conclusions: Post-polio patients are a high-risk group for fracture, and thus bone density assessment, review of falls risk and therapeutic intervention should be considered for all patients. Both osteopenia and OP are associated with increased fracture risk.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Lower-limb muscle strength, static and dynamic postural stabilities, risk of falling and fear of falling in polio survivors and healthy subjects
Author: Thaiana Santos Galvão PT, Egídio Sabino Magalhães Júnior PT, MSc, Marco Antonio Orsini Neves PhD, MD & Arthur de Sá Ferreira PhD, PT
Affiliation: This study was supported by the Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ) [Grant numbers E-26/200.564/2015 and E-26/202.769/2015].
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, DOI: 10.1080/09593985.2018.1512178
Publication Year and Month: 2018

Abstract: Introduction: This study investigated the association between preserved lower-limb muscle strength, dynamic and static postural stability, risk of falling, and fear of falling in polio survivors. We also investigated whether these clinical features differ between polio survivors and healthy controls. Methods: This quasi-experimental study enrolled 16 polio survivors (13 underwent a complete-case analysis) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Participants were assessed by the manual muscle test, Berg Balance Scale, force platform posturography, and Falls Efficacy Scale. Between-group mean differences with confidence intervals (MD, CI 95%) and Spearman’s ρ are reported. Results: Compared to healthy controls, polio survivors presented reduced muscle strength (MD = –13, CI 95% −16 to −9 points), lower dynamic postural stability (MD = –14, CI 95% −19 to −8 points), and increased fear of falling (MD = 14, CI 95% 10–18 points) (all P < 0.001). In polio survivors, lower-limb muscle strength was correlated with dynamic (ρ = 0.760) and static postural stability (ρ = 0.738–0.351), risk of falling (ρ = −0.746), and fear of falling (ρ = −0.432). Dynamic postural stability was correlated with risk of falling (ρ = −0.841), fear of falling (ρ = −0.277), and static postural stability (ρ = −0.869 to −0.435; ρ = −0.361 to −0.200, respectively). Risk and fear of falling were also correlated (ρ = 0.464). Discussion: Polio survivors exhibited impaired dynamic postural stability but preserved static stability and increased risk of falling and fear of falling. Preserved lower-limb muscle strength, postural stability, fear of falling, and risk of falling are associated clinical features in this population.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Osteoporosis in a postpolio clinic population
Author: Haziza M (1), Kremer R, Benedetti A, Trojan DA
Affiliation: (1) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007 Aug;88(8):1030-5
Publication Year and Month: 2007 08

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To determine (1) the frequency of osteoporosis at the hip and lumbar spine in a postpolio clinic population and (2) the association of lower-extremity muscle strength and other potential contributing factors to osteoporosis with bone density measured at the hip.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study involving a chart review.

SETTING: A university-affiliated hospital postpolio clinic.

PARTICIPANTS: Patient charts (N=379) were reviewed; 164 (26%) were included, and 215 (74%) were not included primarily (74%) because of the unavailability of bone density results.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Bone density (in g/cm(2)) and T score were assessed at the femoral neck and lumbar spine. Muscle strength was evaluated by manual muscle testing in 7 bilateral lower-extremity muscles.

RESULTS: The occurrence of osteoporosis at the hip and lumbar spine was 20 (32%) of 62 and 6 (10%) of 61 in men, 3 (9%) of 33 and 2 (6%) of 32 in premenopausal women, and 18 (27%) of 67 and 7 (11%) of 65 in postmenopausal women, respectively. In a logistic regression model, the presence of osteoporosis at the hip was significantly associated with strength sum score in the same extremity in which the bone density was performed after adjusting for other important risk factors (age, body mass index, time since polio).

Conclusions: Osteoporosis occurred commonly at the hip in a postpolio clinic population. Hip bone density was associated with muscle strength in the same lower extremity.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Participation in Two Evidence-Based Falls Prevention Programs by Adults Aging With a Long-Term Disability: Case-Control Study of Reach and Effectiveness
Author: Thomas John Eagen, S. M. Teshale, A. P. Herrera-Venson, A. Ordway, J. Caldwell
Affiliation: University of Washington Seattle
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Journal of Aging and Health · November 2018
Publication Year and Month: 2018 11

Abstract: Objective: Adults aging with a long-term disability (LTD) are at an increased risk for falls. The Older Americans Act Title III-D and Prevention and Public Health Fund (PPHF) support several organizations to deliver falls prevention evidence-based programs designed to reduce risk factors; however, little is understood about the reach and effectiveness of these fall prevention programs for those with LTD compared to those without LTD. This study compared the reach and effectiveness of two evidence-based falls prevention programs between older adults with and without LTD. Method: Using a matched case-control design, 105 LTD older adults enrolled in A Matter of Balance (AMOB) or Stepping On were matched to 315 non-LTD older adults on age, sex, race, and education. Results: On average, LTD older adults attended a higher number of class sessions and were significantly more likely to complete the program compared with the matched-sample of non-LTD older adults. LTD older adults were equally likely as non-LTD older adults to report significant reductions in self-reported fear of falling, falls-related activity restriction, and improvement in falls self-efficacy following completion of the programs.

Conclusions: Discussion: These findings provide preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of these evidence-based falls prevention programs for LTD older adults; however, more research is needed to extend these findings.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Polio survivors: falls and subsequent injuries
Author: Silver JK, Aiello DD
Affiliation: Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2002 Aug;81(8):567-70
Publication Year and Month: 2002 08

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study examines the frequency of falls in polio survivors and their resulting morbidity.

DESIGN: Two groups, fallers vs. nonfallers, were investigated in this descriptive study. A total of 233 polio survivors volunteered to complete a structured questionnaire on fall history and sequelae.

RESULTS: Of the study participants, 64% had fallen within the previous year, and 61% had falls for which they received medical attention, including 35% who had at least one fracture. There was not a correlation between age and falling, but there was a strong correlation between tripping and falling.

Conclusions: Falls with resultant injuries are a significant issue for polio survivors that warrants further study. Because tripping was predictive of falling in this sample, bracing should be considered as a treatment or preventative measure.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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There are currently 9 papers in this category.

Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Bone Mineral Density Among Individuals With Residual Lower Limb Weakness After Polio
Author: Beth Grill PT, DPT, NCSa, Pamela K. Levangie PT, DSc, DPT, FAPTA, Maria ColeOTR/L, Darren Rosenberg DO, Leah Jensen PT, DPT
Affiliation: Spaulding Outpatient Center Framingham, MA

MGH Institute of Health Professions, Boston, MA; and 500 Lexington Street, Unit 3, Woburn, MA 01801

Spaulding Outpatient Center Framingham, MA

Spaulding Outpatient Center Framingham, MA

Spaulding Outpatient Center Framingham, MA
Journal: PM&R: The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Citation: Available online 7 September 2018
Publication Year and Month: 2018 09

Abstract: Background
Literature indicates that individuals with long-term residual lower extremity (LE) weakness after polio have decreased bone mineral density (BMD) deficiencies related to muscle weakness. Where weakness is asymmetrical, bone densitometry (BDt) measured only on the stronger LE may misclassify BMD.

Objective
To determine (1) whether femoral neck BMD differed from side to side in individuals with asymmetrical LE muscle weakness, and (2) the proportion of individuals at risk for underdiagnosis of low bone density or osteoporosis given unilateral assessment of the femoral neck.

Design
Retrospective study.

Setting
Outpatient postpolio center.

Participants
Patients >18 years old with complete relevant data.

Main Outcome Measures
BDt T scores, BMD categories based on standard T-score ranges, and side of LE weakness determined by a strength score.

Results
Forty-three subjects had at least 1 femoral neck T score and bilateral LE strength scores. Fourteen (32.5%) had BDt only on their weaker LE and 14 (32.5%) had BDt only on their stronger LE. Of the 15 subjects with BDt done on both femoral necks, T scores (mean [standard deviation]) were lower in the weaker LE (–1.73 [1.09]) than the stronger LE (–0.88 [1.0]) (P = .001). Classification of low bone density or osteoporosis was more frequent based on T scores taken on a weaker LE (48.3% and 24.1%, respectively) than from T scores from a stronger LE (41.4% and 6.9%, respectively).

Conclusions: In this small sample, using strong-limb T scores resulted in fewer individuals categorized as having low bone density or osteoporosis than when weak-limb T scores were used. Underestimating BMD loss may lead to undertreatment and increased risk of morbidity, mortality, and costs associated with femoral neck fractures in this high-fall-risk group.

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper:

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here for preview


Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Circumstances and consequences of falls in polio survivors
Author: Bickerstaffe A, Beelen A, Nollet F
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2010 Nov;42(10):908-15. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0620
Publication Year and Month: 2010 11

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Many polio survivors have symptoms that are known risk factors for falls in elderly people. This study aims to determine the: (i) frequency; (ii) consequences; (iii) circumstances; and (iv) factors associated with falls in polio survivors.

METHODS: A survey was conducted among 376 polio survivors. Participants completed a falls history questionnaire and additional information was obtained from their medical files.

RESULTS: Of the 305 respondents, 74% reported at least one fall in the past year and 60% two or more. Sixteen percent of fallers described a major injury after a fall in the last year and 69% reported fear of falling. One-third of fallers had reduced the amount they walked because of their fear of falling. Most reported falls in a familiar environment (86%), during ambulation (72%) and in the afternoon (50%). Quadriceps weakness of the weakest leg (Medical Research Council (MRC) ≤ 3), fear of falling and complaints of problems maintaining balance were independently associated with both falls and recurrent falls, while increasing age and medication use were not.

Conclusions: The high rate of falls and consequences thereof, merit the implementation of fall intervention strategies. To maximize effect, they should be tailor-made and target the fall mechanisms specific to polio survivors.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Fractures in an aging population of poliomyelitis survivors: a community-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota
Author: Goerss JB, Atkinson EJ, Windebank AJ, O'Fallon WM, Melton LJ 3rd
Affiliation: Department of Medical Genetics, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Minnesota 55905
Journal: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Citation: Mayo Clin Proc. 1994 Apr; 69(4):333-9
Publication Year and Month: 1994 04

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of fractures in a cohort of survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis (“polio”).

DESIGN: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, who had an initial diagnosis of polio between 1935 and 1959 and survived the acute illness.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive medical records-linkage system was used to retrieve all diagnoses of poliomyelitis in residents of the county for the specified 25-year period. For the 277 study subjects, the medical records were searched for the occurrence of fracture from the time of initial diagnosis of polio until death or the most recent clinical contact. All fractures were classified on the basis of type of associated injury and skeletal site of involvement. The influence of polio on the incidence of fractures was evaluated by estimating the cumulative incidence of new fractures after the diagnosis of polio and the standardized morbidity ratio. The relative influence of various factors on the risk of fracture was determined.

RESULTS: Of the 277 Olmsted County residents with polio, 87 experienced 161 fractures, and the estimated cumulative incidence of any fracture after 40 years was 48%. The cumulative incidence of any limb fracture was 41% and was less than the expected value of 44% (P = 0.001). Only the risk of distal femoral and proximal humeral fractures was significantly higher than that among Olmsted County residents in general. The increased risk seemed to be associated with weakness and disuse of the involved limbs rather than with generalized osteoporosis. Theoretically, a greater capacity for bone remodeling in response to changes in muscle use might have protected patients with polio in childhood, but such persons were as likely to sustain a fracture as those with adult-onset poliomyelitis.

Conclusions: These data indicate that survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis do not have an unusual risk of fracture except in affected limbs.

Outcome of Research:

Availability of Paper:

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available):


Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Osteoporosis in a postpolio clinic population
Author: Haziza M (1), Kremer R, Benedetti A, Trojan DA
Affiliation: (1) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007 Aug;88(8):1030-5
Publication Year and Month: 2007 08

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To determine (1) the frequency of osteoporosis at the hip and lumbar spine in a postpolio clinic population and (2) the association of lower-extremity muscle strength and other potential contributing factors to osteoporosis with bone density measured at the hip.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study involving a chart review.

SETTING: A university-affiliated hospital postpolio clinic.

PARTICIPANTS: Patient charts (N=379) were reviewed; 164 (26%) were included, and 215 (74%) were not included primarily (74%) because of the unavailability of bone density results.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Bone density (in g/cm(2)) and T score were assessed at the femoral neck and lumbar spine. Muscle strength was evaluated by manual muscle testing in 7 bilateral lower-extremity muscles.

RESULTS: The occurrence of osteoporosis at the hip and lumbar spine was 20 (32%) of 62 and 6 (10%) of 61 in men, 3 (9%) of 33 and 2 (6%) of 32 in premenopausal women, and 18 (27%) of 67 and 7 (11%) of 65 in postmenopausal women, respectively. In a logistic regression model, the presence of osteoporosis at the hip was significantly associated with strength sum score in the same extremity in which the bone density was performed after adjusting for other important risk factors (age, body mass index, time since polio).

Conclusions: Osteoporosis occurred commonly at the hip in a postpolio clinic population. Hip bone density was associated with muscle strength in the same lower extremity.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Falls among adults aging with disability
Author: Matsuda PN (1), Verrall AM (2), Finlayson ML (3), Molton IR (2), Jensen MP (2)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Electronic address: [email protected]; (2) Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA; (3) School of Rehabilitation Therapy, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015 Mar;96(3):464-71. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2014.09.034
Publication Year and Month: 2015 03

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for falling among individuals aging with multiple sclerosis (MS), muscular dystrophy (MD), postpolio syndrome (PPS), and spinal cord injury (SCI).

DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey data from 2009 to 2010 were analyzed. We used forward logistic regression models to examine whether risk factors such as age, sex, mobility level, years since diagnosis, vision, balance, weakness, number of comorbid conditions, and physical activity could distinguish participants who reported falling from those who did not.

SETTING: Surveys were mailed to community-dwelling individuals who had 1 of 4 diagnoses (MS, MD, PPS, or SCI). The survey response rate was 91%.

PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of community-dwelling individuals (N=1862; age, 18-94y) with MS, MD, PPS, or SCI in the United States.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Self-reported fall within the last 6 months.

RESULTS: Fall prevalence for people with MS (54%), MD (70%), PPS (55%), and SCI (40%). Across all 4 groups, fall rates peaked in middle age (45-64y) and among people with moderate mobility limitations. Seven risk factors differentiated participants who fell from those who did not: mobility level, imbalance, age, curvilinear age (age(2)), number of comorbid conditions, duration of diagnosis, and sex. The models differed across diagnostic groups.

Conclusions: People aging with long-term physical disabilities experience unique challenges that affect their risk of falls. A better understanding of the frequency, severity, and risk factors of falls across diagnostic groups is needed to design and implement customized, effective fall prevention and management programs for these individuals.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: High incidence of osteoporosis and fractures in an aging post-polio population
Author: Mohammad AF (1), Khan KA (1), Galvin L (2), Hardiman O (2), O’Connell PG (1)
Affiliation: Departments of (1) Rheumatology, and (2) Neurology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
Journal: European Neurology
Citation: Eur Neurol. 2009 Nov; 62(6):369–374. doi:10.1159/000242444
Publication Year and Month: 2009 11

Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIMS: Since the polio epidemic in Ireland in the 1950s, most polio survivors are approaching into the 6th and 7th decade of their lives. There is little data about bone density and risk of fractures in these patients. In 2006, we undertook an audit of post-polio patients attending rheumatology and neurology outpatient clinics in a university teaching hospital. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis (OP), falls and fractures and to evaluate the association of bone density with other potential contributing factors to OP.

METHODS: Over a 6-month period, 50 post-polio patients attending outpatient clinics completed a questionnaire, and subsequently their medical records were reviewed. Demographic data and details of treatment were extracted. The patients underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning to quantify bone mineral density. Results: Thirty subjects (60%) were females (26 were postmenopausal). The average age of females was 60 ± 13.4 years and of men 59 ± 16.8 years. Overall, 41 (82%) of the patients had experienced falls in the last 5 years and 32 (64%) in the last 6 months. Nineteen (38%) of the patients had experienced a bone fracture in the last 5 years. Based on the bone mineral density data, 28 (56%) of the patients were diagnosed with OP and 20 (40%) had osteopenia, but only 8 (16%) received anti-resorptive therapy. Of the 19 patients who had a fracture, 14 (74%) had OP and 5 (26%) had osteopenia, of whom only 6 (32%) received anti-resorptive therapy. Eight out of 9 fractures of the neck of femur occurred in the weaker leg.

Conclusions: Post-polio patients are a high-risk group for fracture, and thus bone density assessment, review of falls risk and therapeutic intervention should be considered for all patients. Both osteopenia and OP are associated with increased fracture risk.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Polio survivors: falls and subsequent injuries
Author: Silver JK, Aiello DD
Affiliation: Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2002 Aug;81(8):567-70
Publication Year and Month: 2002 08

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study examines the frequency of falls in polio survivors and their resulting morbidity.

DESIGN: Two groups, fallers vs. nonfallers, were investigated in this descriptive study. A total of 233 polio survivors volunteered to complete a structured questionnaire on fall history and sequelae.

RESULTS: Of the study participants, 64% had fallen within the previous year, and 61% had falls for which they received medical attention, including 35% who had at least one fracture. There was not a correlation between age and falling, but there was a strong correlation between tripping and falling.

Conclusions: Falls with resultant injuries are a significant issue for polio survivors that warrants further study. Because tripping was predictive of falling in this sample, bracing should be considered as a treatment or preventative measure.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Lower-limb muscle strength, static and dynamic postural stabilities, risk of falling and fear of falling in polio survivors and healthy subjects
Author: Thaiana Santos Galvão PT, Egídio Sabino Magalhães Júnior PT, MSc, Marco Antonio Orsini Neves PhD, MD & Arthur de Sá Ferreira PhD, PT
Affiliation: This study was supported by the Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ) [Grant numbers E-26/200.564/2015 and E-26/202.769/2015].
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, DOI: 10.1080/09593985.2018.1512178
Publication Year and Month: 2018

Abstract: Introduction: This study investigated the association between preserved lower-limb muscle strength, dynamic and static postural stability, risk of falling, and fear of falling in polio survivors. We also investigated whether these clinical features differ between polio survivors and healthy controls. Methods: This quasi-experimental study enrolled 16 polio survivors (13 underwent a complete-case analysis) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Participants were assessed by the manual muscle test, Berg Balance Scale, force platform posturography, and Falls Efficacy Scale. Between-group mean differences with confidence intervals (MD, CI 95%) and Spearman’s ρ are reported. Results: Compared to healthy controls, polio survivors presented reduced muscle strength (MD = –13, CI 95% −16 to −9 points), lower dynamic postural stability (MD = –14, CI 95% −19 to −8 points), and increased fear of falling (MD = 14, CI 95% 10–18 points) (all P < 0.001). In polio survivors, lower-limb muscle strength was correlated with dynamic (ρ = 0.760) and static postural stability (ρ = 0.738–0.351), risk of falling (ρ = −0.746), and fear of falling (ρ = −0.432). Dynamic postural stability was correlated with risk of falling (ρ = −0.841), fear of falling (ρ = −0.277), and static postural stability (ρ = −0.869 to −0.435; ρ = −0.361 to −0.200, respectively). Risk and fear of falling were also correlated (ρ = 0.464). Discussion: Polio survivors exhibited impaired dynamic postural stability but preserved static stability and increased risk of falling and fear of falling. Preserved lower-limb muscle strength, postural stability, fear of falling, and risk of falling are associated clinical features in this population.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Participation in Two Evidence-Based Falls Prevention Programs by Adults Aging With a Long-Term Disability: Case-Control Study of Reach and Effectiveness
Author: Thomas John Eagen, S. M. Teshale, A. P. Herrera-Venson, A. Ordway, J. Caldwell
Affiliation: University of Washington Seattle
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Journal of Aging and Health · November 2018
Publication Year and Month: 2018 11

Abstract: Objective: Adults aging with a long-term disability (LTD) are at an increased risk for falls. The Older Americans Act Title III-D and Prevention and Public Health Fund (PPHF) support several organizations to deliver falls prevention evidence-based programs designed to reduce risk factors; however, little is understood about the reach and effectiveness of these fall prevention programs for those with LTD compared to those without LTD. This study compared the reach and effectiveness of two evidence-based falls prevention programs between older adults with and without LTD. Method: Using a matched case-control design, 105 LTD older adults enrolled in A Matter of Balance (AMOB) or Stepping On were matched to 315 non-LTD older adults on age, sex, race, and education. Results: On average, LTD older adults attended a higher number of class sessions and were significantly more likely to complete the program compared with the matched-sample of non-LTD older adults. LTD older adults were equally likely as non-LTD older adults to report significant reductions in self-reported fear of falling, falls-related activity restriction, and improvement in falls self-efficacy following completion of the programs.

Conclusions: Discussion: These findings provide preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of these evidence-based falls prevention programs for LTD older adults; however, more research is needed to extend these findings.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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There are currently 9 papers in this category.

Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Polio survivors: falls and subsequent injuries
Author: Silver JK, Aiello DD
Affiliation: Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2002 Aug;81(8):567-70
Publication Year and Month: 2002 08

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study examines the frequency of falls in polio survivors and their resulting morbidity.

DESIGN: Two groups, fallers vs. nonfallers, were investigated in this descriptive study. A total of 233 polio survivors volunteered to complete a structured questionnaire on fall history and sequelae.

RESULTS: Of the study participants, 64% had fallen within the previous year, and 61% had falls for which they received medical attention, including 35% who had at least one fracture. There was not a correlation between age and falling, but there was a strong correlation between tripping and falling.

Conclusions: Falls with resultant injuries are a significant issue for polio survivors that warrants further study. Because tripping was predictive of falling in this sample, bracing should be considered as a treatment or preventative measure.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Falls among adults aging with disability
Author: Matsuda PN (1), Verrall AM (2), Finlayson ML (3), Molton IR (2), Jensen MP (2)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Electronic address: [email protected]; (2) Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA; (3) School of Rehabilitation Therapy, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015 Mar;96(3):464-71. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2014.09.034
Publication Year and Month: 2015 03

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for falling among individuals aging with multiple sclerosis (MS), muscular dystrophy (MD), postpolio syndrome (PPS), and spinal cord injury (SCI).

DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey data from 2009 to 2010 were analyzed. We used forward logistic regression models to examine whether risk factors such as age, sex, mobility level, years since diagnosis, vision, balance, weakness, number of comorbid conditions, and physical activity could distinguish participants who reported falling from those who did not.

SETTING: Surveys were mailed to community-dwelling individuals who had 1 of 4 diagnoses (MS, MD, PPS, or SCI). The survey response rate was 91%.

PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of community-dwelling individuals (N=1862; age, 18-94y) with MS, MD, PPS, or SCI in the United States.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Self-reported fall within the last 6 months.

RESULTS: Fall prevalence for people with MS (54%), MD (70%), PPS (55%), and SCI (40%). Across all 4 groups, fall rates peaked in middle age (45-64y) and among people with moderate mobility limitations. Seven risk factors differentiated participants who fell from those who did not: mobility level, imbalance, age, curvilinear age (age(2)), number of comorbid conditions, duration of diagnosis, and sex. The models differed across diagnostic groups.

Conclusions: People aging with long-term physical disabilities experience unique challenges that affect their risk of falls. A better understanding of the frequency, severity, and risk factors of falls across diagnostic groups is needed to design and implement customized, effective fall prevention and management programs for these individuals.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Osteoporosis in a postpolio clinic population
Author: Haziza M (1), Kremer R, Benedetti A, Trojan DA
Affiliation: (1) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007 Aug;88(8):1030-5
Publication Year and Month: 2007 08

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To determine (1) the frequency of osteoporosis at the hip and lumbar spine in a postpolio clinic population and (2) the association of lower-extremity muscle strength and other potential contributing factors to osteoporosis with bone density measured at the hip.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study involving a chart review.

SETTING: A university-affiliated hospital postpolio clinic.

PARTICIPANTS: Patient charts (N=379) were reviewed; 164 (26%) were included, and 215 (74%) were not included primarily (74%) because of the unavailability of bone density results.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Bone density (in g/cm(2)) and T score were assessed at the femoral neck and lumbar spine. Muscle strength was evaluated by manual muscle testing in 7 bilateral lower-extremity muscles.

RESULTS: The occurrence of osteoporosis at the hip and lumbar spine was 20 (32%) of 62 and 6 (10%) of 61 in men, 3 (9%) of 33 and 2 (6%) of 32 in premenopausal women, and 18 (27%) of 67 and 7 (11%) of 65 in postmenopausal women, respectively. In a logistic regression model, the presence of osteoporosis at the hip was significantly associated with strength sum score in the same extremity in which the bone density was performed after adjusting for other important risk factors (age, body mass index, time since polio).

Conclusions: Osteoporosis occurred commonly at the hip in a postpolio clinic population. Hip bone density was associated with muscle strength in the same lower extremity.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: High incidence of osteoporosis and fractures in an aging post-polio population
Author: Mohammad AF (1), Khan KA (1), Galvin L (2), Hardiman O (2), O’Connell PG (1)
Affiliation: Departments of (1) Rheumatology, and (2) Neurology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
Journal: European Neurology
Citation: Eur Neurol. 2009 Nov; 62(6):369–374. doi:10.1159/000242444
Publication Year and Month: 2009 11

Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIMS: Since the polio epidemic in Ireland in the 1950s, most polio survivors are approaching into the 6th and 7th decade of their lives. There is little data about bone density and risk of fractures in these patients. In 2006, we undertook an audit of post-polio patients attending rheumatology and neurology outpatient clinics in a university teaching hospital. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis (OP), falls and fractures and to evaluate the association of bone density with other potential contributing factors to OP.

METHODS: Over a 6-month period, 50 post-polio patients attending outpatient clinics completed a questionnaire, and subsequently their medical records were reviewed. Demographic data and details of treatment were extracted. The patients underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning to quantify bone mineral density. Results: Thirty subjects (60%) were females (26 were postmenopausal). The average age of females was 60 ± 13.4 years and of men 59 ± 16.8 years. Overall, 41 (82%) of the patients had experienced falls in the last 5 years and 32 (64%) in the last 6 months. Nineteen (38%) of the patients had experienced a bone fracture in the last 5 years. Based on the bone mineral density data, 28 (56%) of the patients were diagnosed with OP and 20 (40%) had osteopenia, but only 8 (16%) received anti-resorptive therapy. Of the 19 patients who had a fracture, 14 (74%) had OP and 5 (26%) had osteopenia, of whom only 6 (32%) received anti-resorptive therapy. Eight out of 9 fractures of the neck of femur occurred in the weaker leg.

Conclusions: Post-polio patients are a high-risk group for fracture, and thus bone density assessment, review of falls risk and therapeutic intervention should be considered for all patients. Both osteopenia and OP are associated with increased fracture risk.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Circumstances and consequences of falls in polio survivors
Author: Bickerstaffe A, Beelen A, Nollet F
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2010 Nov;42(10):908-15. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0620
Publication Year and Month: 2010 11

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Many polio survivors have symptoms that are known risk factors for falls in elderly people. This study aims to determine the: (i) frequency; (ii) consequences; (iii) circumstances; and (iv) factors associated with falls in polio survivors.

METHODS: A survey was conducted among 376 polio survivors. Participants completed a falls history questionnaire and additional information was obtained from their medical files.

RESULTS: Of the 305 respondents, 74% reported at least one fall in the past year and 60% two or more. Sixteen percent of fallers described a major injury after a fall in the last year and 69% reported fear of falling. One-third of fallers had reduced the amount they walked because of their fear of falling. Most reported falls in a familiar environment (86%), during ambulation (72%) and in the afternoon (50%). Quadriceps weakness of the weakest leg (Medical Research Council (MRC) ≤ 3), fear of falling and complaints of problems maintaining balance were independently associated with both falls and recurrent falls, while increasing age and medication use were not.

Conclusions: The high rate of falls and consequences thereof, merit the implementation of fall intervention strategies. To maximize effect, they should be tailor-made and target the fall mechanisms specific to polio survivors.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Fractures in an aging population of poliomyelitis survivors: a community-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota
Author: Goerss JB, Atkinson EJ, Windebank AJ, O'Fallon WM, Melton LJ 3rd
Affiliation: Department of Medical Genetics, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Minnesota 55905
Journal: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Citation: Mayo Clin Proc. 1994 Apr; 69(4):333-9
Publication Year and Month: 1994 04

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of fractures in a cohort of survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis (“polio”).

DESIGN: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, who had an initial diagnosis of polio between 1935 and 1959 and survived the acute illness.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive medical records-linkage system was used to retrieve all diagnoses of poliomyelitis in residents of the county for the specified 25-year period. For the 277 study subjects, the medical records were searched for the occurrence of fracture from the time of initial diagnosis of polio until death or the most recent clinical contact. All fractures were classified on the basis of type of associated injury and skeletal site of involvement. The influence of polio on the incidence of fractures was evaluated by estimating the cumulative incidence of new fractures after the diagnosis of polio and the standardized morbidity ratio. The relative influence of various factors on the risk of fracture was determined.

RESULTS: Of the 277 Olmsted County residents with polio, 87 experienced 161 fractures, and the estimated cumulative incidence of any fracture after 40 years was 48%. The cumulative incidence of any limb fracture was 41% and was less than the expected value of 44% (P = 0.001). Only the risk of distal femoral and proximal humeral fractures was significantly higher than that among Olmsted County residents in general. The increased risk seemed to be associated with weakness and disuse of the involved limbs rather than with generalized osteoporosis. Theoretically, a greater capacity for bone remodeling in response to changes in muscle use might have protected patients with polio in childhood, but such persons were as likely to sustain a fracture as those with adult-onset poliomyelitis.

Conclusions: These data indicate that survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis do not have an unusual risk of fracture except in affected limbs.

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Lower-limb muscle strength, static and dynamic postural stabilities, risk of falling and fear of falling in polio survivors and healthy subjects
Author: Thaiana Santos Galvão PT, Egídio Sabino Magalhães Júnior PT, MSc, Marco Antonio Orsini Neves PhD, MD & Arthur de Sá Ferreira PhD, PT
Affiliation: This study was supported by the Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ) [Grant numbers E-26/200.564/2015 and E-26/202.769/2015].
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, DOI: 10.1080/09593985.2018.1512178
Publication Year and Month: 2018

Abstract: Introduction: This study investigated the association between preserved lower-limb muscle strength, dynamic and static postural stability, risk of falling, and fear of falling in polio survivors. We also investigated whether these clinical features differ between polio survivors and healthy controls. Methods: This quasi-experimental study enrolled 16 polio survivors (13 underwent a complete-case analysis) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Participants were assessed by the manual muscle test, Berg Balance Scale, force platform posturography, and Falls Efficacy Scale. Between-group mean differences with confidence intervals (MD, CI 95%) and Spearman’s ρ are reported. Results: Compared to healthy controls, polio survivors presented reduced muscle strength (MD = –13, CI 95% −16 to −9 points), lower dynamic postural stability (MD = –14, CI 95% −19 to −8 points), and increased fear of falling (MD = 14, CI 95% 10–18 points) (all P < 0.001). In polio survivors, lower-limb muscle strength was correlated with dynamic (ρ = 0.760) and static postural stability (ρ = 0.738–0.351), risk of falling (ρ = −0.746), and fear of falling (ρ = −0.432). Dynamic postural stability was correlated with risk of falling (ρ = −0.841), fear of falling (ρ = −0.277), and static postural stability (ρ = −0.869 to −0.435; ρ = −0.361 to −0.200, respectively). Risk and fear of falling were also correlated (ρ = 0.464). Discussion: Polio survivors exhibited impaired dynamic postural stability but preserved static stability and increased risk of falling and fear of falling. Preserved lower-limb muscle strength, postural stability, fear of falling, and risk of falling are associated clinical features in this population.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Participation in Two Evidence-Based Falls Prevention Programs by Adults Aging With a Long-Term Disability: Case-Control Study of Reach and Effectiveness
Author: Thomas John Eagen, S. M. Teshale, A. P. Herrera-Venson, A. Ordway, J. Caldwell
Affiliation: University of Washington Seattle
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Journal of Aging and Health · November 2018
Publication Year and Month: 2018 11

Abstract: Objective: Adults aging with a long-term disability (LTD) are at an increased risk for falls. The Older Americans Act Title III-D and Prevention and Public Health Fund (PPHF) support several organizations to deliver falls prevention evidence-based programs designed to reduce risk factors; however, little is understood about the reach and effectiveness of these fall prevention programs for those with LTD compared to those without LTD. This study compared the reach and effectiveness of two evidence-based falls prevention programs between older adults with and without LTD. Method: Using a matched case-control design, 105 LTD older adults enrolled in A Matter of Balance (AMOB) or Stepping On were matched to 315 non-LTD older adults on age, sex, race, and education. Results: On average, LTD older adults attended a higher number of class sessions and were significantly more likely to complete the program compared with the matched-sample of non-LTD older adults. LTD older adults were equally likely as non-LTD older adults to report significant reductions in self-reported fear of falling, falls-related activity restriction, and improvement in falls self-efficacy following completion of the programs.

Conclusions: Discussion: These findings provide preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of these evidence-based falls prevention programs for LTD older adults; however, more research is needed to extend these findings.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Bone Mineral Density Among Individuals With Residual Lower Limb Weakness After Polio
Author: Beth Grill PT, DPT, NCSa, Pamela K. Levangie PT, DSc, DPT, FAPTA, Maria ColeOTR/L, Darren Rosenberg DO, Leah Jensen PT, DPT
Affiliation: Spaulding Outpatient Center Framingham, MA

MGH Institute of Health Professions, Boston, MA; and 500 Lexington Street, Unit 3, Woburn, MA 01801

Spaulding Outpatient Center Framingham, MA

Spaulding Outpatient Center Framingham, MA

Spaulding Outpatient Center Framingham, MA
Journal: PM&R: The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Citation: Available online 7 September 2018
Publication Year and Month: 2018 09

Abstract: Background
Literature indicates that individuals with long-term residual lower extremity (LE) weakness after polio have decreased bone mineral density (BMD) deficiencies related to muscle weakness. Where weakness is asymmetrical, bone densitometry (BDt) measured only on the stronger LE may misclassify BMD.

Objective
To determine (1) whether femoral neck BMD differed from side to side in individuals with asymmetrical LE muscle weakness, and (2) the proportion of individuals at risk for underdiagnosis of low bone density or osteoporosis given unilateral assessment of the femoral neck.

Design
Retrospective study.

Setting
Outpatient postpolio center.

Participants
Patients >18 years old with complete relevant data.

Main Outcome Measures
BDt T scores, BMD categories based on standard T-score ranges, and side of LE weakness determined by a strength score.

Results
Forty-three subjects had at least 1 femoral neck T score and bilateral LE strength scores. Fourteen (32.5%) had BDt only on their weaker LE and 14 (32.5%) had BDt only on their stronger LE. Of the 15 subjects with BDt done on both femoral necks, T scores (mean [standard deviation]) were lower in the weaker LE (–1.73 [1.09]) than the stronger LE (–0.88 [1.0]) (P = .001). Classification of low bone density or osteoporosis was more frequent based on T scores taken on a weaker LE (48.3% and 24.1%, respectively) than from T scores from a stronger LE (41.4% and 6.9%, respectively).

Conclusions: In this small sample, using strong-limb T scores resulted in fewer individuals categorized as having low bone density or osteoporosis than when weak-limb T scores were used. Underestimating BMD loss may lead to undertreatment and increased risk of morbidity, mortality, and costs associated with femoral neck fractures in this high-fall-risk group.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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There are currently 9 papers in this category.

Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Participation in Two Evidence-Based Falls Prevention Programs by Adults Aging With a Long-Term Disability: Case-Control Study of Reach and Effectiveness
Author: Thomas John Eagen, S. M. Teshale, A. P. Herrera-Venson, A. Ordway, J. Caldwell
Affiliation: University of Washington Seattle
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Journal of Aging and Health · November 2018
Publication Year and Month: 2018 11

Abstract: Objective: Adults aging with a long-term disability (LTD) are at an increased risk for falls. The Older Americans Act Title III-D and Prevention and Public Health Fund (PPHF) support several organizations to deliver falls prevention evidence-based programs designed to reduce risk factors; however, little is understood about the reach and effectiveness of these fall prevention programs for those with LTD compared to those without LTD. This study compared the reach and effectiveness of two evidence-based falls prevention programs between older adults with and without LTD. Method: Using a matched case-control design, 105 LTD older adults enrolled in A Matter of Balance (AMOB) or Stepping On were matched to 315 non-LTD older adults on age, sex, race, and education. Results: On average, LTD older adults attended a higher number of class sessions and were significantly more likely to complete the program compared with the matched-sample of non-LTD older adults. LTD older adults were equally likely as non-LTD older adults to report significant reductions in self-reported fear of falling, falls-related activity restriction, and improvement in falls self-efficacy following completion of the programs.

Conclusions: Discussion: These findings provide preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of these evidence-based falls prevention programs for LTD older adults; however, more research is needed to extend these findings.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Bone Mineral Density Among Individuals With Residual Lower Limb Weakness After Polio
Author: Beth Grill PT, DPT, NCSa, Pamela K. Levangie PT, DSc, DPT, FAPTA, Maria ColeOTR/L, Darren Rosenberg DO, Leah Jensen PT, DPT
Affiliation: Spaulding Outpatient Center Framingham, MA

MGH Institute of Health Professions, Boston, MA; and 500 Lexington Street, Unit 3, Woburn, MA 01801

Spaulding Outpatient Center Framingham, MA

Spaulding Outpatient Center Framingham, MA

Spaulding Outpatient Center Framingham, MA
Journal: PM&R: The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Citation: Available online 7 September 2018
Publication Year and Month: 2018 09

Abstract: Background
Literature indicates that individuals with long-term residual lower extremity (LE) weakness after polio have decreased bone mineral density (BMD) deficiencies related to muscle weakness. Where weakness is asymmetrical, bone densitometry (BDt) measured only on the stronger LE may misclassify BMD.

Objective
To determine (1) whether femoral neck BMD differed from side to side in individuals with asymmetrical LE muscle weakness, and (2) the proportion of individuals at risk for underdiagnosis of low bone density or osteoporosis given unilateral assessment of the femoral neck.

Design
Retrospective study.

Setting
Outpatient postpolio center.

Participants
Patients >18 years old with complete relevant data.

Main Outcome Measures
BDt T scores, BMD categories based on standard T-score ranges, and side of LE weakness determined by a strength score.

Results
Forty-three subjects had at least 1 femoral neck T score and bilateral LE strength scores. Fourteen (32.5%) had BDt only on their weaker LE and 14 (32.5%) had BDt only on their stronger LE. Of the 15 subjects with BDt done on both femoral necks, T scores (mean [standard deviation]) were lower in the weaker LE (–1.73 [1.09]) than the stronger LE (–0.88 [1.0]) (P = .001). Classification of low bone density or osteoporosis was more frequent based on T scores taken on a weaker LE (48.3% and 24.1%, respectively) than from T scores from a stronger LE (41.4% and 6.9%, respectively).

Conclusions: In this small sample, using strong-limb T scores resulted in fewer individuals categorized as having low bone density or osteoporosis than when weak-limb T scores were used. Underestimating BMD loss may lead to undertreatment and increased risk of morbidity, mortality, and costs associated with femoral neck fractures in this high-fall-risk group.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Lower-limb muscle strength, static and dynamic postural stabilities, risk of falling and fear of falling in polio survivors and healthy subjects
Author: Thaiana Santos Galvão PT, Egídio Sabino Magalhães Júnior PT, MSc, Marco Antonio Orsini Neves PhD, MD & Arthur de Sá Ferreira PhD, PT
Affiliation: This study was supported by the Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ) [Grant numbers E-26/200.564/2015 and E-26/202.769/2015].
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, DOI: 10.1080/09593985.2018.1512178
Publication Year and Month: 2018

Abstract: Introduction: This study investigated the association between preserved lower-limb muscle strength, dynamic and static postural stability, risk of falling, and fear of falling in polio survivors. We also investigated whether these clinical features differ between polio survivors and healthy controls. Methods: This quasi-experimental study enrolled 16 polio survivors (13 underwent a complete-case analysis) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Participants were assessed by the manual muscle test, Berg Balance Scale, force platform posturography, and Falls Efficacy Scale. Between-group mean differences with confidence intervals (MD, CI 95%) and Spearman’s ρ are reported. Results: Compared to healthy controls, polio survivors presented reduced muscle strength (MD = –13, CI 95% −16 to −9 points), lower dynamic postural stability (MD = –14, CI 95% −19 to −8 points), and increased fear of falling (MD = 14, CI 95% 10–18 points) (all P < 0.001). In polio survivors, lower-limb muscle strength was correlated with dynamic (ρ = 0.760) and static postural stability (ρ = 0.738–0.351), risk of falling (ρ = −0.746), and fear of falling (ρ = −0.432). Dynamic postural stability was correlated with risk of falling (ρ = −0.841), fear of falling (ρ = −0.277), and static postural stability (ρ = −0.869 to −0.435; ρ = −0.361 to −0.200, respectively). Risk and fear of falling were also correlated (ρ = 0.464). Discussion: Polio survivors exhibited impaired dynamic postural stability but preserved static stability and increased risk of falling and fear of falling. Preserved lower-limb muscle strength, postural stability, fear of falling, and risk of falling are associated clinical features in this population.

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Falls among adults aging with disability
Author: Matsuda PN (1), Verrall AM (2), Finlayson ML (3), Molton IR (2), Jensen MP (2)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Electronic address: [email protected]; (2) Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA; (3) School of Rehabilitation Therapy, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015 Mar;96(3):464-71. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2014.09.034
Publication Year and Month: 2015 03

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for falling among individuals aging with multiple sclerosis (MS), muscular dystrophy (MD), postpolio syndrome (PPS), and spinal cord injury (SCI).

DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey data from 2009 to 2010 were analyzed. We used forward logistic regression models to examine whether risk factors such as age, sex, mobility level, years since diagnosis, vision, balance, weakness, number of comorbid conditions, and physical activity could distinguish participants who reported falling from those who did not.

SETTING: Surveys were mailed to community-dwelling individuals who had 1 of 4 diagnoses (MS, MD, PPS, or SCI). The survey response rate was 91%.

PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of community-dwelling individuals (N=1862; age, 18-94y) with MS, MD, PPS, or SCI in the United States.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Self-reported fall within the last 6 months.

RESULTS: Fall prevalence for people with MS (54%), MD (70%), PPS (55%), and SCI (40%). Across all 4 groups, fall rates peaked in middle age (45-64y) and among people with moderate mobility limitations. Seven risk factors differentiated participants who fell from those who did not: mobility level, imbalance, age, curvilinear age (age(2)), number of comorbid conditions, duration of diagnosis, and sex. The models differed across diagnostic groups.

Conclusions: People aging with long-term physical disabilities experience unique challenges that affect their risk of falls. A better understanding of the frequency, severity, and risk factors of falls across diagnostic groups is needed to design and implement customized, effective fall prevention and management programs for these individuals.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Circumstances and consequences of falls in polio survivors
Author: Bickerstaffe A, Beelen A, Nollet F
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2010 Nov;42(10):908-15. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0620
Publication Year and Month: 2010 11

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Many polio survivors have symptoms that are known risk factors for falls in elderly people. This study aims to determine the: (i) frequency; (ii) consequences; (iii) circumstances; and (iv) factors associated with falls in polio survivors.

METHODS: A survey was conducted among 376 polio survivors. Participants completed a falls history questionnaire and additional information was obtained from their medical files.

RESULTS: Of the 305 respondents, 74% reported at least one fall in the past year and 60% two or more. Sixteen percent of fallers described a major injury after a fall in the last year and 69% reported fear of falling. One-third of fallers had reduced the amount they walked because of their fear of falling. Most reported falls in a familiar environment (86%), during ambulation (72%) and in the afternoon (50%). Quadriceps weakness of the weakest leg (Medical Research Council (MRC) ≤ 3), fear of falling and complaints of problems maintaining balance were independently associated with both falls and recurrent falls, while increasing age and medication use were not.

Conclusions: The high rate of falls and consequences thereof, merit the implementation of fall intervention strategies. To maximize effect, they should be tailor-made and target the fall mechanisms specific to polio survivors.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: High incidence of osteoporosis and fractures in an aging post-polio population
Author: Mohammad AF (1), Khan KA (1), Galvin L (2), Hardiman O (2), O’Connell PG (1)
Affiliation: Departments of (1) Rheumatology, and (2) Neurology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
Journal: European Neurology
Citation: Eur Neurol. 2009 Nov; 62(6):369–374. doi:10.1159/000242444
Publication Year and Month: 2009 11

Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIMS: Since the polio epidemic in Ireland in the 1950s, most polio survivors are approaching into the 6th and 7th decade of their lives. There is little data about bone density and risk of fractures in these patients. In 2006, we undertook an audit of post-polio patients attending rheumatology and neurology outpatient clinics in a university teaching hospital. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis (OP), falls and fractures and to evaluate the association of bone density with other potential contributing factors to OP.

METHODS: Over a 6-month period, 50 post-polio patients attending outpatient clinics completed a questionnaire, and subsequently their medical records were reviewed. Demographic data and details of treatment were extracted. The patients underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning to quantify bone mineral density. Results: Thirty subjects (60%) were females (26 were postmenopausal). The average age of females was 60 ± 13.4 years and of men 59 ± 16.8 years. Overall, 41 (82%) of the patients had experienced falls in the last 5 years and 32 (64%) in the last 6 months. Nineteen (38%) of the patients had experienced a bone fracture in the last 5 years. Based on the bone mineral density data, 28 (56%) of the patients were diagnosed with OP and 20 (40%) had osteopenia, but only 8 (16%) received anti-resorptive therapy. Of the 19 patients who had a fracture, 14 (74%) had OP and 5 (26%) had osteopenia, of whom only 6 (32%) received anti-resorptive therapy. Eight out of 9 fractures of the neck of femur occurred in the weaker leg.

Conclusions: Post-polio patients are a high-risk group for fracture, and thus bone density assessment, review of falls risk and therapeutic intervention should be considered for all patients. Both osteopenia and OP are associated with increased fracture risk.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Osteoporosis in a postpolio clinic population
Author: Haziza M (1), Kremer R, Benedetti A, Trojan DA
Affiliation: (1) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007 Aug;88(8):1030-5
Publication Year and Month: 2007 08

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To determine (1) the frequency of osteoporosis at the hip and lumbar spine in a postpolio clinic population and (2) the association of lower-extremity muscle strength and other potential contributing factors to osteoporosis with bone density measured at the hip.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study involving a chart review.

SETTING: A university-affiliated hospital postpolio clinic.

PARTICIPANTS: Patient charts (N=379) were reviewed; 164 (26%) were included, and 215 (74%) were not included primarily (74%) because of the unavailability of bone density results.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Bone density (in g/cm(2)) and T score were assessed at the femoral neck and lumbar spine. Muscle strength was evaluated by manual muscle testing in 7 bilateral lower-extremity muscles.

RESULTS: The occurrence of osteoporosis at the hip and lumbar spine was 20 (32%) of 62 and 6 (10%) of 61 in men, 3 (9%) of 33 and 2 (6%) of 32 in premenopausal women, and 18 (27%) of 67 and 7 (11%) of 65 in postmenopausal women, respectively. In a logistic regression model, the presence of osteoporosis at the hip was significantly associated with strength sum score in the same extremity in which the bone density was performed after adjusting for other important risk factors (age, body mass index, time since polio).

Conclusions: Osteoporosis occurred commonly at the hip in a postpolio clinic population. Hip bone density was associated with muscle strength in the same lower extremity.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Polio survivors: falls and subsequent injuries
Author: Silver JK, Aiello DD
Affiliation: Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2002 Aug;81(8):567-70
Publication Year and Month: 2002 08

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study examines the frequency of falls in polio survivors and their resulting morbidity.

DESIGN: Two groups, fallers vs. nonfallers, were investigated in this descriptive study. A total of 233 polio survivors volunteered to complete a structured questionnaire on fall history and sequelae.

RESULTS: Of the study participants, 64% had fallen within the previous year, and 61% had falls for which they received medical attention, including 35% who had at least one fracture. There was not a correlation between age and falling, but there was a strong correlation between tripping and falling.

Conclusions: Falls with resultant injuries are a significant issue for polio survivors that warrants further study. Because tripping was predictive of falling in this sample, bracing should be considered as a treatment or preventative measure.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Falls and Bone Density

Title: Fractures in an aging population of poliomyelitis survivors: a community-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota
Author: Goerss JB, Atkinson EJ, Windebank AJ, O'Fallon WM, Melton LJ 3rd
Affiliation: Department of Medical Genetics, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Minnesota 55905
Journal: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Citation: Mayo Clin Proc. 1994 Apr; 69(4):333-9
Publication Year and Month: 1994 04

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of fractures in a cohort of survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis (“polio”).

DESIGN: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, who had an initial diagnosis of polio between 1935 and 1959 and survived the acute illness.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive medical records-linkage system was used to retrieve all diagnoses of poliomyelitis in residents of the county for the specified 25-year period. For the 277 study subjects, the medical records were searched for the occurrence of fracture from the time of initial diagnosis of polio until death or the most recent clinical contact. All fractures were classified on the basis of type of associated injury and skeletal site of involvement. The influence of polio on the incidence of fractures was evaluated by estimating the cumulative incidence of new fractures after the diagnosis of polio and the standardized morbidity ratio. The relative influence of various factors on the risk of fracture was determined.

RESULTS: Of the 277 Olmsted County residents with polio, 87 experienced 161 fractures, and the estimated cumulative incidence of any fracture after 40 years was 48%. The cumulative incidence of any limb fracture was 41% and was less than the expected value of 44% (P = 0.001). Only the risk of distal femoral and proximal humeral fractures was significantly higher than that among Olmsted County residents in general. The increased risk seemed to be associated with weakness and disuse of the involved limbs rather than with generalized osteoporosis. Theoretically, a greater capacity for bone remodeling in response to changes in muscle use might have protected patients with polio in childhood, but such persons were as likely to sustain a fracture as those with adult-onset poliomyelitis.

Conclusions: These data indicate that survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis do not have an unusual risk of fracture except in affected limbs.

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Outcomes of Research or Clinical Trials Activity Levels Acute Flaccid Paralysis Ageing Anaerobic Threshold Anaesthesia Assistive Technology Brain Cardiorespiratory Cardiovascular Clinical Evaluation Cold Intolerance Complementary Therapies Continence Coping Styles and Strategies Cultural Context Diagnosis and Management Differential Diagnosis Drugs Dysphagia Dysphonia Epidemiology Exercise Falls Fatigue Fractures Gender Differences Immune Response Inflammation Late Effects of Polio Muscle Strength Muscular Atrophy Orthoses Pain Polio Immunisation Post-Polio Motor Unit Psychology Quality of Life Renal Complications Respiratory Complications and Management Restless Legs Syndrome Sleep Analaysis Surgery Vitality Vocational Implications