Outcomes of Research or Clinical Trials Activity Levels Acute Flaccid Paralysis Ageing Anaerobic Threshold Anaesthesia Assistive Technology Brain Cardiorespiratory Cardiovascular Clinical Evaluation Cold Intolerance Complementary Therapies Continence Coping Styles and Strategies Cultural Context Diagnosis and Management Differential Diagnosis Drugs Dysphagia Dysphonia Epidemiology Exercise Falls Fatigue Fractures Gender Differences Immune Response Inflammation Late Effects of Polio Muscle Strength Muscular Atrophy Orthoses Pain Polio Immunisation Post-Polio Motor Unit Psychology Quality of Life Renal Complications Respiratory Complications and Management Restless Legs Syndrome Sleep Analaysis Surgery Vitality Vocational Implications

Title order Author order Journal order Date order
Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: A positive turning point in life -- how persons with late effects of polio experience the influence of an interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme
Author: Larsson Lund M (1), Lexell J
Affiliation: (1) Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy , Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2010 Jun;42(6):559-65. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0559
Publication Year and Month: 2010 06

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To describe and enhance our understanding of how persons with late effects of polio experience the influence of an interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme.

PARTICIPANTS: Twelve persons with clinically verified late effects of polio who had participated in an individualized, goal-oriented, comprehensive interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme.

METHODS: Qualitative research interviews analysed using the constant comparative method of grounded theory.

RESULTS: The rehabilitation programme was experienced as a turning point in the participants' lives. Before rehabilitation they felt they were on a downward slope without control. Rehabilitation was the start of a process of change whereby they acquired new skills, which, over time, contributed to a different but good life. After approximately a year, they had a sense of control and had accepted life with late effects of polio. They had also established new habits, taken on a changed valued self and could look to the future with confidence.

Conclusions: This qualitative study has shown that persons with late effects of polio can benefit from an individualized, goal-oriented, comprehensive interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme and experience positive changes in their management of daily activities and in their view of their late effects of polio, their future and their self.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Cardiac risk factors in polio survivors
Author: Gawne AC, Wells KR, Wilson KS.
Affiliation: Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehabilitation, Warm Springs, GA 31830, USA - [email protected]
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003 May;84(5):694-6
Publication Year and Month: 2003 05

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of dyslipidemia and other risk factors for coronary heart disease in a sample of polio survivors with and without postpoliomyelitis syndrome.

DESIGN: Retrospective chart review.

SETTING: A multidisciplinary outpatient postpolio clinic.

PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-eight consecutive symptomatic postpolio patients, 50 women (mean age, 59.0y; range, 36-81y) and 38 men (mean age, 61.2y; range, 44-83y).

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence of risk factors for coronary heart disease: clinical atherosclerotic disease, male age >or=45 years or female age >or=55 years, history of hypertension (blood pressure >or=140/90mmHg or on antihypertensive medication), diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) less than 35mg/dL. Obesity (body mass index [BMI], >25kg/m(2)) was assessed as an intervention target. Laboratory values included fasting total cholesterol, HDL, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and glucose.

RESULTS: Of the total sample, 61.3% had dyslipidemia. Average HDL cholesterol ratio was 4.01 (women, 3.68; men, 4.55). Forty-four patients (50%) had a history of hypertension or had elevated blood pressure. Seven patients (8%) had a history of diabetes or had elevated fasting blood glucose (>110). Eighteen patients (20.4%) were smokers or had a history of smoking; 9 continued to smoke and 9 had quit smoking. Twenty-five patients (28.4%) were overweight (BMI, >25kg/m(2)). Forty-one patients (46.5%) had more than 1 risk factor for coronary heart disease. Nine of the total sample (10.2%) had a history of heart disease ranging from atrial fibrillation to angina. Only 19 patients had a previous diagnosis of dyslipidemia and only 12 were on a lipid-lowering medication.

Conclusions: Polio patients have a high prevalence of dyslipidemia. The study sample supports the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III statements that hypercholesterolemia is underdiagnosed and undertreated. The postpolio population carries a high prevalence of 2 or more coronary heart disease risk factors. Evaluation and rehabilitation of polio patients should include screening for dyslipidemia and education about elimination of controllable risk factors.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Characteristics and management of postpolio syndrome
Author: Jubelt B, Agre JC
Affiliation: State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, 750 E Adams St, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA – [email protected]
Journal: The Journal of the American Medical Association
Citation: JAMA. 2000 Jul 26;284(4):412-4
Publication Year and Month: 2000 07

Abstract: Postpolio syndrome (PPS) refers to new, late manifestations occurring many years after acute poliomyelitis infection. Over the last 25 years, PPS has become a relatively common problem encountered by primary care physicians. A 1987 National Health Interview Survey estimated that about half of the 640,000 survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis in the United States had new late manifestations of PPS. Subsequent studies in the 1990s have found the occurrence of PPS among patients with previous poliomyelitis to range from 28.5% to 64%. The average time in various reports from the acute poliomyelitis until the onset of PPS is about 35 years, with a range from 8 to 71 years. However, it is unclear if the occurrence of PPS increases with aging, which may be the case based on the most accepted etiologic hypothesis.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Effect of treatment and noncompliance on post-polio sequelae
Author: Peach PE, Olejnik S
Affiliation: Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehabilitation, Georgia 31830
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1199-203
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: In this study of 77 patients with post-polio sequelae (PPS), symptoms and manual test scores on initial evaluation were compared with those at subsequent follow-up evaluations. Patients were divided into three groups based on the degree to which they had complied with clinically recommended interventions: compliers, partial compliers, and noncompliers. At the end of the follow-up period (2.2 +/- 1.2 years), the mean muscle function scores of the entire study group had declined -1.5%, which represented a decline of -0.7% annually. On follow-up evaluations, the complier group had realized an improvement or resolution of post-polio symptoms, and also an improvement in muscle function of +0.6% annually. The partial complier group had realized either no improvement, or improvement in post-polio symptoms, but showed a further decline in muscle function of -3.0%, or an annual decline of -1.3%. The noncomplier group showed either no change, or a worsening of post-polio symptoms, and also showed a further decline in muscle function of -4.1%, which represented an annual decline of -2.0%.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Effect of Treatment and Noncompliance on Post-Polio Sequelae
Author: Paul E. Peach, MD, Stephen Olejnik, PhD
Affiliation:
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics November 1991 Vol 14 No. 11 1199-1203
Publication Year and Month: 1991

Abstract: In this study of 77 patients with post-polio sequelae (PPS), symptoms and manual test scores on initial evaluation were compared with those at subsequent follow-up evaluations. Patients were divided into three groups based on the degree to which they had complied with clinically recommended interventions: compliers, partial compliers, and noncompliers. At the end of the followup period (2.2 ± 1.2 years), the mean muscle function scores of the entire study group had declined - l.5%, which represented a decline of -0.7% annually. On follow-up evaluations, the complier group had realized an improvement or resolution of post-polio symptoms, and also an improvement in muscle function of +0.6% annually. The partial complier group had realized either no improvement, or improvement in post-polio symptoms, but showed a further decline in muscle function of -3.0%, or an annual decline of -1.3%. The noncomplier group showed either no change, or a worsening of post-polio symptoms, and also showed a further decline in muscle function of - 4.1% which represented an annual decline of - 2.0%.

Conclusions: The disparate outcomes among our post-polio patients underscore the need to develop more effective intervention strategies to achieve improved patient compliance, given the favorable outcomes experienced by patients who complied with clinical recommendations.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: EFNS guideline on diagnosis and management of post-polio syndrome - report of an EFNS task force
Author: Farbu E, Gilhus NE, Barnes MP, Borg K, de Visser M, Driessen A, Howard R, Nollet F, Opara J, Stalberg E
Affiliation: Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway – [email protected] – European Federation of Neurological Society
Journal: European Journal of Neurology
Citation: Eur J Neurol. 2006 Aug; 13(8):795-801
Publication Year and Month: 2006 08

Abstract: Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is characterized by new or increased muscular weakness, atrophy, muscle pain and fatigue several years after acute polio. The aim of the article is to prepare diagnostic criteria for PPS, and to evaluate the existing evidence for therapeutic interventions. The Medline, EMBASE and ISI databases were searched. Consensus in the group was reached after discussion by e-mail. We recommend Halstead's definition of PPS from 1991 as diagnostic criteria. Supervised, aerobic muscular training, both isokinetic and isometric, is a safe and effective way to prevent further decline for patients with moderate weakness (Level B). Muscular training can also improve muscular fatigue, muscle weakness and pain. Training in a warm climate and non-swimming water exercises are particularly useful (Level B). Respiratory muscle training can improve pulmonary function. Recognition of respiratory impairment and early introduction of non-invasive ventilatory aids prevent or delay further respiratory decline and the need for invasive respiratory aid (Level C). Group training, regular follow-up and patient education are useful for the patients' mental status and well-being. Weight loss, adjustment and introduction of properly fitted assistive devices should be considered (good practice points). A small number of controlled studies of potential-specific treatments for PPS have been completed, but no definitive therapeutic effect has been reported for the agents evaluated (pyridostigmine, corticosteroids, amantadine). Future randomized trials should particularly address the treatment of pain, which is commonly reported by PPS patients. There is also a need for studies evaluating the long-term effects of muscular training.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Epidemiology of the post-polio syndrome
Author: Ramlow J, Alexander M, LaPorte R, Kaufmann C, Kuller L
Affiliation: Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA
Journal: American Journal of Epidemiology
Citation: Am J Epidemiol. 1992 Oct 1;136(7):769-86
Publication Year and Month: 1992 10

Abstract: A late-onset syndrome, consisting of muscle weakness, muscle pain, and unaccustomed fatigue, has been reported with increasing frequency among former poliomyelitis patients. A population-based cohort of poliomyelitis patients from Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, was traced and surveyed to estimate the prevalence and incidence and to identify determinants of the post-polio syndrome. A questionnaire validated in clinical examinations of 40 cohort members was used in the survey. The prevalence of the post-polio syndrome was 28.5% of all paralytic cases (95% confidence interval 24.4-32.6). The risk of post-polio syndrome was significantly higher among patients who sustained substantial permanent impairment after polio and among females. The incidence did not vary with age at acute onset, acute severity, or level of physical activity after recovery. The strongest determinant of post-polio syndrome onset was the length of the interval following the acute illness, with incidence peaking at 30-34 years. Of all cases of post-polio syndrome, 79% reported no major change in impairment status since onset. This study demonstrates that poliomyelitis patients are not equally susceptible to post-polio syndrome within the interval of 30-40 years after the original illness. For syndrome cases, the onset was associated with new neuromuscular symptoms and functional changes but not with major new impairment.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Frequency and clinical manifestations of post-poliomyelitis syndrome in a Brazilian tertiary care center
Author: Quadros AA (1), Conde MT, Marin LF, Silva HC, Silva TM, Paula MB, Pereira RD, Ramos PE, Abe G, Oliveira AS
Affiliation: (1) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Division of Neuromuscular Disorders, Federal University of São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo SP, Brazil - [email protected]
Journal: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Citation: Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2012 Aug;70(8):571-3
Publication Year and Month: 2012 08

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and clinical manifestations of patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) in a Brazilian division of neuromuscular disorders.

METHODS: A total of 167 patients with prior history of paralytic poliomyelitis was investigated for PPS, based on international diagnostic criteria. Other variables analyzed were: gender, race, age at poliomyelitis infection, age at PPS onset, and PPS symptoms.

RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-nine patients presented PPS, corresponding to 77.2% of the studied population. 62.8% were women and 37.2% were men. Mean age of patients with PPS at onset of PPS symptoms was 39.9±9.69 years. Their main clinical manifestations were: new weakness in the previously affected limbs (69%) and in the apparently not affected limbs (31%); joint pain (79.8%); fatigue (77.5%); muscle pain (76%); and cold intolerance (69.8%).

Conclusions: Most patients of our sample presented PPS. In Brazil, PPS frequency and clinical features are quite similar to those of other countries.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Management of post-polio syndrome
Author: Trojan DA, Finch L
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: NeuroRehabilitation
Citation: NeuroRehabil. 1997;8:93-105
Publication Year and Month: 1997 08

Abstract: The management of patients presenting with post-poliomyelitis syndrome is discussed. It is essential to identify and treat other medical and neurological conditions which could produce these symptoms. New weakness can be managed with exercise, avoidance of muscular overuse, weight loss, orthoses and assistive devices. Fatigue can be managed with energy conservation techniques. The management of pain is dependent upon its causes. Treatments are reviewed.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Management of postpolio syndrome
Author: Gonzalez H, Olsson T, Borg K
Affiliation: Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden – [email protected]
Journal: The Lancet Neurology
Citation: Lancet Neurol. 2010 Jun; 9(6):634-42 and Comment in: Lancet Neurol. 2010 Jun; 9(6):561-3
Publication Year and Month: 2010 06

Abstract: Postpolio syndrome is characterised by the exacerbation of existing or new health problems, most often muscle weakness and fatigability, general fatigue, and pain, after a period of stability subsequent to acute polio infection. Diagnosis is based on the presence of a lower motor neuron disorder that is supported by neurophysiological findings, with exclusion of other disorders as causes of the new symptoms. The muscle-related effects of postpolio syndrome are possibly associated with an ongoing process of denervation and reinnervation, reaching a point at which denervation is no longer compensated for by reinnervation. The cause of this denervation is unknown, but an inflammatory process is possible. Rehabilitation in patients with postpolio syndrome should take a multiprofessional and multidisciplinary approach, with an emphasis on physiotherapy, including enhanced or individually modified physical activity, and muscle training. Patients with postpolio syndrome should be advised to avoid both inactivity and overuse of weak muscles. Evaluation of the need for orthoses and assistive devices is often required.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: National Rehabilitation Hospital Limb Classification for Exercise, Research, and Clinical Trials in Post-Polio Patients
Author: Lauro S. Halstead, Anne Carrington Gawne, and Bao T. Pham

Affiliation: The Post-Polio Program; National Rehabilitation Hospital, Washington, DC


Journal: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Citation: The Post-Polio Syndrome: Advances in the Pathogenesis and Treatment Volume 753 pp 343-353 of the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences May 25, 1995.
Publication Year and Month: 1995 05

Abstract:

Conclusions: A need exists for an objective classification of polio patients for clinical and research purposes that takes into account the focal, asymmetric, and frequent subclinical nature of polio lesions. In order to prescribe a safe, effective exercise program, we developed a five-level (Classes I-V) limb-specific classification system based on remote and recent history, physical examination, and a four-extremity electrodiagnostic study (EMG/NCS). Class I limbs have no history of remote or recent weakness, normal strength, and a normal EMG. Class II limbs have no history of remote or recent weakness (or if remote history of weakness, full recovery occurred), normal strength and EMG evidence of prior anterior horn cell disease (AHCD). Class III limbs have a history of remote weakness with variable recovery, no new weakness, decreased strength, and EMG evidence of prior AHCD. Class IV limbs have a history of remote weakness with variable recovery, new clinical weakness, decreased strength, and EMG evidence of AHCD. Class V limbs have a history of severe weakness with little-to-no recovery, severely decreased strength and atrophy, and few-to-no motor units on EMG. In a prospective study of 400 limbs in 100 consecutive post-polio patients attending our clinic, 94 (23%) limbs were Class I, 88 (22%) were Class II, 95 (24%) were Class III, 75 (19%) were Class IV, and 48 (12%) were Class V. Guidelines for the use of this classification in a clinical/research setting are presented along with sample case histories and class-specific exercise recommendations.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Nonparalytic polio and postpolio syndrome
Author: Halstead LS, Silver JK
Affiliation: National Rehabilitation Hospital, Washington, DC 20010, USA
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2000 Jan-Feb;79(1):13-8
Publication Year and Month: 2000 01

Abstract: We describe four cases of postpolio syndrome with typical histories, physical examination results, and electrodiagnostic evidence of extensive anterior horn cell disease, as well as the putative pathophysiology of postpolio syndrome in persons with histories of nonparalytic polio and the diagnostic implications for individuals older than 40 yr of age who are experiencing unexplained new weakness, fatigue, and muscle or joint pain. Although the diagnosis of postpolio syndrome traditionally has required a remote history of paralytic polio, many persons such as the ones described here with typical symptoms of postpolio syndrome have no clear history of paralytic disease and are being misdiagnosed. With this in mind, we believe that the diagnostic criteria for postpolio syndrome should be modified to include the following: a history of remote paralytic polio or findings on history, physical examination results, and laboratory studies compatible with poliovirus damage of the central nervous system earlier in life.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Paralytic vs "nonparalytic" polio: distinction without a difference?
Author: Bruno RL
Affiliation: The Post-Polio Institute, Englewood Hospital and Medical Center, New Jersey, USA
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2000 Jan-Feb;79(1):4-12
Publication Year and Month: 2000 01

Abstract: Nonparalytic polio (NPP) is commonly thought to be synonymous with "abortive polio," in which the poliovirus neither entered the central nervous system nor damaged neurons. Described are two epidemic illness-"The Summer Grippe" and Iceland disease-apparently caused by a low virulence but neuropathic type 2 poliovirus. Studies show that neuronal lesions in the brain and spinal cord and muscle weakness were common in NPP, and epidemiologic studies document late-onset weakness and fatigue in 14% to 42% of NPP survivors. These findings indicate that clinicians should not require a history of paralytic polio, electromyographic evidence of denervation, and new muscle weakness for the diagnosis of "Postpolio Syndrome" but should be aware that NPP, and possibly even poliovirus-induced "minor illnesses," can be associated with acute central nervous system damage and late-onset muscle weakness and fatigue.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Physiotherapy for poliomyelitis: a descriptive study in the Republic of Congo
Author: Mancini S, Coldiron ME, Nicholas S, Llosa AE, Mouniaman-Nara I, Ngala J, Grais RF, Porten K
Affiliation: Epicentre, Paris, France - [email protected]
Journal: BioMedCentral Research Notes
Citation: BMC Res Notes. 2014 Oct 23;7:755. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-7-755
Publication Year and Month: 2014 10

Abstract: BACKGROUND: A large poliomyelitis outbreak occurred in 2010 in the Republic of Congo. This paper describes the demographic and clinical characteristics of poliomyelitis cases and their outcomes following physiotherapy.

FINDINGS: Demographic and clinical data were collected on 126 individuals between November 23, 2010 and March 23, 2011. The male/female ratio was 2.5 and the median age was 19 years (IQR: 13.5-23). The most severe forms of the disease were more common in older patients, 81 of the 126 patients (64.3%) had multiple evaluations of muscle strength. Among patients with multiple evaluations, 38.1% had improved strength at final evaluation, 48.3% were stable and 13.6% had decreased strength.

Conclusions: Most acute poliomyelitis patients receiving physiotherapy had improved or stable muscle strength at their final evaluation. These descriptive results highlight the need for further research into the potential benefits of physiotherapy in polio affected patients.

Outcome of Research: More research required.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Polio survivors perceptions of a multi-disciplinary rehabilitation programme
Author: Atwal, A., Duncan, H., Queally, C., Cedar, S.H.
Affiliation: Nil
Journal: Disability and Rehabilitation
Citation: Atwal, A., Duncan, H., Queally, C., Cedar, S.H. (2017) Polio survivors perceptions of a multi-disciplinary rehabilitation programme. Disability and Rehabilitation. DOI: 10.1080/09638288.2017.1381184
Publication Year and Month: 2017 10

Abstract: Purpose: Post-polio syndrome refers to a late complication of the poliovirus infection. Management of post-polio syndrome is complex due to the extensive symptomology. European and United Kingdom guidelines have advised the use of rehabilitation programmes to manage post-polio syndrome. There is a paucity of research in relation to the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions. The objective of this study is to explore polio survivor’s perceptions of an in-patient multi-disciplinary rehabilitation programme.

Methods: Semi-structured interviews of community dwelling polio survivors who attended in-patient rehabilitation programme in the United Kingdom. Thematic analysis was used to describe and interpret interview data.

Results: Participants’ experiences were influenced by past experiences of polio and their self-concept. Participants generally had a positive experience and valued being with other polio survivors. Positive strategies, such as pacing and reflection changed their mind-sets into their lives after the programme, though they still faced challenges in daily living. Some participants supported others with post-polio syndrome after completing the programme.

Conclusions: The research identified that participants experienced long term positive benefits from attending a rehabilitation programme. Strategies that users found helpful that explored the effectiveness of interventions to manage polio are not cited within a Cochrane review. If we are to recognise the lived experience and service user empowerment within a model of co- production it is essential that patient preferences are evaluated and used as evidence to justify service provision. Further research is required with polio survivors to explore how best rehabilitation programmes can adopt the principles of co-production.

Implications for Rehabilitation
The patients’ expertise and lived experience must be at the centre of a rehabilitation programme.

Strategies such as pacing and reflection are perceived as important strategies to enable self-management of polio and post-polio syndrome despite the limited evidence base to support these interventions.

Polio rehabilitation programmes should not be time limited and commissioners and therapists need to ensure that follow up support is provided.

When measuring outcomes patient preferences and views must be evaluated.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Comments (if any): This investigation supports feedback from polio survivors in Australia on the benefits of group-based rehabilitation, especially where there is an opportunity to learn and discuss their rehabilitation with fellow participants.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Polioencephalitis, stress, and the etiology of post-polio sequelae
Author: Bruno RL, Frick NM, Cohen J
Affiliation: Post-Polio Rehabilitation and Research Service, Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation, East Orange, NJ 07018
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1269-76
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Post-mortem neurohistopathologies that document polio virus-induced lesions in reticular formation and hypothalamic, thalamic, peptidergic, and monoaminergic neurons in the brain are reviewed from 158 individuals who contracted polio before 1950. This polioencephalitis was found to occur in every case of poliomyelitis, even those without evidence of damage to spinal motor neurons. These findings, in combination with data from the 1990 National Post-Polio Survey and new magnetic resonance imaging studies documenting post-encephalitis-like lesions in the brains of polio survivors, are used to present two hypotheses: 1) polioencephalitic damage to aging reticular activating system and monoaminergic neurons is responsible for post-polio fatigue, and 2) polioencephalitic damage to enkephalin-producing neurons is responsible for hypersensitivity to pain in polio survivors. In addition, the antimetabolic action of glucocorticoids on polio-damaged, metabolically vulnerable neurons may be responsible for the fatigue and muscle weakness reported by polio survivors during emotional stress.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Post-polio sequelae - differential diagnosis and management
Author: Maynard FM
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1985 Jul; 8(7):857-61
Publication Year and Month: 1985 07

Abstract: Forty-two patients with a past history of poliomyelitis were evaluated at a post-polio clinic for new problems or impairments. Evaluation included a complete history, neurological and biomechanical examination and electrodiagnostic studies. Based on this evaluation patients were placed into three groups: 23 patients were considered to have or likely to have Progressive Post-Polio Muscular Atrophy (PPPMA); 17 patients were considered to have other post-polio sequelae; and two patients had problems unrelated to a past history of polio but mistaken for post-polio sequelae. Musculoskeletal pain was a common complaint among all groups of patients. Twenty-two of the 40 patients with post-polio sequelae were advised to alter their method of ambulation and/or decrease their activity pattern in order to decrease strain and/or excessive exertion of involved muscles. The role of chronic overuse and exercise in producing PPPMA or musculoskeletal pain problems is discussed. Characteristic clinical problems and useful management plans are described.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Post-polio sequelae: physiological and psychological overview
Author: Frick NM, Bruno RL
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: Rehabilitation Literature
Citation: Rehabil Lit. 1986 May-Jun; 47(5-6):106-11
Publication Year and Month: 1986 05

Abstract: When the Salk and Sabin vaccines brought an end to the annual summer nightmare of polio epidemics, most Americans simply forgot about polio. Even many of those who had paralytic poliomyelitis put the disease out of their minds once they had achieved maximum recovery of function. Unfortunately, polio has again forced itself into the nation's consciousness. Over the past five years, many of those who had polio have been experiencing new and unexpected symptoms that range in severity from being merely unpleasant to severely debilitating.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome
Author: Trojan DA, Cashman NR
Affiliation: Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3801 rue Université, Montréal, Québec H3A 2B4, Canada – [email protected]
Journal: Muscle & Nerve
Citation: Muscle Nerve. 2005 Jan;31(1):6-19
Publication Year and Month: 2005 01

Abstract: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) is a common neurological disorder that occurs in a large proportion of individuals who have recovered from paralytic poliomyelitis. The main clinical features are new weakness, muscular fatigability, general fatigue, and pain. The primary criteria necessary for the diagnosis of PPS are a history of paralytic poliomyelitis, partial or complete recovery of neurological function followed by a period of stability (usually several decades), persistent new muscle weakness or abnormal muscle fatigability, and the exclusion of other causes of new symptoms. The cause of PPS remains unclear, but is likely due to a distal degeneration of enlarged post-poliomyelitis motor units. Contributing factors to PPS may be aging (with motor neuron loss), overuse, and disuse. PPS is usually a slowly progressive neuromuscular disease. Although there is no specific treatment for PPS, an interdisciplinary management program can be useful in controlling symptoms.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome as a possible viral disease
Author: Baj A (1), Colombo M (1), Headley JL (2), McFarlane JR (3), Liethof MA (4), Toniolo A (5)
Affiliation: (1) Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology, University of Insubria Medical School, Viale Borri 57, 21100 Varese, Italy; (2) Post-Polio Health International, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA; (3) European Polio Union, Huldenberg, Belgium; (4) Polio Australia Incorporated, Kew, Victoria, Australia; (5) Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology, University of Insubria Medical School, Viale Borri 57, 21100 Varese, Italy. Electronic address: [email protected]
Journal: International Journal of Infectious Diseases
Citation: Int J Infect Dis. 2015 May 1;35:107-116. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2015.04.018
Publication Year and Month: 2015 05

Abstract: This review summarizes current concepts on post-polio syndrome (PPS), a condition that may arise in polio survivors after partial or complete functional recovery followed by a prolonged interval of stable neurological function. PPS affects 15-20 million people worldwide. Epidemiological data are reported, together with the pathogenic pathways that possibly lead to the progressive degeneration and loss of neuromuscular motor units. As a consequence of PPS, polio survivors experience new weakness, generalized fatigue, atrophy of previously unaffected muscles, and a physical decline that may culminate in the loss of independent life. Emphasis is given to the possible pathogenic role of persistent poliovirus infection and chronic inflammation. These factors could contribute to the neurological and physical decline in polio survivors. A perspective is then given on novel anti-poliovirus compounds and monoclonal antibodies that have been developed to contribute to the final phases of polio eradication. These agents could also be useful for the treatment or prevention of PPS. Some of these compounds/antibodies are in early clinical development. Finally, current clinical trials for PPS are reported. In this area, the intravenous infusion of normal human immunoglobulins appears both feasible and promising.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Effective.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Postpolio syndrome
Author: Nollet F, de Visser M
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, PO Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam, the Netherlands – [email protected]
Journal: Archives of Neurology
Citation: Arch Neurol. 2004 Jul;61(7):1142-4
Publication Year and Month: 2004 07

Abstract: This paper has no abstract - this is an extract:

Postpolio syndrome (PPS) refers to a decline of muscle function usually occurring 30 to 40 years after the acute polio episode. This syndrome has been widely recognized only during the last decades, when many people affected by the large epidemics of the previous century experienced new muscle weakness as they grew older. However, cases of late-onset weakening following poliomyelitis were already reported at the end of the 19th century.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Postpolio syndrome: unanswered questions regarding cause, course, risk factors, and therapies
Author: Nollet F
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: The Lancet Neurology
Citation: Lancet Neurol. 2010 Jun;9(6):561-3 - Comment on: Lancet Neurol. 2010 Jun;9(6):634-42
Publication Year and Month: 2010 06

Abstract: Living with the consequences of poliomyelitis is not recognised as an important health issue at present. However, millions of people worldwide have lasting impairments caused by polio infection, many of whom also had a decline in muscle function and decline in activities of daily living after years of stable functioning.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Predictive factors for post-poliomyelitis syndrome
Author: Trojan DA, Cashman NR, Shapiro S, Tansey CM, Esdaile JM
Affiliation: Department of Neurology, Montreal Neurological Institute, Quebec, Canada
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1994 Jul;75(7):770-7
Publication Year and Month: 1994 07

Abstract: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) is generally defined as a clinical syndrome of new weakness, fatigue, and pain in individuals who have previously recovered from acute paralytic poliomyelitis. The purpose of this study was to identify, through a case-control study design, factors that predict subsequent PPS in patients with prior paralytic poliomyelitis. Among patients attending a university-affiliated hospital post-polio clinic, "cases" were patients with new weakness and fatigue, and "controls" were patients without these complaints. A chart review of 353 patients identified 127 cases and 39 controls. Logistic regression modeling was used to calculate adjusted and unadjusted odds ratios. In univariate analyses, significant risk factors for PPS were a greater age at time of presentation to clinic (p = 0.01), a longer time since acute polio (p = 0.01), and more weakness at acute polio (p = 0.02). Other significant associated, but not necessarily causal factors were a recent weight gain (p = 0.005), muscle pain (p = 0.01) particularly that associated with exercise (p = 0.005), and joint pain (p = 0.04). Multivariate analyses revealed that a model containing age at presentation to clinic, severity of weakness at acute polio, muscle pain with exercise, recent weight gain, and joint pain best distinguished cases from controls. Age at acute polio, degree of recovery after polio, weakness at best point after polio, physical activity, and sex were not contributing factors. These findings suggest that the degree of initial motor unit involvement as measured by weakness at acute polio, and possibly the aging process and overuse are important in predicting PPS.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Predictive Factors for Post-Poliomyelitis Syndrome
Author: Daria A. Trojan, MD, MSc, Neil R. Cashman, MD, Stanley Shapiro, PhD, Catherine M. Tansey, MSc, John M. Esdaile, MD
Affiliation: From the Department of Neurology (Drs. Trojan, Cashman), Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, the Department of Medicine (Dr. Esdaile), Montreal General Hospital, and the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (Dr. Shapiro, Ms. Tansey), McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 75, July 1994, 770-777
Publication Year and Month: 1994 07

Abstract: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) is generally defined as a clinical syndrome of new weakness, fatigue, and pain in individuals who have previously recovered from acute paralytic poliomyelitis. The purpose of this study was to identify, through a case-control study design, factors that predict subsequent PPS in patients with prior paralytic poliomyelitis. Among patients attending a university-affiliate hospital post-polio clinic, "cases" were patients with new weakness and fatigue, and "controls" were patients without these complaints. A chart review of 353 patients identified 127 cases and 39 controls. Logistic regression modeling was used to calculate adjusted and unadjusted odds ratios. In univariate analyses, significant risk factors for PPS were a greater age at time of presentation to clinic (p = 0.01), a longer time since acute polio (p = 0.01), and more weakness at acute polio (p = 0.02). Other significant associated, but not necessarily causal factors were a recent weight gain (p = 0.005), muscle pain (p = 0.01) particularly that associated with exercise (p = 0.005), and joint pain (p = 0.04). Multivariate analyses revealed that a model containing age at presentation to clinic, severity of weakness at acute polio, muscle pain with exercise, recent weight gain, and joint pain best distinguished cases from controls. Age at acute polio, degree of recovery after polio, weakness at best point after polio, physical activity, and sex were not contributing factors. These findings suggest that the degree of initial motor unit involvement as measured by weakness at acute polio, and possibly the aging process and overuse are important in predicting PPS.

Conclusions: In conclusion, the results from this study provide insight on predictive factors for PPS, and can be applied in the clinical management of patients who have recovered from paralytic poliomyelitis. Our findings support the hypothesis that the severity of initial motor unit involvement as estimated by weakness at acute polio, and possibly the normal ageing process and overuse are important in predicting PPS. Even though patients have no control over the severity of weakness as a result of acute polio, they do have control over some predictive factors for PPS. Patients can be advised that they should avoid gaining weight and exercising to the point of muscle pain because these variables have been found to be strongly associated with PPS. The exact role of physical activity will still need further evaluation; however, the usual recommendations of low-level aerobic exercise with avoidance of muscle pain and fatigue appear valid. Thus, this study can provide the basis for physiologically reasonable and practical advice to post-polio patients to minimize or delay the risk of PPS.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any): Paul Cavendish (Clinical Health Educator): The best multivariate model for predicting who will develop PPS indicates that patients who had a greater weakness at acute polio, are currently older, have muscle pain with exercise, a recent weight gain, and joint pain are those most likely to develop PPS. Other factors shown to be important in univariate analyses are a longer time since acute polio, and muscle pain (at rest or with exercise). Age at acute polio, recovery after polio, weakness at "best point" after polio, physical activity, and sex were not contributing factors.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: The cultural context of polio biographies
Author: Scheer J, Luborsky ML
Affiliation: National Rehabilitation Hospital Research Center, Washington, DC 20010
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1173-81
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Cultural contexts influence the ways individuals interpret and experience functional losses associated with post-polio sequelae. Using in-depth multiple interview case studies from two National Institute on Aging projects, the concept of “biographies” is presented to place the individuals’ polio-related experiences within the context of their lives. Two major cultural contexts shape the construction of polio biographies: normative life course expectations and developmental tasks; and traditions associated with polio recovery and rehabilitation. The authors identify key dimensions of personal concern among polio survivors that can be used as entrance points for effective clinical intervention and to promote treatment compliance.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: The post-polio syndrome as an evolved clinical entity. Definition and clinical description.
Author: Dalakas MC
Affiliation: Medical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Journal: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Citation: Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995 May 25;753:68-80
Publication Year and Month: 1995 05

Abstract: Post-polio syndrome (PPS) refers to the new neuromuscular symptoms that occur at least 15 years after stability in patients with prior acute paralytic polio-myelitis. They include: (1) new muscle weakness and atrophy in the limbs, the bulbar or the respiratory muscles [post-poliomyelitis muscular atrophy (PPMA)] and (2) excessive muscle fatigue and diminished physical endurance. PPS is a clinical diagnosis that requires exclusion of all other medical, neurological, orthopedic or psychiatric diseases that could explain the cause of the new symptoms. Routine electromyography is useful to confirm chronic and ongoing denervation and exclude neuropathies. Muscle biopsy, single fiber electromyography (EMG), macro-EMG, serum antibody titers to polio virus, and spinal fluid studies are very useful research tools but they are rarely needed to establish the clinical diagnosis. PPS is a slowly progressive phenomenon with periods of stability that vary from 3 to 10 years. Current evidence indicates that PPS is the evolution of a subclinically ongoing motor neuron dysfunction that begins after the time of the acute polio. It is clinically manifested as PPS when the well-compensated reinnervating process crosses a critical threshold beyond which the remaining motor neurons cannot maintain the innervation to all the muscle fibers within their motor unit territory.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Treatment for postpolio syndrome
Author: Koopman FS, Beelen A, Gilhus NE, de Visser M, Nollet F
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation, University of Amsterdam Academic Medical Center, PO Box 22660, Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands, 1100 DD
Journal: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Citation: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 May 18;5:CD007818
Publication Year and Month: 2015 05

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Postpolio syndrome (PPS) may affect survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis and is characterised by a complex of neuromuscular symptoms leading to a decline in physical functioning. The effectiveness of pharmacological treatment and rehabilitation management in PPS is not yet established. This is an update of a review first published in 2011.

OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the evidence from randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials for the effect of any pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment for PPS compared to placebo, usual care or no treatment.

SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases on 21 July 2014: Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL Plus. We also checked reference lists of all relevant articles, searched the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database and trial registers and contacted investigators known to be involved in research in this area.

SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of any form of pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment for people with PPS. The primary outcome was self perceived activity limitations and secondary outcomes were muscle strength, muscle endurance, fatigue, pain and adverse events.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration.

MAIN RESULTS: We included 10 pharmacological (modafinil, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), pyridostigmine, lamotrigine, amantadine, prednisone) and three non-pharmacological (muscle strengthening, rehabilitation in a warm climate (that is temperature ± 25°C, dry and sunny) and a cold climate (that is temperature ± 0°C, rainy or snowy), static magnetic fields) studies with a total of 675 participants with PPS in this review. None of the included studies were completely free from any risk of bias, the most prevalent risk of bias being lack of blinding.There was moderate- and low-quality evidence that IVIg has no beneficial effect on activity limitations in the short term and long term, respectively, and inconsistency in the evidence for effectiveness on muscle strength. IVIg caused minor adverse events in a substantial proportion of the participants. Results of one trial provided very low-quality evidence that lamotrigine might be effective in reducing pain and fatigue, resulting in fewer activity limitations without generating adverse events. Data from two single trials suggested that muscle strengthening of thumb muscles (very low-quality evidence) and static magnetic fields (moderate-quality evidence) are safe and beneficial for improving muscle strength and pain, respectively, with unknown effects on activity limitations. Finally, there was evidence varying from very low quality to high quality that modafinil, pyridostigmine, amantadine, prednisone and rehabilitation in a warm or cold climate are not beneficial in PPS.

Conclusions: Due to insufficient good-quality data and lack of randomised studies, it was impossible to draw definite conclusions about the effectiveness of interventions for PPS. Results indicated that IVIg, lamotrigine, muscle strengthening exercises and static magnetic fields may be beneficial but need further investigation to clarify whether any real and meaningful effect exists.

Outcome of Research: More research required.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Unraveling the transmission ecology of polio
Author: Martinez-Bakker M (1), King AA (1,2), Rohani P (1,2)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America; (2) Center for the Study of Complex Systems, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America; Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Journal: Public Library of Science
Citation: PLoS Biol. 2015 Jun;13(6): e1002172. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002172
Publication Year and Month: 2015 06

Abstract: Sustained and coordinated vaccination efforts have brought polio eradication within reach. Anticipating the eradication of wild poliovirus (WPV) and the subsequent challenges in preventing its re-emergence, we look to the past to identify why polio rose to epidemic levels in the mid-20th century, and how WPV persisted over large geographic scales. We analyzed an extensive epidemiological dataset, spanning the 1930s to the 1950s and spatially replicated across each state in the United States, to glean insight into the drivers of polio’s historical expansion and the ecological mode of its persistence prior to vaccine introduction. We document a latitudinal gradient in polio’s seasonality. Additionally, we fitted and validated mechanistic transmission models to data from each US state independently. The fitted models revealed that: (1) polio persistence was the product of a dynamic mosaic of source and sink populations; (2) geographic heterogeneity of seasonal transmission conditions account for the latitudinal structure of polio epidemics; (3) contrary to the prevailing “disease of development” hypothesis, our analyses demonstrate that polio’s historical expansion was straightforwardly explained by demographic trends rather than improvements in sanitation and hygiene; and (4) the absence of clinical disease is not a reliable indicator of polio transmission, because widespread polio transmission was likely in the multiyear absence of clinical disease. As the world edges closer to global polio eradication and continues the strategic withdrawal of the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV), the regular identification of, and rapid response to, these silent chains of transmission is of the utmost importance.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Update on current and emerging treatment options for post-polio syndrome
Author: Farbu E
Affiliation: Neurocenter and National Competence Center for Movement Disorders, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway
Journal: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Citation: Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2010 Jul 21;6:307-13
Publication Year and Month: 2010 07

Abstract: Post-polio syndrome (PPS) refers to the clinical deterioration experienced by many polio survivors several decades after their acute illness. The symptoms are new muscle weakness, decreased muscle endurance, fatigue, muscle pain, joint pain, cold intolerance, and this typical clinical entity is reported from different parts of the world. The pathophysiology behind PPS is not fully understood, but a combination of distal degeneration of enlarged motor units caused by increased metabolic demands and the normal aging process, in addition to inflammatory mechanisms, are thought to be involved. There is no diagnostic test for PPS, and the diagnosis is based on a proper clinical workup where all other possible explanations for the new symptoms are ruled out. The basic principle of management of PPS lies in physical activity, individually tailored training programs, and lifestyle modification. Muscle weakness and muscle pain may be helped with specific training programs, in which training in warm water seems to be particularly helpful. Properly fitted orthoses can improve the biomechanical movement pattern and be energy-saving. Fatigue can be relieved with lifestyle changes, assistive devices, and training programs. Respiratory insufficiency can be controlled with noninvasive respiratory aids including biphasic positive pressure ventilators. Pharmacologic agents like prednisone, amantadine, pyridostigmine, and coenzyme Q10 are of no benefit in PPS. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been tried in three studies, all having positive results. IVIG could probably be a therapeutic alternative, but the potential benefit is modest, and some important questions are still unanswered, in particular to which patients this treatment is useful, the dose, and the therapeutic interval.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required.

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There are currently 29 papers in this category.

Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Polio survivors perceptions of a multi-disciplinary rehabilitation programme
Author: Atwal, A., Duncan, H., Queally, C., Cedar, S.H.
Affiliation: Nil
Journal: Disability and Rehabilitation
Citation: Atwal, A., Duncan, H., Queally, C., Cedar, S.H. (2017) Polio survivors perceptions of a multi-disciplinary rehabilitation programme. Disability and Rehabilitation. DOI: 10.1080/09638288.2017.1381184
Publication Year and Month: 2017 10

Abstract: Purpose: Post-polio syndrome refers to a late complication of the poliovirus infection. Management of post-polio syndrome is complex due to the extensive symptomology. European and United Kingdom guidelines have advised the use of rehabilitation programmes to manage post-polio syndrome. There is a paucity of research in relation to the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions. The objective of this study is to explore polio survivor’s perceptions of an in-patient multi-disciplinary rehabilitation programme.

Methods: Semi-structured interviews of community dwelling polio survivors who attended in-patient rehabilitation programme in the United Kingdom. Thematic analysis was used to describe and interpret interview data.

Results: Participants’ experiences were influenced by past experiences of polio and their self-concept. Participants generally had a positive experience and valued being with other polio survivors. Positive strategies, such as pacing and reflection changed their mind-sets into their lives after the programme, though they still faced challenges in daily living. Some participants supported others with post-polio syndrome after completing the programme.

Conclusions: The research identified that participants experienced long term positive benefits from attending a rehabilitation programme. Strategies that users found helpful that explored the effectiveness of interventions to manage polio are not cited within a Cochrane review. If we are to recognise the lived experience and service user empowerment within a model of co- production it is essential that patient preferences are evaluated and used as evidence to justify service provision. Further research is required with polio survivors to explore how best rehabilitation programmes can adopt the principles of co-production.

Implications for Rehabilitation
The patients’ expertise and lived experience must be at the centre of a rehabilitation programme.

Strategies such as pacing and reflection are perceived as important strategies to enable self-management of polio and post-polio syndrome despite the limited evidence base to support these interventions.

Polio rehabilitation programmes should not be time limited and commissioners and therapists need to ensure that follow up support is provided.

When measuring outcomes patient preferences and views must be evaluated.

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any): This investigation supports feedback from polio survivors in Australia on the benefits of group-based rehabilitation, especially where there is an opportunity to learn and discuss their rehabilitation with fellow participants.

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome as a possible viral disease
Author: Baj A (1), Colombo M (1), Headley JL (2), McFarlane JR (3), Liethof MA (4), Toniolo A (5)
Affiliation: (1) Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology, University of Insubria Medical School, Viale Borri 57, 21100 Varese, Italy; (2) Post-Polio Health International, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA; (3) European Polio Union, Huldenberg, Belgium; (4) Polio Australia Incorporated, Kew, Victoria, Australia; (5) Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology, University of Insubria Medical School, Viale Borri 57, 21100 Varese, Italy. Electronic address: [email protected]
Journal: International Journal of Infectious Diseases
Citation: Int J Infect Dis. 2015 May 1;35:107-116. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2015.04.018
Publication Year and Month: 2015 05

Abstract: This review summarizes current concepts on post-polio syndrome (PPS), a condition that may arise in polio survivors after partial or complete functional recovery followed by a prolonged interval of stable neurological function. PPS affects 15-20 million people worldwide. Epidemiological data are reported, together with the pathogenic pathways that possibly lead to the progressive degeneration and loss of neuromuscular motor units. As a consequence of PPS, polio survivors experience new weakness, generalized fatigue, atrophy of previously unaffected muscles, and a physical decline that may culminate in the loss of independent life. Emphasis is given to the possible pathogenic role of persistent poliovirus infection and chronic inflammation. These factors could contribute to the neurological and physical decline in polio survivors. A perspective is then given on novel anti-poliovirus compounds and monoclonal antibodies that have been developed to contribute to the final phases of polio eradication. These agents could also be useful for the treatment or prevention of PPS. Some of these compounds/antibodies are in early clinical development. Finally, current clinical trials for PPS are reported. In this area, the intravenous infusion of normal human immunoglobulins appears both feasible and promising.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Effective.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Paralytic vs "nonparalytic" polio: distinction without a difference?
Author: Bruno RL
Affiliation: The Post-Polio Institute, Englewood Hospital and Medical Center, New Jersey, USA
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2000 Jan-Feb;79(1):4-12
Publication Year and Month: 2000 01

Abstract: Nonparalytic polio (NPP) is commonly thought to be synonymous with "abortive polio," in which the poliovirus neither entered the central nervous system nor damaged neurons. Described are two epidemic illness-"The Summer Grippe" and Iceland disease-apparently caused by a low virulence but neuropathic type 2 poliovirus. Studies show that neuronal lesions in the brain and spinal cord and muscle weakness were common in NPP, and epidemiologic studies document late-onset weakness and fatigue in 14% to 42% of NPP survivors. These findings indicate that clinicians should not require a history of paralytic polio, electromyographic evidence of denervation, and new muscle weakness for the diagnosis of "Postpolio Syndrome" but should be aware that NPP, and possibly even poliovirus-induced "minor illnesses," can be associated with acute central nervous system damage and late-onset muscle weakness and fatigue.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any): The full paper is available from Polio Australia for private study purposes.

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Polioencephalitis, stress, and the etiology of post-polio sequelae
Author: Bruno RL, Frick NM, Cohen J
Affiliation: Post-Polio Rehabilitation and Research Service, Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation, East Orange, NJ 07018
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1269-76
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Post-mortem neurohistopathologies that document polio virus-induced lesions in reticular formation and hypothalamic, thalamic, peptidergic, and monoaminergic neurons in the brain are reviewed from 158 individuals who contracted polio before 1950. This polioencephalitis was found to occur in every case of poliomyelitis, even those without evidence of damage to spinal motor neurons. These findings, in combination with data from the 1990 National Post-Polio Survey and new magnetic resonance imaging studies documenting post-encephalitis-like lesions in the brains of polio survivors, are used to present two hypotheses: 1) polioencephalitic damage to aging reticular activating system and monoaminergic neurons is responsible for post-polio fatigue, and 2) polioencephalitic damage to enkephalin-producing neurons is responsible for hypersensitivity to pain in polio survivors. In addition, the antimetabolic action of glucocorticoids on polio-damaged, metabolically vulnerable neurons may be responsible for the fatigue and muscle weakness reported by polio survivors during emotional stress.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by Dr Bruno.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: The post-polio syndrome as an evolved clinical entity. Definition and clinical description.
Author: Dalakas MC
Affiliation: Medical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Journal: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Citation: Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995 May 25;753:68-80
Publication Year and Month: 1995 05

Abstract: Post-polio syndrome (PPS) refers to the new neuromuscular symptoms that occur at least 15 years after stability in patients with prior acute paralytic polio-myelitis. They include: (1) new muscle weakness and atrophy in the limbs, the bulbar or the respiratory muscles [post-poliomyelitis muscular atrophy (PPMA)] and (2) excessive muscle fatigue and diminished physical endurance. PPS is a clinical diagnosis that requires exclusion of all other medical, neurological, orthopedic or psychiatric diseases that could explain the cause of the new symptoms. Routine electromyography is useful to confirm chronic and ongoing denervation and exclude neuropathies. Muscle biopsy, single fiber electromyography (EMG), macro-EMG, serum antibody titers to polio virus, and spinal fluid studies are very useful research tools but they are rarely needed to establish the clinical diagnosis. PPS is a slowly progressive phenomenon with periods of stability that vary from 3 to 10 years. Current evidence indicates that PPS is the evolution of a subclinically ongoing motor neuron dysfunction that begins after the time of the acute polio. It is clinically manifested as PPS when the well-compensated reinnervating process crosses a critical threshold beyond which the remaining motor neurons cannot maintain the innervation to all the muscle fibers within their motor unit territory.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Predictive Factors for Post-Poliomyelitis Syndrome
Author: Daria A. Trojan, MD, MSc, Neil R. Cashman, MD, Stanley Shapiro, PhD, Catherine M. Tansey, MSc, John M. Esdaile, MD
Affiliation: From the Department of Neurology (Drs. Trojan, Cashman), Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, the Department of Medicine (Dr. Esdaile), Montreal General Hospital, and the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (Dr. Shapiro, Ms. Tansey), McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 75, July 1994, 770-777
Publication Year and Month: 1994 07

Abstract: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) is generally defined as a clinical syndrome of new weakness, fatigue, and pain in individuals who have previously recovered from acute paralytic poliomyelitis. The purpose of this study was to identify, through a case-control study design, factors that predict subsequent PPS in patients with prior paralytic poliomyelitis. Among patients attending a university-affiliate hospital post-polio clinic, "cases" were patients with new weakness and fatigue, and "controls" were patients without these complaints. A chart review of 353 patients identified 127 cases and 39 controls. Logistic regression modeling was used to calculate adjusted and unadjusted odds ratios. In univariate analyses, significant risk factors for PPS were a greater age at time of presentation to clinic (p = 0.01), a longer time since acute polio (p = 0.01), and more weakness at acute polio (p = 0.02). Other significant associated, but not necessarily causal factors were a recent weight gain (p = 0.005), muscle pain (p = 0.01) particularly that associated with exercise (p = 0.005), and joint pain (p = 0.04). Multivariate analyses revealed that a model containing age at presentation to clinic, severity of weakness at acute polio, muscle pain with exercise, recent weight gain, and joint pain best distinguished cases from controls. Age at acute polio, degree of recovery after polio, weakness at best point after polio, physical activity, and sex were not contributing factors. These findings suggest that the degree of initial motor unit involvement as measured by weakness at acute polio, and possibly the aging process and overuse are important in predicting PPS.

Conclusions: In conclusion, the results from this study provide insight on predictive factors for PPS, and can be applied in the clinical management of patients who have recovered from paralytic poliomyelitis. Our findings support the hypothesis that the severity of initial motor unit involvement as estimated by weakness at acute polio, and possibly the normal ageing process and overuse are important in predicting PPS. Even though patients have no control over the severity of weakness as a result of acute polio, they do have control over some predictive factors for PPS. Patients can be advised that they should avoid gaining weight and exercising to the point of muscle pain because these variables have been found to be strongly associated with PPS. The exact role of physical activity will still need further evaluation; however, the usual recommendations of low-level aerobic exercise with avoidance of muscle pain and fatigue appear valid. Thus, this study can provide the basis for physiologically reasonable and practical advice to post-polio patients to minimize or delay the risk of PPS.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any): Paul Cavendish (Clinical Health Educator): The best multivariate model for predicting who will develop PPS indicates that patients who had a greater weakness at acute polio, are currently older, have muscle pain with exercise, a recent weight gain, and joint pain are those most likely to develop PPS. Other factors shown to be important in univariate analyses are a longer time since acute polio, and muscle pain (at rest or with exercise). Age at acute polio, recovery after polio, weakness at "best point" after polio, physical activity, and sex were not contributing factors.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Update on current and emerging treatment options for post-polio syndrome
Author: Farbu E
Affiliation: Neurocenter and National Competence Center for Movement Disorders, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway
Journal: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Citation: Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2010 Jul 21;6:307-13
Publication Year and Month: 2010 07

Abstract: Post-polio syndrome (PPS) refers to the clinical deterioration experienced by many polio survivors several decades after their acute illness. The symptoms are new muscle weakness, decreased muscle endurance, fatigue, muscle pain, joint pain, cold intolerance, and this typical clinical entity is reported from different parts of the world. The pathophysiology behind PPS is not fully understood, but a combination of distal degeneration of enlarged motor units caused by increased metabolic demands and the normal aging process, in addition to inflammatory mechanisms, are thought to be involved. There is no diagnostic test for PPS, and the diagnosis is based on a proper clinical workup where all other possible explanations for the new symptoms are ruled out. The basic principle of management of PPS lies in physical activity, individually tailored training programs, and lifestyle modification. Muscle weakness and muscle pain may be helped with specific training programs, in which training in warm water seems to be particularly helpful. Properly fitted orthoses can improve the biomechanical movement pattern and be energy-saving. Fatigue can be relieved with lifestyle changes, assistive devices, and training programs. Respiratory insufficiency can be controlled with noninvasive respiratory aids including biphasic positive pressure ventilators. Pharmacologic agents like prednisone, amantadine, pyridostigmine, and coenzyme Q10 are of no benefit in PPS. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been tried in three studies, all having positive results. IVIG could probably be a therapeutic alternative, but the potential benefit is modest, and some important questions are still unanswered, in particular to which patients this treatment is useful, the dose, and the therapeutic interval.

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Outcome of Research: More research required.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: EFNS guideline on diagnosis and management of post-polio syndrome - report of an EFNS task force
Author: Farbu E, Gilhus NE, Barnes MP, Borg K, de Visser M, Driessen A, Howard R, Nollet F, Opara J, Stalberg E
Affiliation: Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway – [email protected] – European Federation of Neurological Society
Journal: European Journal of Neurology
Citation: Eur J Neurol. 2006 Aug; 13(8):795-801
Publication Year and Month: 2006 08

Abstract: Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is characterized by new or increased muscular weakness, atrophy, muscle pain and fatigue several years after acute polio. The aim of the article is to prepare diagnostic criteria for PPS, and to evaluate the existing evidence for therapeutic interventions. The Medline, EMBASE and ISI databases were searched. Consensus in the group was reached after discussion by e-mail. We recommend Halstead's definition of PPS from 1991 as diagnostic criteria. Supervised, aerobic muscular training, both isokinetic and isometric, is a safe and effective way to prevent further decline for patients with moderate weakness (Level B). Muscular training can also improve muscular fatigue, muscle weakness and pain. Training in a warm climate and non-swimming water exercises are particularly useful (Level B). Respiratory muscle training can improve pulmonary function. Recognition of respiratory impairment and early introduction of non-invasive ventilatory aids prevent or delay further respiratory decline and the need for invasive respiratory aid (Level C). Group training, regular follow-up and patient education are useful for the patients' mental status and well-being. Weight loss, adjustment and introduction of properly fitted assistive devices should be considered (good practice points). A small number of controlled studies of potential-specific treatments for PPS have been completed, but no definitive therapeutic effect has been reported for the agents evaluated (pyridostigmine, corticosteroids, amantadine). Future randomized trials should particularly address the treatment of pain, which is commonly reported by PPS patients. There is also a need for studies evaluating the long-term effects of muscular training.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Post-polio sequelae: physiological and psychological overview
Author: Frick NM, Bruno RL
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: Rehabilitation Literature
Citation: Rehabil Lit. 1986 May-Jun; 47(5-6):106-11
Publication Year and Month: 1986 05

Abstract: When the Salk and Sabin vaccines brought an end to the annual summer nightmare of polio epidemics, most Americans simply forgot about polio. Even many of those who had paralytic poliomyelitis put the disease out of their minds once they had achieved maximum recovery of function. Unfortunately, polio has again forced itself into the nation's consciousness. Over the past five years, many of those who had polio have been experiencing new and unexpected symptoms that range in severity from being merely unpleasant to severely debilitating.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Cardiac risk factors in polio survivors
Author: Gawne AC, Wells KR, Wilson KS.
Affiliation: Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehabilitation, Warm Springs, GA 31830, USA - [email protected]
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003 May;84(5):694-6
Publication Year and Month: 2003 05

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of dyslipidemia and other risk factors for coronary heart disease in a sample of polio survivors with and without postpoliomyelitis syndrome.

DESIGN: Retrospective chart review.

SETTING: A multidisciplinary outpatient postpolio clinic.

PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-eight consecutive symptomatic postpolio patients, 50 women (mean age, 59.0y; range, 36-81y) and 38 men (mean age, 61.2y; range, 44-83y).

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence of risk factors for coronary heart disease: clinical atherosclerotic disease, male age >or=45 years or female age >or=55 years, history of hypertension (blood pressure >or=140/90mmHg or on antihypertensive medication), diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) less than 35mg/dL. Obesity (body mass index [BMI], >25kg/m(2)) was assessed as an intervention target. Laboratory values included fasting total cholesterol, HDL, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and glucose.

RESULTS: Of the total sample, 61.3% had dyslipidemia. Average HDL cholesterol ratio was 4.01 (women, 3.68; men, 4.55). Forty-four patients (50%) had a history of hypertension or had elevated blood pressure. Seven patients (8%) had a history of diabetes or had elevated fasting blood glucose (>110). Eighteen patients (20.4%) were smokers or had a history of smoking; 9 continued to smoke and 9 had quit smoking. Twenty-five patients (28.4%) were overweight (BMI, >25kg/m(2)). Forty-one patients (46.5%) had more than 1 risk factor for coronary heart disease. Nine of the total sample (10.2%) had a history of heart disease ranging from atrial fibrillation to angina. Only 19 patients had a previous diagnosis of dyslipidemia and only 12 were on a lipid-lowering medication.

Conclusions: Polio patients have a high prevalence of dyslipidemia. The study sample supports the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III statements that hypercholesterolemia is underdiagnosed and undertreated. The postpolio population carries a high prevalence of 2 or more coronary heart disease risk factors. Evaluation and rehabilitation of polio patients should include screening for dyslipidemia and education about elimination of controllable risk factors.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Management of postpolio syndrome
Author: Gonzalez H, Olsson T, Borg K
Affiliation: Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden – [email protected]
Journal: The Lancet Neurology
Citation: Lancet Neurol. 2010 Jun; 9(6):634-42 and Comment in: Lancet Neurol. 2010 Jun; 9(6):561-3
Publication Year and Month: 2010 06

Abstract: Postpolio syndrome is characterised by the exacerbation of existing or new health problems, most often muscle weakness and fatigability, general fatigue, and pain, after a period of stability subsequent to acute polio infection. Diagnosis is based on the presence of a lower motor neuron disorder that is supported by neurophysiological findings, with exclusion of other disorders as causes of the new symptoms. The muscle-related effects of postpolio syndrome are possibly associated with an ongoing process of denervation and reinnervation, reaching a point at which denervation is no longer compensated for by reinnervation. The cause of this denervation is unknown, but an inflammatory process is possible. Rehabilitation in patients with postpolio syndrome should take a multiprofessional and multidisciplinary approach, with an emphasis on physiotherapy, including enhanced or individually modified physical activity, and muscle training. Patients with postpolio syndrome should be advised to avoid both inactivity and overuse of weak muscles. Evaluation of the need for orthoses and assistive devices is often required.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Nonparalytic polio and postpolio syndrome
Author: Halstead LS, Silver JK
Affiliation: National Rehabilitation Hospital, Washington, DC 20010, USA
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2000 Jan-Feb;79(1):13-8
Publication Year and Month: 2000 01

Abstract: We describe four cases of postpolio syndrome with typical histories, physical examination results, and electrodiagnostic evidence of extensive anterior horn cell disease, as well as the putative pathophysiology of postpolio syndrome in persons with histories of nonparalytic polio and the diagnostic implications for individuals older than 40 yr of age who are experiencing unexplained new weakness, fatigue, and muscle or joint pain. Although the diagnosis of postpolio syndrome traditionally has required a remote history of paralytic polio, many persons such as the ones described here with typical symptoms of postpolio syndrome have no clear history of paralytic disease and are being misdiagnosed. With this in mind, we believe that the diagnostic criteria for postpolio syndrome should be modified to include the following: a history of remote paralytic polio or findings on history, physical examination results, and laboratory studies compatible with poliovirus damage of the central nervous system earlier in life.

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Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Characteristics and management of postpolio syndrome
Author: Jubelt B, Agre JC
Affiliation: State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, 750 E Adams St, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA – [email protected]
Journal: The Journal of the American Medical Association
Citation: JAMA. 2000 Jul 26;284(4):412-4
Publication Year and Month: 2000 07

Abstract: Postpolio syndrome (PPS) refers to new, late manifestations occurring many years after acute poliomyelitis infection. Over the last 25 years, PPS has become a relatively common problem encountered by primary care physicians. A 1987 National Health Interview Survey estimated that about half of the 640,000 survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis in the United States had new late manifestations of PPS. Subsequent studies in the 1990s have found the occurrence of PPS among patients with previous poliomyelitis to range from 28.5% to 64%. The average time in various reports from the acute poliomyelitis until the onset of PPS is about 35 years, with a range from 8 to 71 years. However, it is unclear if the occurrence of PPS increases with aging, which may be the case based on the most accepted etiologic hypothesis.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Treatment for postpolio syndrome
Author: Koopman FS, Beelen A, Gilhus NE, de Visser M, Nollet F
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation, University of Amsterdam Academic Medical Center, PO Box 22660, Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands, 1100 DD
Journal: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Citation: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 May 18;5:CD007818
Publication Year and Month: 2015 05

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Postpolio syndrome (PPS) may affect survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis and is characterised by a complex of neuromuscular symptoms leading to a decline in physical functioning. The effectiveness of pharmacological treatment and rehabilitation management in PPS is not yet established. This is an update of a review first published in 2011.

OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the evidence from randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials for the effect of any pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment for PPS compared to placebo, usual care or no treatment.

SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases on 21 July 2014: Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL Plus. We also checked reference lists of all relevant articles, searched the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database and trial registers and contacted investigators known to be involved in research in this area.

SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of any form of pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment for people with PPS. The primary outcome was self perceived activity limitations and secondary outcomes were muscle strength, muscle endurance, fatigue, pain and adverse events.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration.

MAIN RESULTS: We included 10 pharmacological (modafinil, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), pyridostigmine, lamotrigine, amantadine, prednisone) and three non-pharmacological (muscle strengthening, rehabilitation in a warm climate (that is temperature ± 25°C, dry and sunny) and a cold climate (that is temperature ± 0°C, rainy or snowy), static magnetic fields) studies with a total of 675 participants with PPS in this review. None of the included studies were completely free from any risk of bias, the most prevalent risk of bias being lack of blinding.There was moderate- and low-quality evidence that IVIg has no beneficial effect on activity limitations in the short term and long term, respectively, and inconsistency in the evidence for effectiveness on muscle strength. IVIg caused minor adverse events in a substantial proportion of the participants. Results of one trial provided very low-quality evidence that lamotrigine might be effective in reducing pain and fatigue, resulting in fewer activity limitations without generating adverse events. Data from two single trials suggested that muscle strengthening of thumb muscles (very low-quality evidence) and static magnetic fields (moderate-quality evidence) are safe and beneficial for improving muscle strength and pain, respectively, with unknown effects on activity limitations. Finally, there was evidence varying from very low quality to high quality that modafinil, pyridostigmine, amantadine, prednisone and rehabilitation in a warm or cold climate are not beneficial in PPS.

Conclusions: Due to insufficient good-quality data and lack of randomised studies, it was impossible to draw definite conclusions about the effectiveness of interventions for PPS. Results indicated that IVIg, lamotrigine, muscle strengthening exercises and static magnetic fields may be beneficial but need further investigation to clarify whether any real and meaningful effect exists.

Outcome of Research: More research required.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: A positive turning point in life -- how persons with late effects of polio experience the influence of an interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme
Author: Larsson Lund M (1), Lexell J
Affiliation: (1) Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy , Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2010 Jun;42(6):559-65. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0559
Publication Year and Month: 2010 06

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To describe and enhance our understanding of how persons with late effects of polio experience the influence of an interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme.

PARTICIPANTS: Twelve persons with clinically verified late effects of polio who had participated in an individualized, goal-oriented, comprehensive interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme.

METHODS: Qualitative research interviews analysed using the constant comparative method of grounded theory.

RESULTS: The rehabilitation programme was experienced as a turning point in the participants' lives. Before rehabilitation they felt they were on a downward slope without control. Rehabilitation was the start of a process of change whereby they acquired new skills, which, over time, contributed to a different but good life. After approximately a year, they had a sense of control and had accepted life with late effects of polio. They had also established new habits, taken on a changed valued self and could look to the future with confidence.

Conclusions: This qualitative study has shown that persons with late effects of polio can benefit from an individualized, goal-oriented, comprehensive interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme and experience positive changes in their management of daily activities and in their view of their late effects of polio, their future and their self.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: National Rehabilitation Hospital Limb Classification for Exercise, Research, and Clinical Trials in Post-Polio Patients
Author: Lauro S. Halstead, Anne Carrington Gawne, and Bao T. Pham

Affiliation: The Post-Polio Program; National Rehabilitation Hospital, Washington, DC


Journal: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Citation: The Post-Polio Syndrome: Advances in the Pathogenesis and Treatment Volume 753 pp 343-353 of the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences May 25, 1995.
Publication Year and Month: 1995 05

Abstract:

Conclusions: A need exists for an objective classification of polio patients for clinical and research purposes that takes into account the focal, asymmetric, and frequent subclinical nature of polio lesions. In order to prescribe a safe, effective exercise program, we developed a five-level (Classes I-V) limb-specific classification system based on remote and recent history, physical examination, and a four-extremity electrodiagnostic study (EMG/NCS). Class I limbs have no history of remote or recent weakness, normal strength, and a normal EMG. Class II limbs have no history of remote or recent weakness (or if remote history of weakness, full recovery occurred), normal strength and EMG evidence of prior anterior horn cell disease (AHCD). Class III limbs have a history of remote weakness with variable recovery, no new weakness, decreased strength, and EMG evidence of prior AHCD. Class IV limbs have a history of remote weakness with variable recovery, new clinical weakness, decreased strength, and EMG evidence of AHCD. Class V limbs have a history of severe weakness with little-to-no recovery, severely decreased strength and atrophy, and few-to-no motor units on EMG. In a prospective study of 400 limbs in 100 consecutive post-polio patients attending our clinic, 94 (23%) limbs were Class I, 88 (22%) were Class II, 95 (24%) were Class III, 75 (19%) were Class IV, and 48 (12%) were Class V. Guidelines for the use of this classification in a clinical/research setting are presented along with sample case histories and class-specific exercise recommendations.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Physiotherapy for poliomyelitis: a descriptive study in the Republic of Congo
Author: Mancini S, Coldiron ME, Nicholas S, Llosa AE, Mouniaman-Nara I, Ngala J, Grais RF, Porten K
Affiliation: Epicentre, Paris, France - [email protected]
Journal: BioMedCentral Research Notes
Citation: BMC Res Notes. 2014 Oct 23;7:755. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-7-755
Publication Year and Month: 2014 10

Abstract: BACKGROUND: A large poliomyelitis outbreak occurred in 2010 in the Republic of Congo. This paper describes the demographic and clinical characteristics of poliomyelitis cases and their outcomes following physiotherapy.

FINDINGS: Demographic and clinical data were collected on 126 individuals between November 23, 2010 and March 23, 2011. The male/female ratio was 2.5 and the median age was 19 years (IQR: 13.5-23). The most severe forms of the disease were more common in older patients, 81 of the 126 patients (64.3%) had multiple evaluations of muscle strength. Among patients with multiple evaluations, 38.1% had improved strength at final evaluation, 48.3% were stable and 13.6% had decreased strength.

Conclusions: Most acute poliomyelitis patients receiving physiotherapy had improved or stable muscle strength at their final evaluation. These descriptive results highlight the need for further research into the potential benefits of physiotherapy in polio affected patients.

Outcome of Research: More research required.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Unraveling the transmission ecology of polio
Author: Martinez-Bakker M (1), King AA (1,2), Rohani P (1,2)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America; (2) Center for the Study of Complex Systems, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America; Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Journal: Public Library of Science
Citation: PLoS Biol. 2015 Jun;13(6): e1002172. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002172
Publication Year and Month: 2015 06

Abstract: Sustained and coordinated vaccination efforts have brought polio eradication within reach. Anticipating the eradication of wild poliovirus (WPV) and the subsequent challenges in preventing its re-emergence, we look to the past to identify why polio rose to epidemic levels in the mid-20th century, and how WPV persisted over large geographic scales. We analyzed an extensive epidemiological dataset, spanning the 1930s to the 1950s and spatially replicated across each state in the United States, to glean insight into the drivers of polio’s historical expansion and the ecological mode of its persistence prior to vaccine introduction. We document a latitudinal gradient in polio’s seasonality. Additionally, we fitted and validated mechanistic transmission models to data from each US state independently. The fitted models revealed that: (1) polio persistence was the product of a dynamic mosaic of source and sink populations; (2) geographic heterogeneity of seasonal transmission conditions account for the latitudinal structure of polio epidemics; (3) contrary to the prevailing “disease of development” hypothesis, our analyses demonstrate that polio’s historical expansion was straightforwardly explained by demographic trends rather than improvements in sanitation and hygiene; and (4) the absence of clinical disease is not a reliable indicator of polio transmission, because widespread polio transmission was likely in the multiyear absence of clinical disease. As the world edges closer to global polio eradication and continues the strategic withdrawal of the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV), the regular identification of, and rapid response to, these silent chains of transmission is of the utmost importance.

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Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Post-polio sequelae - differential diagnosis and management
Author: Maynard FM
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1985 Jul; 8(7):857-61
Publication Year and Month: 1985 07

Abstract: Forty-two patients with a past history of poliomyelitis were evaluated at a post-polio clinic for new problems or impairments. Evaluation included a complete history, neurological and biomechanical examination and electrodiagnostic studies. Based on this evaluation patients were placed into three groups: 23 patients were considered to have or likely to have Progressive Post-Polio Muscular Atrophy (PPPMA); 17 patients were considered to have other post-polio sequelae; and two patients had problems unrelated to a past history of polio but mistaken for post-polio sequelae. Musculoskeletal pain was a common complaint among all groups of patients. Twenty-two of the 40 patients with post-polio sequelae were advised to alter their method of ambulation and/or decrease their activity pattern in order to decrease strain and/or excessive exertion of involved muscles. The role of chronic overuse and exercise in producing PPPMA or musculoskeletal pain problems is discussed. Characteristic clinical problems and useful management plans are described.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Postpolio syndrome: unanswered questions regarding cause, course, risk factors, and therapies
Author: Nollet F
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: The Lancet Neurology
Citation: Lancet Neurol. 2010 Jun;9(6):561-3 - Comment on: Lancet Neurol. 2010 Jun;9(6):634-42
Publication Year and Month: 2010 06

Abstract: Living with the consequences of poliomyelitis is not recognised as an important health issue at present. However, millions of people worldwide have lasting impairments caused by polio infection, many of whom also had a decline in muscle function and decline in activities of daily living after years of stable functioning.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Postpolio syndrome
Author: Nollet F, de Visser M
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, PO Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam, the Netherlands – [email protected]
Journal: Archives of Neurology
Citation: Arch Neurol. 2004 Jul;61(7):1142-4
Publication Year and Month: 2004 07

Abstract: This paper has no abstract - this is an extract:

Postpolio syndrome (PPS) refers to a decline of muscle function usually occurring 30 to 40 years after the acute polio episode. This syndrome has been widely recognized only during the last decades, when many people affected by the large epidemics of the previous century experienced new muscle weakness as they grew older. However, cases of late-onset weakening following poliomyelitis were already reported at the end of the 19th century.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Effect of Treatment and Noncompliance on Post-Polio Sequelae
Author: Paul E. Peach, MD, Stephen Olejnik, PhD
Affiliation:
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics November 1991 Vol 14 No. 11 1199-1203
Publication Year and Month: 1991

Abstract: In this study of 77 patients with post-polio sequelae (PPS), symptoms and manual test scores on initial evaluation were compared with those at subsequent follow-up evaluations. Patients were divided into three groups based on the degree to which they had complied with clinically recommended interventions: compliers, partial compliers, and noncompliers. At the end of the followup period (2.2 ± 1.2 years), the mean muscle function scores of the entire study group had declined - l.5%, which represented a decline of -0.7% annually. On follow-up evaluations, the complier group had realized an improvement or resolution of post-polio symptoms, and also an improvement in muscle function of +0.6% annually. The partial complier group had realized either no improvement, or improvement in post-polio symptoms, but showed a further decline in muscle function of -3.0%, or an annual decline of -1.3%. The noncomplier group showed either no change, or a worsening of post-polio symptoms, and also showed a further decline in muscle function of - 4.1% which represented an annual decline of - 2.0%.

Conclusions: The disparate outcomes among our post-polio patients underscore the need to develop more effective intervention strategies to achieve improved patient compliance, given the favorable outcomes experienced by patients who complied with clinical recommendations.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Effect of treatment and noncompliance on post-polio sequelae
Author: Peach PE, Olejnik S
Affiliation: Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehabilitation, Georgia 31830
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1199-203
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: In this study of 77 patients with post-polio sequelae (PPS), symptoms and manual test scores on initial evaluation were compared with those at subsequent follow-up evaluations. Patients were divided into three groups based on the degree to which they had complied with clinically recommended interventions: compliers, partial compliers, and noncompliers. At the end of the follow-up period (2.2 +/- 1.2 years), the mean muscle function scores of the entire study group had declined -1.5%, which represented a decline of -0.7% annually. On follow-up evaluations, the complier group had realized an improvement or resolution of post-polio symptoms, and also an improvement in muscle function of +0.6% annually. The partial complier group had realized either no improvement, or improvement in post-polio symptoms, but showed a further decline in muscle function of -3.0%, or an annual decline of -1.3%. The noncomplier group showed either no change, or a worsening of post-polio symptoms, and also showed a further decline in muscle function of -4.1%, which represented an annual decline of -2.0%.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Frequency and clinical manifestations of post-poliomyelitis syndrome in a Brazilian tertiary care center
Author: Quadros AA (1), Conde MT, Marin LF, Silva HC, Silva TM, Paula MB, Pereira RD, Ramos PE, Abe G, Oliveira AS
Affiliation: (1) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Division of Neuromuscular Disorders, Federal University of São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo SP, Brazil - [email protected]
Journal: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Citation: Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2012 Aug;70(8):571-3
Publication Year and Month: 2012 08

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and clinical manifestations of patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) in a Brazilian division of neuromuscular disorders.

METHODS: A total of 167 patients with prior history of paralytic poliomyelitis was investigated for PPS, based on international diagnostic criteria. Other variables analyzed were: gender, race, age at poliomyelitis infection, age at PPS onset, and PPS symptoms.

RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-nine patients presented PPS, corresponding to 77.2% of the studied population. 62.8% were women and 37.2% were men. Mean age of patients with PPS at onset of PPS symptoms was 39.9±9.69 years. Their main clinical manifestations were: new weakness in the previously affected limbs (69%) and in the apparently not affected limbs (31%); joint pain (79.8%); fatigue (77.5%); muscle pain (76%); and cold intolerance (69.8%).

Conclusions: Most patients of our sample presented PPS. In Brazil, PPS frequency and clinical features are quite similar to those of other countries.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Epidemiology of the post-polio syndrome
Author: Ramlow J, Alexander M, LaPorte R, Kaufmann C, Kuller L
Affiliation: Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA
Journal: American Journal of Epidemiology
Citation: Am J Epidemiol. 1992 Oct 1;136(7):769-86
Publication Year and Month: 1992 10

Abstract: A late-onset syndrome, consisting of muscle weakness, muscle pain, and unaccustomed fatigue, has been reported with increasing frequency among former poliomyelitis patients. A population-based cohort of poliomyelitis patients from Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, was traced and surveyed to estimate the prevalence and incidence and to identify determinants of the post-polio syndrome. A questionnaire validated in clinical examinations of 40 cohort members was used in the survey. The prevalence of the post-polio syndrome was 28.5% of all paralytic cases (95% confidence interval 24.4-32.6). The risk of post-polio syndrome was significantly higher among patients who sustained substantial permanent impairment after polio and among females. The incidence did not vary with age at acute onset, acute severity, or level of physical activity after recovery. The strongest determinant of post-polio syndrome onset was the length of the interval following the acute illness, with incidence peaking at 30-34 years. Of all cases of post-polio syndrome, 79% reported no major change in impairment status since onset. This study demonstrates that poliomyelitis patients are not equally susceptible to post-polio syndrome within the interval of 30-40 years after the original illness. For syndrome cases, the onset was associated with new neuromuscular symptoms and functional changes but not with major new impairment.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: The cultural context of polio biographies
Author: Scheer J, Luborsky ML
Affiliation: National Rehabilitation Hospital Research Center, Washington, DC 20010
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1173-81
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Cultural contexts influence the ways individuals interpret and experience functional losses associated with post-polio sequelae. Using in-depth multiple interview case studies from two National Institute on Aging projects, the concept of “biographies” is presented to place the individuals’ polio-related experiences within the context of their lives. Two major cultural contexts shape the construction of polio biographies: normative life course expectations and developmental tasks; and traditions associated with polio recovery and rehabilitation. The authors identify key dimensions of personal concern among polio survivors that can be used as entrance points for effective clinical intervention and to promote treatment compliance.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome
Author: Trojan DA, Cashman NR
Affiliation: Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3801 rue Université, Montréal, Québec H3A 2B4, Canada – [email protected]
Journal: Muscle & Nerve
Citation: Muscle Nerve. 2005 Jan;31(1):6-19
Publication Year and Month: 2005 01

Abstract: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) is a common neurological disorder that occurs in a large proportion of individuals who have recovered from paralytic poliomyelitis. The main clinical features are new weakness, muscular fatigability, general fatigue, and pain. The primary criteria necessary for the diagnosis of PPS are a history of paralytic poliomyelitis, partial or complete recovery of neurological function followed by a period of stability (usually several decades), persistent new muscle weakness or abnormal muscle fatigability, and the exclusion of other causes of new symptoms. The cause of PPS remains unclear, but is likely due to a distal degeneration of enlarged post-poliomyelitis motor units. Contributing factors to PPS may be aging (with motor neuron loss), overuse, and disuse. PPS is usually a slowly progressive neuromuscular disease. Although there is no specific treatment for PPS, an interdisciplinary management program can be useful in controlling symptoms.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Predictive factors for post-poliomyelitis syndrome
Author: Trojan DA, Cashman NR, Shapiro S, Tansey CM, Esdaile JM
Affiliation: Department of Neurology, Montreal Neurological Institute, Quebec, Canada
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1994 Jul;75(7):770-7
Publication Year and Month: 1994 07

Abstract: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) is generally defined as a clinical syndrome of new weakness, fatigue, and pain in individuals who have previously recovered from acute paralytic poliomyelitis. The purpose of this study was to identify, through a case-control study design, factors that predict subsequent PPS in patients with prior paralytic poliomyelitis. Among patients attending a university-affiliated hospital post-polio clinic, "cases" were patients with new weakness and fatigue, and "controls" were patients without these complaints. A chart review of 353 patients identified 127 cases and 39 controls. Logistic regression modeling was used to calculate adjusted and unadjusted odds ratios. In univariate analyses, significant risk factors for PPS were a greater age at time of presentation to clinic (p = 0.01), a longer time since acute polio (p = 0.01), and more weakness at acute polio (p = 0.02). Other significant associated, but not necessarily causal factors were a recent weight gain (p = 0.005), muscle pain (p = 0.01) particularly that associated with exercise (p = 0.005), and joint pain (p = 0.04). Multivariate analyses revealed that a model containing age at presentation to clinic, severity of weakness at acute polio, muscle pain with exercise, recent weight gain, and joint pain best distinguished cases from controls. Age at acute polio, degree of recovery after polio, weakness at best point after polio, physical activity, and sex were not contributing factors. These findings suggest that the degree of initial motor unit involvement as measured by weakness at acute polio, and possibly the aging process and overuse are important in predicting PPS.

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Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Management of post-polio syndrome
Author: Trojan DA, Finch L
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: NeuroRehabilitation
Citation: NeuroRehabil. 1997;8:93-105
Publication Year and Month: 1997 08

Abstract: The management of patients presenting with post-poliomyelitis syndrome is discussed. It is essential to identify and treat other medical and neurological conditions which could produce these symptoms. New weakness can be managed with exercise, avoidance of muscular overuse, weight loss, orthoses and assistive devices. Fatigue can be managed with energy conservation techniques. The management of pain is dependent upon its causes. Treatments are reviewed.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Epidemiology of the post-polio syndrome
Author: Ramlow J, Alexander M, LaPorte R, Kaufmann C, Kuller L
Affiliation: Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA
Journal: American Journal of Epidemiology
Citation: Am J Epidemiol. 1992 Oct 1;136(7):769-86
Publication Year and Month: 1992 10

Abstract: A late-onset syndrome, consisting of muscle weakness, muscle pain, and unaccustomed fatigue, has been reported with increasing frequency among former poliomyelitis patients. A population-based cohort of poliomyelitis patients from Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, was traced and surveyed to estimate the prevalence and incidence and to identify determinants of the post-polio syndrome. A questionnaire validated in clinical examinations of 40 cohort members was used in the survey. The prevalence of the post-polio syndrome was 28.5% of all paralytic cases (95% confidence interval 24.4-32.6). The risk of post-polio syndrome was significantly higher among patients who sustained substantial permanent impairment after polio and among females. The incidence did not vary with age at acute onset, acute severity, or level of physical activity after recovery. The strongest determinant of post-polio syndrome onset was the length of the interval following the acute illness, with incidence peaking at 30-34 years. Of all cases of post-polio syndrome, 79% reported no major change in impairment status since onset. This study demonstrates that poliomyelitis patients are not equally susceptible to post-polio syndrome within the interval of 30-40 years after the original illness. For syndrome cases, the onset was associated with new neuromuscular symptoms and functional changes but not with major new impairment.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Nonparalytic polio and postpolio syndrome
Author: Halstead LS, Silver JK
Affiliation: National Rehabilitation Hospital, Washington, DC 20010, USA
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2000 Jan-Feb;79(1):13-8
Publication Year and Month: 2000 01

Abstract: We describe four cases of postpolio syndrome with typical histories, physical examination results, and electrodiagnostic evidence of extensive anterior horn cell disease, as well as the putative pathophysiology of postpolio syndrome in persons with histories of nonparalytic polio and the diagnostic implications for individuals older than 40 yr of age who are experiencing unexplained new weakness, fatigue, and muscle or joint pain. Although the diagnosis of postpolio syndrome traditionally has required a remote history of paralytic polio, many persons such as the ones described here with typical symptoms of postpolio syndrome have no clear history of paralytic disease and are being misdiagnosed. With this in mind, we believe that the diagnostic criteria for postpolio syndrome should be modified to include the following: a history of remote paralytic polio or findings on history, physical examination results, and laboratory studies compatible with poliovirus damage of the central nervous system earlier in life.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Paralytic vs "nonparalytic" polio: distinction without a difference?
Author: Bruno RL
Affiliation: The Post-Polio Institute, Englewood Hospital and Medical Center, New Jersey, USA
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2000 Jan-Feb;79(1):4-12
Publication Year and Month: 2000 01

Abstract: Nonparalytic polio (NPP) is commonly thought to be synonymous with "abortive polio," in which the poliovirus neither entered the central nervous system nor damaged neurons. Described are two epidemic illness-"The Summer Grippe" and Iceland disease-apparently caused by a low virulence but neuropathic type 2 poliovirus. Studies show that neuronal lesions in the brain and spinal cord and muscle weakness were common in NPP, and epidemiologic studies document late-onset weakness and fatigue in 14% to 42% of NPP survivors. These findings indicate that clinicians should not require a history of paralytic polio, electromyographic evidence of denervation, and new muscle weakness for the diagnosis of "Postpolio Syndrome" but should be aware that NPP, and possibly even poliovirus-induced "minor illnesses," can be associated with acute central nervous system damage and late-onset muscle weakness and fatigue.

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Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: The post-polio syndrome as an evolved clinical entity. Definition and clinical description.
Author: Dalakas MC
Affiliation: Medical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Journal: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Citation: Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995 May 25;753:68-80
Publication Year and Month: 1995 05

Abstract: Post-polio syndrome (PPS) refers to the new neuromuscular symptoms that occur at least 15 years after stability in patients with prior acute paralytic polio-myelitis. They include: (1) new muscle weakness and atrophy in the limbs, the bulbar or the respiratory muscles [post-poliomyelitis muscular atrophy (PPMA)] and (2) excessive muscle fatigue and diminished physical endurance. PPS is a clinical diagnosis that requires exclusion of all other medical, neurological, orthopedic or psychiatric diseases that could explain the cause of the new symptoms. Routine electromyography is useful to confirm chronic and ongoing denervation and exclude neuropathies. Muscle biopsy, single fiber electromyography (EMG), macro-EMG, serum antibody titers to polio virus, and spinal fluid studies are very useful research tools but they are rarely needed to establish the clinical diagnosis. PPS is a slowly progressive phenomenon with periods of stability that vary from 3 to 10 years. Current evidence indicates that PPS is the evolution of a subclinically ongoing motor neuron dysfunction that begins after the time of the acute polio. It is clinically manifested as PPS when the well-compensated reinnervating process crosses a critical threshold beyond which the remaining motor neurons cannot maintain the innervation to all the muscle fibers within their motor unit territory.

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Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: National Rehabilitation Hospital Limb Classification for Exercise, Research, and Clinical Trials in Post-Polio Patients
Author: Lauro S. Halstead, Anne Carrington Gawne, and Bao T. Pham

Affiliation: The Post-Polio Program; National Rehabilitation Hospital, Washington, DC


Journal: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Citation: The Post-Polio Syndrome: Advances in the Pathogenesis and Treatment Volume 753 pp 343-353 of the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences May 25, 1995.
Publication Year and Month: 1995 05

Abstract:

Conclusions: A need exists for an objective classification of polio patients for clinical and research purposes that takes into account the focal, asymmetric, and frequent subclinical nature of polio lesions. In order to prescribe a safe, effective exercise program, we developed a five-level (Classes I-V) limb-specific classification system based on remote and recent history, physical examination, and a four-extremity electrodiagnostic study (EMG/NCS). Class I limbs have no history of remote or recent weakness, normal strength, and a normal EMG. Class II limbs have no history of remote or recent weakness (or if remote history of weakness, full recovery occurred), normal strength and EMG evidence of prior anterior horn cell disease (AHCD). Class III limbs have a history of remote weakness with variable recovery, no new weakness, decreased strength, and EMG evidence of prior AHCD. Class IV limbs have a history of remote weakness with variable recovery, new clinical weakness, decreased strength, and EMG evidence of AHCD. Class V limbs have a history of severe weakness with little-to-no recovery, severely decreased strength and atrophy, and few-to-no motor units on EMG. In a prospective study of 400 limbs in 100 consecutive post-polio patients attending our clinic, 94 (23%) limbs were Class I, 88 (22%) were Class II, 95 (24%) were Class III, 75 (19%) were Class IV, and 48 (12%) were Class V. Guidelines for the use of this classification in a clinical/research setting are presented along with sample case histories and class-specific exercise recommendations.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Postpolio syndrome
Author: Nollet F, de Visser M
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, PO Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam, the Netherlands – [email protected]
Journal: Archives of Neurology
Citation: Arch Neurol. 2004 Jul;61(7):1142-4
Publication Year and Month: 2004 07

Abstract: This paper has no abstract - this is an extract:

Postpolio syndrome (PPS) refers to a decline of muscle function usually occurring 30 to 40 years after the acute polio episode. This syndrome has been widely recognized only during the last decades, when many people affected by the large epidemics of the previous century experienced new muscle weakness as they grew older. However, cases of late-onset weakening following poliomyelitis were already reported at the end of the 19th century.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Cardiac risk factors in polio survivors
Author: Gawne AC, Wells KR, Wilson KS.
Affiliation: Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehabilitation, Warm Springs, GA 31830, USA - [email protected]
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003 May;84(5):694-6
Publication Year and Month: 2003 05

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of dyslipidemia and other risk factors for coronary heart disease in a sample of polio survivors with and without postpoliomyelitis syndrome.

DESIGN: Retrospective chart review.

SETTING: A multidisciplinary outpatient postpolio clinic.

PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-eight consecutive symptomatic postpolio patients, 50 women (mean age, 59.0y; range, 36-81y) and 38 men (mean age, 61.2y; range, 44-83y).

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence of risk factors for coronary heart disease: clinical atherosclerotic disease, male age >or=45 years or female age >or=55 years, history of hypertension (blood pressure >or=140/90mmHg or on antihypertensive medication), diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) less than 35mg/dL. Obesity (body mass index [BMI], >25kg/m(2)) was assessed as an intervention target. Laboratory values included fasting total cholesterol, HDL, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and glucose.

RESULTS: Of the total sample, 61.3% had dyslipidemia. Average HDL cholesterol ratio was 4.01 (women, 3.68; men, 4.55). Forty-four patients (50%) had a history of hypertension or had elevated blood pressure. Seven patients (8%) had a history of diabetes or had elevated fasting blood glucose (>110). Eighteen patients (20.4%) were smokers or had a history of smoking; 9 continued to smoke and 9 had quit smoking. Twenty-five patients (28.4%) were overweight (BMI, >25kg/m(2)). Forty-one patients (46.5%) had more than 1 risk factor for coronary heart disease. Nine of the total sample (10.2%) had a history of heart disease ranging from atrial fibrillation to angina. Only 19 patients had a previous diagnosis of dyslipidemia and only 12 were on a lipid-lowering medication.

Conclusions: Polio patients have a high prevalence of dyslipidemia. The study sample supports the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III statements that hypercholesterolemia is underdiagnosed and undertreated. The postpolio population carries a high prevalence of 2 or more coronary heart disease risk factors. Evaluation and rehabilitation of polio patients should include screening for dyslipidemia and education about elimination of controllable risk factors.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Predictive factors for post-poliomyelitis syndrome
Author: Trojan DA, Cashman NR, Shapiro S, Tansey CM, Esdaile JM
Affiliation: Department of Neurology, Montreal Neurological Institute, Quebec, Canada
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1994 Jul;75(7):770-7
Publication Year and Month: 1994 07

Abstract: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) is generally defined as a clinical syndrome of new weakness, fatigue, and pain in individuals who have previously recovered from acute paralytic poliomyelitis. The purpose of this study was to identify, through a case-control study design, factors that predict subsequent PPS in patients with prior paralytic poliomyelitis. Among patients attending a university-affiliated hospital post-polio clinic, "cases" were patients with new weakness and fatigue, and "controls" were patients without these complaints. A chart review of 353 patients identified 127 cases and 39 controls. Logistic regression modeling was used to calculate adjusted and unadjusted odds ratios. In univariate analyses, significant risk factors for PPS were a greater age at time of presentation to clinic (p = 0.01), a longer time since acute polio (p = 0.01), and more weakness at acute polio (p = 0.02). Other significant associated, but not necessarily causal factors were a recent weight gain (p = 0.005), muscle pain (p = 0.01) particularly that associated with exercise (p = 0.005), and joint pain (p = 0.04). Multivariate analyses revealed that a model containing age at presentation to clinic, severity of weakness at acute polio, muscle pain with exercise, recent weight gain, and joint pain best distinguished cases from controls. Age at acute polio, degree of recovery after polio, weakness at best point after polio, physical activity, and sex were not contributing factors. These findings suggest that the degree of initial motor unit involvement as measured by weakness at acute polio, and possibly the aging process and overuse are important in predicting PPS.

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Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Predictive Factors for Post-Poliomyelitis Syndrome
Author: Daria A. Trojan, MD, MSc, Neil R. Cashman, MD, Stanley Shapiro, PhD, Catherine M. Tansey, MSc, John M. Esdaile, MD
Affiliation: From the Department of Neurology (Drs. Trojan, Cashman), Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, the Department of Medicine (Dr. Esdaile), Montreal General Hospital, and the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (Dr. Shapiro, Ms. Tansey), McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 75, July 1994, 770-777
Publication Year and Month: 1994 07

Abstract: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) is generally defined as a clinical syndrome of new weakness, fatigue, and pain in individuals who have previously recovered from acute paralytic poliomyelitis. The purpose of this study was to identify, through a case-control study design, factors that predict subsequent PPS in patients with prior paralytic poliomyelitis. Among patients attending a university-affiliate hospital post-polio clinic, "cases" were patients with new weakness and fatigue, and "controls" were patients without these complaints. A chart review of 353 patients identified 127 cases and 39 controls. Logistic regression modeling was used to calculate adjusted and unadjusted odds ratios. In univariate analyses, significant risk factors for PPS were a greater age at time of presentation to clinic (p = 0.01), a longer time since acute polio (p = 0.01), and more weakness at acute polio (p = 0.02). Other significant associated, but not necessarily causal factors were a recent weight gain (p = 0.005), muscle pain (p = 0.01) particularly that associated with exercise (p = 0.005), and joint pain (p = 0.04). Multivariate analyses revealed that a model containing age at presentation to clinic, severity of weakness at acute polio, muscle pain with exercise, recent weight gain, and joint pain best distinguished cases from controls. Age at acute polio, degree of recovery after polio, weakness at best point after polio, physical activity, and sex were not contributing factors. These findings suggest that the degree of initial motor unit involvement as measured by weakness at acute polio, and possibly the aging process and overuse are important in predicting PPS.

Conclusions: In conclusion, the results from this study provide insight on predictive factors for PPS, and can be applied in the clinical management of patients who have recovered from paralytic poliomyelitis. Our findings support the hypothesis that the severity of initial motor unit involvement as estimated by weakness at acute polio, and possibly the normal ageing process and overuse are important in predicting PPS. Even though patients have no control over the severity of weakness as a result of acute polio, they do have control over some predictive factors for PPS. Patients can be advised that they should avoid gaining weight and exercising to the point of muscle pain because these variables have been found to be strongly associated with PPS. The exact role of physical activity will still need further evaluation; however, the usual recommendations of low-level aerobic exercise with avoidance of muscle pain and fatigue appear valid. Thus, this study can provide the basis for physiologically reasonable and practical advice to post-polio patients to minimize or delay the risk of PPS.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Comments (if any): Paul Cavendish (Clinical Health Educator): The best multivariate model for predicting who will develop PPS indicates that patients who had a greater weakness at acute polio, are currently older, have muscle pain with exercise, a recent weight gain, and joint pain are those most likely to develop PPS. Other factors shown to be important in univariate analyses are a longer time since acute polio, and muscle pain (at rest or with exercise). Age at acute polio, recovery after polio, weakness at "best point" after polio, physical activity, and sex were not contributing factors.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Frequency and clinical manifestations of post-poliomyelitis syndrome in a Brazilian tertiary care center
Author: Quadros AA (1), Conde MT, Marin LF, Silva HC, Silva TM, Paula MB, Pereira RD, Ramos PE, Abe G, Oliveira AS
Affiliation: (1) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Division of Neuromuscular Disorders, Federal University of São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo SP, Brazil - [email protected]
Journal: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Citation: Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2012 Aug;70(8):571-3
Publication Year and Month: 2012 08

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and clinical manifestations of patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) in a Brazilian division of neuromuscular disorders.

METHODS: A total of 167 patients with prior history of paralytic poliomyelitis was investigated for PPS, based on international diagnostic criteria. Other variables analyzed were: gender, race, age at poliomyelitis infection, age at PPS onset, and PPS symptoms.

RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-nine patients presented PPS, corresponding to 77.2% of the studied population. 62.8% were women and 37.2% were men. Mean age of patients with PPS at onset of PPS symptoms was 39.9±9.69 years. Their main clinical manifestations were: new weakness in the previously affected limbs (69%) and in the apparently not affected limbs (31%); joint pain (79.8%); fatigue (77.5%); muscle pain (76%); and cold intolerance (69.8%).

Conclusions: Most patients of our sample presented PPS. In Brazil, PPS frequency and clinical features are quite similar to those of other countries.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Physiotherapy for poliomyelitis: a descriptive study in the Republic of Congo
Author: Mancini S, Coldiron ME, Nicholas S, Llosa AE, Mouniaman-Nara I, Ngala J, Grais RF, Porten K
Affiliation: Epicentre, Paris, France - [email protected]
Journal: BioMedCentral Research Notes
Citation: BMC Res Notes. 2014 Oct 23;7:755. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-7-755
Publication Year and Month: 2014 10

Abstract: BACKGROUND: A large poliomyelitis outbreak occurred in 2010 in the Republic of Congo. This paper describes the demographic and clinical characteristics of poliomyelitis cases and their outcomes following physiotherapy.

FINDINGS: Demographic and clinical data were collected on 126 individuals between November 23, 2010 and March 23, 2011. The male/female ratio was 2.5 and the median age was 19 years (IQR: 13.5-23). The most severe forms of the disease were more common in older patients, 81 of the 126 patients (64.3%) had multiple evaluations of muscle strength. Among patients with multiple evaluations, 38.1% had improved strength at final evaluation, 48.3% were stable and 13.6% had decreased strength.

Conclusions: Most acute poliomyelitis patients receiving physiotherapy had improved or stable muscle strength at their final evaluation. These descriptive results highlight the need for further research into the potential benefits of physiotherapy in polio affected patients.

Outcome of Research: More research required.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Treatment for postpolio syndrome
Author: Koopman FS, Beelen A, Gilhus NE, de Visser M, Nollet F
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation, University of Amsterdam Academic Medical Center, PO Box 22660, Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands, 1100 DD
Journal: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Citation: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 May 18;5:CD007818
Publication Year and Month: 2015 05

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Postpolio syndrome (PPS) may affect survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis and is characterised by a complex of neuromuscular symptoms leading to a decline in physical functioning. The effectiveness of pharmacological treatment and rehabilitation management in PPS is not yet established. This is an update of a review first published in 2011.

OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the evidence from randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials for the effect of any pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment for PPS compared to placebo, usual care or no treatment.

SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases on 21 July 2014: Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL Plus. We also checked reference lists of all relevant articles, searched the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database and trial registers and contacted investigators known to be involved in research in this area.

SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of any form of pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment for people with PPS. The primary outcome was self perceived activity limitations and secondary outcomes were muscle strength, muscle endurance, fatigue, pain and adverse events.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration.

MAIN RESULTS: We included 10 pharmacological (modafinil, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), pyridostigmine, lamotrigine, amantadine, prednisone) and three non-pharmacological (muscle strengthening, rehabilitation in a warm climate (that is temperature ± 25°C, dry and sunny) and a cold climate (that is temperature ± 0°C, rainy or snowy), static magnetic fields) studies with a total of 675 participants with PPS in this review. None of the included studies were completely free from any risk of bias, the most prevalent risk of bias being lack of blinding.There was moderate- and low-quality evidence that IVIg has no beneficial effect on activity limitations in the short term and long term, respectively, and inconsistency in the evidence for effectiveness on muscle strength. IVIg caused minor adverse events in a substantial proportion of the participants. Results of one trial provided very low-quality evidence that lamotrigine might be effective in reducing pain and fatigue, resulting in fewer activity limitations without generating adverse events. Data from two single trials suggested that muscle strengthening of thumb muscles (very low-quality evidence) and static magnetic fields (moderate-quality evidence) are safe and beneficial for improving muscle strength and pain, respectively, with unknown effects on activity limitations. Finally, there was evidence varying from very low quality to high quality that modafinil, pyridostigmine, amantadine, prednisone and rehabilitation in a warm or cold climate are not beneficial in PPS.

Conclusions: Due to insufficient good-quality data and lack of randomised studies, it was impossible to draw definite conclusions about the effectiveness of interventions for PPS. Results indicated that IVIg, lamotrigine, muscle strengthening exercises and static magnetic fields may be beneficial but need further investigation to clarify whether any real and meaningful effect exists.

Outcome of Research: More research required.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Polio survivors perceptions of a multi-disciplinary rehabilitation programme
Author: Atwal, A., Duncan, H., Queally, C., Cedar, S.H.
Affiliation: Nil
Journal: Disability and Rehabilitation
Citation: Atwal, A., Duncan, H., Queally, C., Cedar, S.H. (2017) Polio survivors perceptions of a multi-disciplinary rehabilitation programme. Disability and Rehabilitation. DOI: 10.1080/09638288.2017.1381184
Publication Year and Month: 2017 10

Abstract: Purpose: Post-polio syndrome refers to a late complication of the poliovirus infection. Management of post-polio syndrome is complex due to the extensive symptomology. European and United Kingdom guidelines have advised the use of rehabilitation programmes to manage post-polio syndrome. There is a paucity of research in relation to the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions. The objective of this study is to explore polio survivor’s perceptions of an in-patient multi-disciplinary rehabilitation programme.

Methods: Semi-structured interviews of community dwelling polio survivors who attended in-patient rehabilitation programme in the United Kingdom. Thematic analysis was used to describe and interpret interview data.

Results: Participants’ experiences were influenced by past experiences of polio and their self-concept. Participants generally had a positive experience and valued being with other polio survivors. Positive strategies, such as pacing and reflection changed their mind-sets into their lives after the programme, though they still faced challenges in daily living. Some participants supported others with post-polio syndrome after completing the programme.

Conclusions: The research identified that participants experienced long term positive benefits from attending a rehabilitation programme. Strategies that users found helpful that explored the effectiveness of interventions to manage polio are not cited within a Cochrane review. If we are to recognise the lived experience and service user empowerment within a model of co- production it is essential that patient preferences are evaluated and used as evidence to justify service provision. Further research is required with polio survivors to explore how best rehabilitation programmes can adopt the principles of co-production.

Implications for Rehabilitation
The patients’ expertise and lived experience must be at the centre of a rehabilitation programme.

Strategies such as pacing and reflection are perceived as important strategies to enable self-management of polio and post-polio syndrome despite the limited evidence base to support these interventions.

Polio rehabilitation programmes should not be time limited and commissioners and therapists need to ensure that follow up support is provided.

When measuring outcomes patient preferences and views must be evaluated.

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any): This investigation supports feedback from polio survivors in Australia on the benefits of group-based rehabilitation, especially where there is an opportunity to learn and discuss their rehabilitation with fellow participants.

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: EFNS guideline on diagnosis and management of post-polio syndrome - report of an EFNS task force
Author: Farbu E, Gilhus NE, Barnes MP, Borg K, de Visser M, Driessen A, Howard R, Nollet F, Opara J, Stalberg E
Affiliation: Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway – [email protected] – European Federation of Neurological Society
Journal: European Journal of Neurology
Citation: Eur J Neurol. 2006 Aug; 13(8):795-801
Publication Year and Month: 2006 08

Abstract: Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is characterized by new or increased muscular weakness, atrophy, muscle pain and fatigue several years after acute polio. The aim of the article is to prepare diagnostic criteria for PPS, and to evaluate the existing evidence for therapeutic interventions. The Medline, EMBASE and ISI databases were searched. Consensus in the group was reached after discussion by e-mail. We recommend Halstead's definition of PPS from 1991 as diagnostic criteria. Supervised, aerobic muscular training, both isokinetic and isometric, is a safe and effective way to prevent further decline for patients with moderate weakness (Level B). Muscular training can also improve muscular fatigue, muscle weakness and pain. Training in a warm climate and non-swimming water exercises are particularly useful (Level B). Respiratory muscle training can improve pulmonary function. Recognition of respiratory impairment and early introduction of non-invasive ventilatory aids prevent or delay further respiratory decline and the need for invasive respiratory aid (Level C). Group training, regular follow-up and patient education are useful for the patients' mental status and well-being. Weight loss, adjustment and introduction of properly fitted assistive devices should be considered (good practice points). A small number of controlled studies of potential-specific treatments for PPS have been completed, but no definitive therapeutic effect has been reported for the agents evaluated (pyridostigmine, corticosteroids, amantadine). Future randomized trials should particularly address the treatment of pain, which is commonly reported by PPS patients. There is also a need for studies evaluating the long-term effects of muscular training.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome as a possible viral disease
Author: Baj A (1), Colombo M (1), Headley JL (2), McFarlane JR (3), Liethof MA (4), Toniolo A (5)
Affiliation: (1) Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology, University of Insubria Medical School, Viale Borri 57, 21100 Varese, Italy; (2) Post-Polio Health International, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA; (3) European Polio Union, Huldenberg, Belgium; (4) Polio Australia Incorporated, Kew, Victoria, Australia; (5) Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology, University of Insubria Medical School, Viale Borri 57, 21100 Varese, Italy. Electronic address: [email protected]
Journal: International Journal of Infectious Diseases
Citation: Int J Infect Dis. 2015 May 1;35:107-116. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2015.04.018
Publication Year and Month: 2015 05

Abstract: This review summarizes current concepts on post-polio syndrome (PPS), a condition that may arise in polio survivors after partial or complete functional recovery followed by a prolonged interval of stable neurological function. PPS affects 15-20 million people worldwide. Epidemiological data are reported, together with the pathogenic pathways that possibly lead to the progressive degeneration and loss of neuromuscular motor units. As a consequence of PPS, polio survivors experience new weakness, generalized fatigue, atrophy of previously unaffected muscles, and a physical decline that may culminate in the loss of independent life. Emphasis is given to the possible pathogenic role of persistent poliovirus infection and chronic inflammation. These factors could contribute to the neurological and physical decline in polio survivors. A perspective is then given on novel anti-poliovirus compounds and monoclonal antibodies that have been developed to contribute to the final phases of polio eradication. These agents could also be useful for the treatment or prevention of PPS. Some of these compounds/antibodies are in early clinical development. Finally, current clinical trials for PPS are reported. In this area, the intravenous infusion of normal human immunoglobulins appears both feasible and promising.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Effective.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: A positive turning point in life -- how persons with late effects of polio experience the influence of an interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme
Author: Larsson Lund M (1), Lexell J
Affiliation: (1) Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy , Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2010 Jun;42(6):559-65. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0559
Publication Year and Month: 2010 06

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To describe and enhance our understanding of how persons with late effects of polio experience the influence of an interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme.

PARTICIPANTS: Twelve persons with clinically verified late effects of polio who had participated in an individualized, goal-oriented, comprehensive interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme.

METHODS: Qualitative research interviews analysed using the constant comparative method of grounded theory.

RESULTS: The rehabilitation programme was experienced as a turning point in the participants' lives. Before rehabilitation they felt they were on a downward slope without control. Rehabilitation was the start of a process of change whereby they acquired new skills, which, over time, contributed to a different but good life. After approximately a year, they had a sense of control and had accepted life with late effects of polio. They had also established new habits, taken on a changed valued self and could look to the future with confidence.

Conclusions: This qualitative study has shown that persons with late effects of polio can benefit from an individualized, goal-oriented, comprehensive interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme and experience positive changes in their management of daily activities and in their view of their late effects of polio, their future and their self.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome
Author: Trojan DA, Cashman NR
Affiliation: Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3801 rue Université, Montréal, Québec H3A 2B4, Canada – [email protected]
Journal: Muscle & Nerve
Citation: Muscle Nerve. 2005 Jan;31(1):6-19
Publication Year and Month: 2005 01

Abstract: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) is a common neurological disorder that occurs in a large proportion of individuals who have recovered from paralytic poliomyelitis. The main clinical features are new weakness, muscular fatigability, general fatigue, and pain. The primary criteria necessary for the diagnosis of PPS are a history of paralytic poliomyelitis, partial or complete recovery of neurological function followed by a period of stability (usually several decades), persistent new muscle weakness or abnormal muscle fatigability, and the exclusion of other causes of new symptoms. The cause of PPS remains unclear, but is likely due to a distal degeneration of enlarged post-poliomyelitis motor units. Contributing factors to PPS may be aging (with motor neuron loss), overuse, and disuse. PPS is usually a slowly progressive neuromuscular disease. Although there is no specific treatment for PPS, an interdisciplinary management program can be useful in controlling symptoms.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Management of post-polio syndrome
Author: Trojan DA, Finch L
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: NeuroRehabilitation
Citation: NeuroRehabil. 1997;8:93-105
Publication Year and Month: 1997 08

Abstract: The management of patients presenting with post-poliomyelitis syndrome is discussed. It is essential to identify and treat other medical and neurological conditions which could produce these symptoms. New weakness can be managed with exercise, avoidance of muscular overuse, weight loss, orthoses and assistive devices. Fatigue can be managed with energy conservation techniques. The management of pain is dependent upon its causes. Treatments are reviewed.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: The cultural context of polio biographies
Author: Scheer J, Luborsky ML
Affiliation: National Rehabilitation Hospital Research Center, Washington, DC 20010
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1173-81
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Cultural contexts influence the ways individuals interpret and experience functional losses associated with post-polio sequelae. Using in-depth multiple interview case studies from two National Institute on Aging projects, the concept of “biographies” is presented to place the individuals’ polio-related experiences within the context of their lives. Two major cultural contexts shape the construction of polio biographies: normative life course expectations and developmental tasks; and traditions associated with polio recovery and rehabilitation. The authors identify key dimensions of personal concern among polio survivors that can be used as entrance points for effective clinical intervention and to promote treatment compliance.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Post-polio sequelae - differential diagnosis and management
Author: Maynard FM
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1985 Jul; 8(7):857-61
Publication Year and Month: 1985 07

Abstract: Forty-two patients with a past history of poliomyelitis were evaluated at a post-polio clinic for new problems or impairments. Evaluation included a complete history, neurological and biomechanical examination and electrodiagnostic studies. Based on this evaluation patients were placed into three groups: 23 patients were considered to have or likely to have Progressive Post-Polio Muscular Atrophy (PPPMA); 17 patients were considered to have other post-polio sequelae; and two patients had problems unrelated to a past history of polio but mistaken for post-polio sequelae. Musculoskeletal pain was a common complaint among all groups of patients. Twenty-two of the 40 patients with post-polio sequelae were advised to alter their method of ambulation and/or decrease their activity pattern in order to decrease strain and/or excessive exertion of involved muscles. The role of chronic overuse and exercise in producing PPPMA or musculoskeletal pain problems is discussed. Characteristic clinical problems and useful management plans are described.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Effect of treatment and noncompliance on post-polio sequelae
Author: Peach PE, Olejnik S
Affiliation: Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehabilitation, Georgia 31830
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1199-203
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: In this study of 77 patients with post-polio sequelae (PPS), symptoms and manual test scores on initial evaluation were compared with those at subsequent follow-up evaluations. Patients were divided into three groups based on the degree to which they had complied with clinically recommended interventions: compliers, partial compliers, and noncompliers. At the end of the follow-up period (2.2 +/- 1.2 years), the mean muscle function scores of the entire study group had declined -1.5%, which represented a decline of -0.7% annually. On follow-up evaluations, the complier group had realized an improvement or resolution of post-polio symptoms, and also an improvement in muscle function of +0.6% annually. The partial complier group had realized either no improvement, or improvement in post-polio symptoms, but showed a further decline in muscle function of -3.0%, or an annual decline of -1.3%. The noncomplier group showed either no change, or a worsening of post-polio symptoms, and also showed a further decline in muscle function of -4.1%, which represented an annual decline of -2.0%.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Polioencephalitis, stress, and the etiology of post-polio sequelae
Author: Bruno RL, Frick NM, Cohen J
Affiliation: Post-Polio Rehabilitation and Research Service, Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation, East Orange, NJ 07018
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1269-76
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Post-mortem neurohistopathologies that document polio virus-induced lesions in reticular formation and hypothalamic, thalamic, peptidergic, and monoaminergic neurons in the brain are reviewed from 158 individuals who contracted polio before 1950. This polioencephalitis was found to occur in every case of poliomyelitis, even those without evidence of damage to spinal motor neurons. These findings, in combination with data from the 1990 National Post-Polio Survey and new magnetic resonance imaging studies documenting post-encephalitis-like lesions in the brains of polio survivors, are used to present two hypotheses: 1) polioencephalitic damage to aging reticular activating system and monoaminergic neurons is responsible for post-polio fatigue, and 2) polioencephalitic damage to enkephalin-producing neurons is responsible for hypersensitivity to pain in polio survivors. In addition, the antimetabolic action of glucocorticoids on polio-damaged, metabolically vulnerable neurons may be responsible for the fatigue and muscle weakness reported by polio survivors during emotional stress.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Effect of Treatment and Noncompliance on Post-Polio Sequelae
Author: Paul E. Peach, MD, Stephen Olejnik, PhD
Affiliation:
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics November 1991 Vol 14 No. 11 1199-1203
Publication Year and Month: 1991

Abstract: In this study of 77 patients with post-polio sequelae (PPS), symptoms and manual test scores on initial evaluation were compared with those at subsequent follow-up evaluations. Patients were divided into three groups based on the degree to which they had complied with clinically recommended interventions: compliers, partial compliers, and noncompliers. At the end of the followup period (2.2 ± 1.2 years), the mean muscle function scores of the entire study group had declined - l.5%, which represented a decline of -0.7% annually. On follow-up evaluations, the complier group had realized an improvement or resolution of post-polio symptoms, and also an improvement in muscle function of +0.6% annually. The partial complier group had realized either no improvement, or improvement in post-polio symptoms, but showed a further decline in muscle function of -3.0%, or an annual decline of -1.3%. The noncomplier group showed either no change, or a worsening of post-polio symptoms, and also showed a further decline in muscle function of - 4.1% which represented an annual decline of - 2.0%.

Conclusions: The disparate outcomes among our post-polio patients underscore the need to develop more effective intervention strategies to achieve improved patient compliance, given the favorable outcomes experienced by patients who complied with clinical recommendations.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Unraveling the transmission ecology of polio
Author: Martinez-Bakker M (1), King AA (1,2), Rohani P (1,2)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America; (2) Center for the Study of Complex Systems, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America; Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Journal: Public Library of Science
Citation: PLoS Biol. 2015 Jun;13(6): e1002172. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002172
Publication Year and Month: 2015 06

Abstract: Sustained and coordinated vaccination efforts have brought polio eradication within reach. Anticipating the eradication of wild poliovirus (WPV) and the subsequent challenges in preventing its re-emergence, we look to the past to identify why polio rose to epidemic levels in the mid-20th century, and how WPV persisted over large geographic scales. We analyzed an extensive epidemiological dataset, spanning the 1930s to the 1950s and spatially replicated across each state in the United States, to glean insight into the drivers of polio’s historical expansion and the ecological mode of its persistence prior to vaccine introduction. We document a latitudinal gradient in polio’s seasonality. Additionally, we fitted and validated mechanistic transmission models to data from each US state independently. The fitted models revealed that: (1) polio persistence was the product of a dynamic mosaic of source and sink populations; (2) geographic heterogeneity of seasonal transmission conditions account for the latitudinal structure of polio epidemics; (3) contrary to the prevailing “disease of development” hypothesis, our analyses demonstrate that polio’s historical expansion was straightforwardly explained by demographic trends rather than improvements in sanitation and hygiene; and (4) the absence of clinical disease is not a reliable indicator of polio transmission, because widespread polio transmission was likely in the multiyear absence of clinical disease. As the world edges closer to global polio eradication and continues the strategic withdrawal of the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV), the regular identification of, and rapid response to, these silent chains of transmission is of the utmost importance.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Post-polio sequelae: physiological and psychological overview
Author: Frick NM, Bruno RL
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: Rehabilitation Literature
Citation: Rehabil Lit. 1986 May-Jun; 47(5-6):106-11
Publication Year and Month: 1986 05

Abstract: When the Salk and Sabin vaccines brought an end to the annual summer nightmare of polio epidemics, most Americans simply forgot about polio. Even many of those who had paralytic poliomyelitis put the disease out of their minds once they had achieved maximum recovery of function. Unfortunately, polio has again forced itself into the nation's consciousness. Over the past five years, many of those who had polio have been experiencing new and unexpected symptoms that range in severity from being merely unpleasant to severely debilitating.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Characteristics and management of postpolio syndrome
Author: Jubelt B, Agre JC
Affiliation: State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, 750 E Adams St, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA – [email protected]
Journal: The Journal of the American Medical Association
Citation: JAMA. 2000 Jul 26;284(4):412-4
Publication Year and Month: 2000 07

Abstract: Postpolio syndrome (PPS) refers to new, late manifestations occurring many years after acute poliomyelitis infection. Over the last 25 years, PPS has become a relatively common problem encountered by primary care physicians. A 1987 National Health Interview Survey estimated that about half of the 640,000 survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis in the United States had new late manifestations of PPS. Subsequent studies in the 1990s have found the occurrence of PPS among patients with previous poliomyelitis to range from 28.5% to 64%. The average time in various reports from the acute poliomyelitis until the onset of PPS is about 35 years, with a range from 8 to 71 years. However, it is unclear if the occurrence of PPS increases with aging, which may be the case based on the most accepted etiologic hypothesis.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Management of postpolio syndrome
Author: Gonzalez H, Olsson T, Borg K
Affiliation: Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden – [email protected]
Journal: The Lancet Neurology
Citation: Lancet Neurol. 2010 Jun; 9(6):634-42 and Comment in: Lancet Neurol. 2010 Jun; 9(6):561-3
Publication Year and Month: 2010 06

Abstract: Postpolio syndrome is characterised by the exacerbation of existing or new health problems, most often muscle weakness and fatigability, general fatigue, and pain, after a period of stability subsequent to acute polio infection. Diagnosis is based on the presence of a lower motor neuron disorder that is supported by neurophysiological findings, with exclusion of other disorders as causes of the new symptoms. The muscle-related effects of postpolio syndrome are possibly associated with an ongoing process of denervation and reinnervation, reaching a point at which denervation is no longer compensated for by reinnervation. The cause of this denervation is unknown, but an inflammatory process is possible. Rehabilitation in patients with postpolio syndrome should take a multiprofessional and multidisciplinary approach, with an emphasis on physiotherapy, including enhanced or individually modified physical activity, and muscle training. Patients with postpolio syndrome should be advised to avoid both inactivity and overuse of weak muscles. Evaluation of the need for orthoses and assistive devices is often required.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Postpolio syndrome: unanswered questions regarding cause, course, risk factors, and therapies
Author: Nollet F
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: The Lancet Neurology
Citation: Lancet Neurol. 2010 Jun;9(6):561-3 - Comment on: Lancet Neurol. 2010 Jun;9(6):634-42
Publication Year and Month: 2010 06

Abstract: Living with the consequences of poliomyelitis is not recognised as an important health issue at present. However, millions of people worldwide have lasting impairments caused by polio infection, many of whom also had a decline in muscle function and decline in activities of daily living after years of stable functioning.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Update on current and emerging treatment options for post-polio syndrome
Author: Farbu E
Affiliation: Neurocenter and National Competence Center for Movement Disorders, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway
Journal: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Citation: Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2010 Jul 21;6:307-13
Publication Year and Month: 2010 07

Abstract: Post-polio syndrome (PPS) refers to the clinical deterioration experienced by many polio survivors several decades after their acute illness. The symptoms are new muscle weakness, decreased muscle endurance, fatigue, muscle pain, joint pain, cold intolerance, and this typical clinical entity is reported from different parts of the world. The pathophysiology behind PPS is not fully understood, but a combination of distal degeneration of enlarged motor units caused by increased metabolic demands and the normal aging process, in addition to inflammatory mechanisms, are thought to be involved. There is no diagnostic test for PPS, and the diagnosis is based on a proper clinical workup where all other possible explanations for the new symptoms are ruled out. The basic principle of management of PPS lies in physical activity, individually tailored training programs, and lifestyle modification. Muscle weakness and muscle pain may be helped with specific training programs, in which training in warm water seems to be particularly helpful. Properly fitted orthoses can improve the biomechanical movement pattern and be energy-saving. Fatigue can be relieved with lifestyle changes, assistive devices, and training programs. Respiratory insufficiency can be controlled with noninvasive respiratory aids including biphasic positive pressure ventilators. Pharmacologic agents like prednisone, amantadine, pyridostigmine, and coenzyme Q10 are of no benefit in PPS. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been tried in three studies, all having positive results. IVIG could probably be a therapeutic alternative, but the potential benefit is modest, and some important questions are still unanswered, in particular to which patients this treatment is useful, the dose, and the therapeutic interval.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required.

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There are currently 29 papers in this category.

Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Polio survivors perceptions of a multi-disciplinary rehabilitation programme
Author: Atwal, A., Duncan, H., Queally, C., Cedar, S.H.
Affiliation: Nil
Journal: Disability and Rehabilitation
Citation: Atwal, A., Duncan, H., Queally, C., Cedar, S.H. (2017) Polio survivors perceptions of a multi-disciplinary rehabilitation programme. Disability and Rehabilitation. DOI: 10.1080/09638288.2017.1381184
Publication Year and Month: 2017 10

Abstract: Purpose: Post-polio syndrome refers to a late complication of the poliovirus infection. Management of post-polio syndrome is complex due to the extensive symptomology. European and United Kingdom guidelines have advised the use of rehabilitation programmes to manage post-polio syndrome. There is a paucity of research in relation to the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions. The objective of this study is to explore polio survivor’s perceptions of an in-patient multi-disciplinary rehabilitation programme.

Methods: Semi-structured interviews of community dwelling polio survivors who attended in-patient rehabilitation programme in the United Kingdom. Thematic analysis was used to describe and interpret interview data.

Results: Participants’ experiences were influenced by past experiences of polio and their self-concept. Participants generally had a positive experience and valued being with other polio survivors. Positive strategies, such as pacing and reflection changed their mind-sets into their lives after the programme, though they still faced challenges in daily living. Some participants supported others with post-polio syndrome after completing the programme.

Conclusions: The research identified that participants experienced long term positive benefits from attending a rehabilitation programme. Strategies that users found helpful that explored the effectiveness of interventions to manage polio are not cited within a Cochrane review. If we are to recognise the lived experience and service user empowerment within a model of co- production it is essential that patient preferences are evaluated and used as evidence to justify service provision. Further research is required with polio survivors to explore how best rehabilitation programmes can adopt the principles of co-production.

Implications for Rehabilitation
The patients’ expertise and lived experience must be at the centre of a rehabilitation programme.

Strategies such as pacing and reflection are perceived as important strategies to enable self-management of polio and post-polio syndrome despite the limited evidence base to support these interventions.

Polio rehabilitation programmes should not be time limited and commissioners and therapists need to ensure that follow up support is provided.

When measuring outcomes patient preferences and views must be evaluated.

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any): This investigation supports feedback from polio survivors in Australia on the benefits of group-based rehabilitation, especially where there is an opportunity to learn and discuss their rehabilitation with fellow participants.

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Unraveling the transmission ecology of polio
Author: Martinez-Bakker M (1), King AA (1,2), Rohani P (1,2)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America; (2) Center for the Study of Complex Systems, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America; Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Journal: Public Library of Science
Citation: PLoS Biol. 2015 Jun;13(6): e1002172. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002172
Publication Year and Month: 2015 06

Abstract: Sustained and coordinated vaccination efforts have brought polio eradication within reach. Anticipating the eradication of wild poliovirus (WPV) and the subsequent challenges in preventing its re-emergence, we look to the past to identify why polio rose to epidemic levels in the mid-20th century, and how WPV persisted over large geographic scales. We analyzed an extensive epidemiological dataset, spanning the 1930s to the 1950s and spatially replicated across each state in the United States, to glean insight into the drivers of polio’s historical expansion and the ecological mode of its persistence prior to vaccine introduction. We document a latitudinal gradient in polio’s seasonality. Additionally, we fitted and validated mechanistic transmission models to data from each US state independently. The fitted models revealed that: (1) polio persistence was the product of a dynamic mosaic of source and sink populations; (2) geographic heterogeneity of seasonal transmission conditions account for the latitudinal structure of polio epidemics; (3) contrary to the prevailing “disease of development” hypothesis, our analyses demonstrate that polio’s historical expansion was straightforwardly explained by demographic trends rather than improvements in sanitation and hygiene; and (4) the absence of clinical disease is not a reliable indicator of polio transmission, because widespread polio transmission was likely in the multiyear absence of clinical disease. As the world edges closer to global polio eradication and continues the strategic withdrawal of the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV), the regular identification of, and rapid response to, these silent chains of transmission is of the utmost importance.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome as a possible viral disease
Author: Baj A (1), Colombo M (1), Headley JL (2), McFarlane JR (3), Liethof MA (4), Toniolo A (5)
Affiliation: (1) Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology, University of Insubria Medical School, Viale Borri 57, 21100 Varese, Italy; (2) Post-Polio Health International, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA; (3) European Polio Union, Huldenberg, Belgium; (4) Polio Australia Incorporated, Kew, Victoria, Australia; (5) Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology, University of Insubria Medical School, Viale Borri 57, 21100 Varese, Italy. Electronic address: [email protected]
Journal: International Journal of Infectious Diseases
Citation: Int J Infect Dis. 2015 May 1;35:107-116. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2015.04.018
Publication Year and Month: 2015 05

Abstract: This review summarizes current concepts on post-polio syndrome (PPS), a condition that may arise in polio survivors after partial or complete functional recovery followed by a prolonged interval of stable neurological function. PPS affects 15-20 million people worldwide. Epidemiological data are reported, together with the pathogenic pathways that possibly lead to the progressive degeneration and loss of neuromuscular motor units. As a consequence of PPS, polio survivors experience new weakness, generalized fatigue, atrophy of previously unaffected muscles, and a physical decline that may culminate in the loss of independent life. Emphasis is given to the possible pathogenic role of persistent poliovirus infection and chronic inflammation. These factors could contribute to the neurological and physical decline in polio survivors. A perspective is then given on novel anti-poliovirus compounds and monoclonal antibodies that have been developed to contribute to the final phases of polio eradication. These agents could also be useful for the treatment or prevention of PPS. Some of these compounds/antibodies are in early clinical development. Finally, current clinical trials for PPS are reported. In this area, the intravenous infusion of normal human immunoglobulins appears both feasible and promising.

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Outcome of Research: Effective.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Treatment for postpolio syndrome
Author: Koopman FS, Beelen A, Gilhus NE, de Visser M, Nollet F
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation, University of Amsterdam Academic Medical Center, PO Box 22660, Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands, 1100 DD
Journal: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Citation: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 May 18;5:CD007818
Publication Year and Month: 2015 05

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Postpolio syndrome (PPS) may affect survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis and is characterised by a complex of neuromuscular symptoms leading to a decline in physical functioning. The effectiveness of pharmacological treatment and rehabilitation management in PPS is not yet established. This is an update of a review first published in 2011.

OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the evidence from randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials for the effect of any pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment for PPS compared to placebo, usual care or no treatment.

SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases on 21 July 2014: Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL Plus. We also checked reference lists of all relevant articles, searched the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database and trial registers and contacted investigators known to be involved in research in this area.

SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of any form of pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment for people with PPS. The primary outcome was self perceived activity limitations and secondary outcomes were muscle strength, muscle endurance, fatigue, pain and adverse events.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration.

MAIN RESULTS: We included 10 pharmacological (modafinil, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), pyridostigmine, lamotrigine, amantadine, prednisone) and three non-pharmacological (muscle strengthening, rehabilitation in a warm climate (that is temperature ± 25°C, dry and sunny) and a cold climate (that is temperature ± 0°C, rainy or snowy), static magnetic fields) studies with a total of 675 participants with PPS in this review. None of the included studies were completely free from any risk of bias, the most prevalent risk of bias being lack of blinding.There was moderate- and low-quality evidence that IVIg has no beneficial effect on activity limitations in the short term and long term, respectively, and inconsistency in the evidence for effectiveness on muscle strength. IVIg caused minor adverse events in a substantial proportion of the participants. Results of one trial provided very low-quality evidence that lamotrigine might be effective in reducing pain and fatigue, resulting in fewer activity limitations without generating adverse events. Data from two single trials suggested that muscle strengthening of thumb muscles (very low-quality evidence) and static magnetic fields (moderate-quality evidence) are safe and beneficial for improving muscle strength and pain, respectively, with unknown effects on activity limitations. Finally, there was evidence varying from very low quality to high quality that modafinil, pyridostigmine, amantadine, prednisone and rehabilitation in a warm or cold climate are not beneficial in PPS.

Conclusions: Due to insufficient good-quality data and lack of randomised studies, it was impossible to draw definite conclusions about the effectiveness of interventions for PPS. Results indicated that IVIg, lamotrigine, muscle strengthening exercises and static magnetic fields may be beneficial but need further investigation to clarify whether any real and meaningful effect exists.

Outcome of Research: More research required.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Physiotherapy for poliomyelitis: a descriptive study in the Republic of Congo
Author: Mancini S, Coldiron ME, Nicholas S, Llosa AE, Mouniaman-Nara I, Ngala J, Grais RF, Porten K
Affiliation: Epicentre, Paris, France - [email protected]
Journal: BioMedCentral Research Notes
Citation: BMC Res Notes. 2014 Oct 23;7:755. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-7-755
Publication Year and Month: 2014 10

Abstract: BACKGROUND: A large poliomyelitis outbreak occurred in 2010 in the Republic of Congo. This paper describes the demographic and clinical characteristics of poliomyelitis cases and their outcomes following physiotherapy.

FINDINGS: Demographic and clinical data were collected on 126 individuals between November 23, 2010 and March 23, 2011. The male/female ratio was 2.5 and the median age was 19 years (IQR: 13.5-23). The most severe forms of the disease were more common in older patients, 81 of the 126 patients (64.3%) had multiple evaluations of muscle strength. Among patients with multiple evaluations, 38.1% had improved strength at final evaluation, 48.3% were stable and 13.6% had decreased strength.

Conclusions: Most acute poliomyelitis patients receiving physiotherapy had improved or stable muscle strength at their final evaluation. These descriptive results highlight the need for further research into the potential benefits of physiotherapy in polio affected patients.

Outcome of Research: More research required.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Frequency and clinical manifestations of post-poliomyelitis syndrome in a Brazilian tertiary care center
Author: Quadros AA (1), Conde MT, Marin LF, Silva HC, Silva TM, Paula MB, Pereira RD, Ramos PE, Abe G, Oliveira AS
Affiliation: (1) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Division of Neuromuscular Disorders, Federal University of São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo SP, Brazil - [email protected]
Journal: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Citation: Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2012 Aug;70(8):571-3
Publication Year and Month: 2012 08

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and clinical manifestations of patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) in a Brazilian division of neuromuscular disorders.

METHODS: A total of 167 patients with prior history of paralytic poliomyelitis was investigated for PPS, based on international diagnostic criteria. Other variables analyzed were: gender, race, age at poliomyelitis infection, age at PPS onset, and PPS symptoms.

RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-nine patients presented PPS, corresponding to 77.2% of the studied population. 62.8% were women and 37.2% were men. Mean age of patients with PPS at onset of PPS symptoms was 39.9±9.69 years. Their main clinical manifestations were: new weakness in the previously affected limbs (69%) and in the apparently not affected limbs (31%); joint pain (79.8%); fatigue (77.5%); muscle pain (76%); and cold intolerance (69.8%).

Conclusions: Most patients of our sample presented PPS. In Brazil, PPS frequency and clinical features are quite similar to those of other countries.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Update on current and emerging treatment options for post-polio syndrome
Author: Farbu E
Affiliation: Neurocenter and National Competence Center for Movement Disorders, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway
Journal: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Citation: Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2010 Jul 21;6:307-13
Publication Year and Month: 2010 07

Abstract: Post-polio syndrome (PPS) refers to the clinical deterioration experienced by many polio survivors several decades after their acute illness. The symptoms are new muscle weakness, decreased muscle endurance, fatigue, muscle pain, joint pain, cold intolerance, and this typical clinical entity is reported from different parts of the world. The pathophysiology behind PPS is not fully understood, but a combination of distal degeneration of enlarged motor units caused by increased metabolic demands and the normal aging process, in addition to inflammatory mechanisms, are thought to be involved. There is no diagnostic test for PPS, and the diagnosis is based on a proper clinical workup where all other possible explanations for the new symptoms are ruled out. The basic principle of management of PPS lies in physical activity, individually tailored training programs, and lifestyle modification. Muscle weakness and muscle pain may be helped with specific training programs, in which training in warm water seems to be particularly helpful. Properly fitted orthoses can improve the biomechanical movement pattern and be energy-saving. Fatigue can be relieved with lifestyle changes, assistive devices, and training programs. Respiratory insufficiency can be controlled with noninvasive respiratory aids including biphasic positive pressure ventilators. Pharmacologic agents like prednisone, amantadine, pyridostigmine, and coenzyme Q10 are of no benefit in PPS. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been tried in three studies, all having positive results. IVIG could probably be a therapeutic alternative, but the potential benefit is modest, and some important questions are still unanswered, in particular to which patients this treatment is useful, the dose, and the therapeutic interval.

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Outcome of Research: More research required.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Management of postpolio syndrome
Author: Gonzalez H, Olsson T, Borg K
Affiliation: Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden – [email protected]
Journal: The Lancet Neurology
Citation: Lancet Neurol. 2010 Jun; 9(6):634-42 and Comment in: Lancet Neurol. 2010 Jun; 9(6):561-3
Publication Year and Month: 2010 06

Abstract: Postpolio syndrome is characterised by the exacerbation of existing or new health problems, most often muscle weakness and fatigability, general fatigue, and pain, after a period of stability subsequent to acute polio infection. Diagnosis is based on the presence of a lower motor neuron disorder that is supported by neurophysiological findings, with exclusion of other disorders as causes of the new symptoms. The muscle-related effects of postpolio syndrome are possibly associated with an ongoing process of denervation and reinnervation, reaching a point at which denervation is no longer compensated for by reinnervation. The cause of this denervation is unknown, but an inflammatory process is possible. Rehabilitation in patients with postpolio syndrome should take a multiprofessional and multidisciplinary approach, with an emphasis on physiotherapy, including enhanced or individually modified physical activity, and muscle training. Patients with postpolio syndrome should be advised to avoid both inactivity and overuse of weak muscles. Evaluation of the need for orthoses and assistive devices is often required.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Postpolio syndrome: unanswered questions regarding cause, course, risk factors, and therapies
Author: Nollet F
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: The Lancet Neurology
Citation: Lancet Neurol. 2010 Jun;9(6):561-3 - Comment on: Lancet Neurol. 2010 Jun;9(6):634-42
Publication Year and Month: 2010 06

Abstract: Living with the consequences of poliomyelitis is not recognised as an important health issue at present. However, millions of people worldwide have lasting impairments caused by polio infection, many of whom also had a decline in muscle function and decline in activities of daily living after years of stable functioning.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: A positive turning point in life -- how persons with late effects of polio experience the influence of an interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme
Author: Larsson Lund M (1), Lexell J
Affiliation: (1) Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy , Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2010 Jun;42(6):559-65. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0559
Publication Year and Month: 2010 06

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To describe and enhance our understanding of how persons with late effects of polio experience the influence of an interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme.

PARTICIPANTS: Twelve persons with clinically verified late effects of polio who had participated in an individualized, goal-oriented, comprehensive interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme.

METHODS: Qualitative research interviews analysed using the constant comparative method of grounded theory.

RESULTS: The rehabilitation programme was experienced as a turning point in the participants' lives. Before rehabilitation they felt they were on a downward slope without control. Rehabilitation was the start of a process of change whereby they acquired new skills, which, over time, contributed to a different but good life. After approximately a year, they had a sense of control and had accepted life with late effects of polio. They had also established new habits, taken on a changed valued self and could look to the future with confidence.

Conclusions: This qualitative study has shown that persons with late effects of polio can benefit from an individualized, goal-oriented, comprehensive interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme and experience positive changes in their management of daily activities and in their view of their late effects of polio, their future and their self.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: EFNS guideline on diagnosis and management of post-polio syndrome - report of an EFNS task force
Author: Farbu E, Gilhus NE, Barnes MP, Borg K, de Visser M, Driessen A, Howard R, Nollet F, Opara J, Stalberg E
Affiliation: Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway – [email protected] – European Federation of Neurological Society
Journal: European Journal of Neurology
Citation: Eur J Neurol. 2006 Aug; 13(8):795-801
Publication Year and Month: 2006 08

Abstract: Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is characterized by new or increased muscular weakness, atrophy, muscle pain and fatigue several years after acute polio. The aim of the article is to prepare diagnostic criteria for PPS, and to evaluate the existing evidence for therapeutic interventions. The Medline, EMBASE and ISI databases were searched. Consensus in the group was reached after discussion by e-mail. We recommend Halstead's definition of PPS from 1991 as diagnostic criteria. Supervised, aerobic muscular training, both isokinetic and isometric, is a safe and effective way to prevent further decline for patients with moderate weakness (Level B). Muscular training can also improve muscular fatigue, muscle weakness and pain. Training in a warm climate and non-swimming water exercises are particularly useful (Level B). Respiratory muscle training can improve pulmonary function. Recognition of respiratory impairment and early introduction of non-invasive ventilatory aids prevent or delay further respiratory decline and the need for invasive respiratory aid (Level C). Group training, regular follow-up and patient education are useful for the patients' mental status and well-being. Weight loss, adjustment and introduction of properly fitted assistive devices should be considered (good practice points). A small number of controlled studies of potential-specific treatments for PPS have been completed, but no definitive therapeutic effect has been reported for the agents evaluated (pyridostigmine, corticosteroids, amantadine). Future randomized trials should particularly address the treatment of pain, which is commonly reported by PPS patients. There is also a need for studies evaluating the long-term effects of muscular training.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome
Author: Trojan DA, Cashman NR
Affiliation: Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3801 rue Université, Montréal, Québec H3A 2B4, Canada – [email protected]
Journal: Muscle & Nerve
Citation: Muscle Nerve. 2005 Jan;31(1):6-19
Publication Year and Month: 2005 01

Abstract: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) is a common neurological disorder that occurs in a large proportion of individuals who have recovered from paralytic poliomyelitis. The main clinical features are new weakness, muscular fatigability, general fatigue, and pain. The primary criteria necessary for the diagnosis of PPS are a history of paralytic poliomyelitis, partial or complete recovery of neurological function followed by a period of stability (usually several decades), persistent new muscle weakness or abnormal muscle fatigability, and the exclusion of other causes of new symptoms. The cause of PPS remains unclear, but is likely due to a distal degeneration of enlarged post-poliomyelitis motor units. Contributing factors to PPS may be aging (with motor neuron loss), overuse, and disuse. PPS is usually a slowly progressive neuromuscular disease. Although there is no specific treatment for PPS, an interdisciplinary management program can be useful in controlling symptoms.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Postpolio syndrome
Author: Nollet F, de Visser M
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, PO Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam, the Netherlands – [email protected]
Journal: Archives of Neurology
Citation: Arch Neurol. 2004 Jul;61(7):1142-4
Publication Year and Month: 2004 07

Abstract: This paper has no abstract - this is an extract:

Postpolio syndrome (PPS) refers to a decline of muscle function usually occurring 30 to 40 years after the acute polio episode. This syndrome has been widely recognized only during the last decades, when many people affected by the large epidemics of the previous century experienced new muscle weakness as they grew older. However, cases of late-onset weakening following poliomyelitis were already reported at the end of the 19th century.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Cardiac risk factors in polio survivors
Author: Gawne AC, Wells KR, Wilson KS.
Affiliation: Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehabilitation, Warm Springs, GA 31830, USA - [email protected]
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003 May;84(5):694-6
Publication Year and Month: 2003 05

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of dyslipidemia and other risk factors for coronary heart disease in a sample of polio survivors with and without postpoliomyelitis syndrome.

DESIGN: Retrospective chart review.

SETTING: A multidisciplinary outpatient postpolio clinic.

PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-eight consecutive symptomatic postpolio patients, 50 women (mean age, 59.0y; range, 36-81y) and 38 men (mean age, 61.2y; range, 44-83y).

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence of risk factors for coronary heart disease: clinical atherosclerotic disease, male age >or=45 years or female age >or=55 years, history of hypertension (blood pressure >or=140/90mmHg or on antihypertensive medication), diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) less than 35mg/dL. Obesity (body mass index [BMI], >25kg/m(2)) was assessed as an intervention target. Laboratory values included fasting total cholesterol, HDL, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and glucose.

RESULTS: Of the total sample, 61.3% had dyslipidemia. Average HDL cholesterol ratio was 4.01 (women, 3.68; men, 4.55). Forty-four patients (50%) had a history of hypertension or had elevated blood pressure. Seven patients (8%) had a history of diabetes or had elevated fasting blood glucose (>110). Eighteen patients (20.4%) were smokers or had a history of smoking; 9 continued to smoke and 9 had quit smoking. Twenty-five patients (28.4%) were overweight (BMI, >25kg/m(2)). Forty-one patients (46.5%) had more than 1 risk factor for coronary heart disease. Nine of the total sample (10.2%) had a history of heart disease ranging from atrial fibrillation to angina. Only 19 patients had a previous diagnosis of dyslipidemia and only 12 were on a lipid-lowering medication.

Conclusions: Polio patients have a high prevalence of dyslipidemia. The study sample supports the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III statements that hypercholesterolemia is underdiagnosed and undertreated. The postpolio population carries a high prevalence of 2 or more coronary heart disease risk factors. Evaluation and rehabilitation of polio patients should include screening for dyslipidemia and education about elimination of controllable risk factors.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Characteristics and management of postpolio syndrome
Author: Jubelt B, Agre JC
Affiliation: State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, 750 E Adams St, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA – [email protected]
Journal: The Journal of the American Medical Association
Citation: JAMA. 2000 Jul 26;284(4):412-4
Publication Year and Month: 2000 07

Abstract: Postpolio syndrome (PPS) refers to new, late manifestations occurring many years after acute poliomyelitis infection. Over the last 25 years, PPS has become a relatively common problem encountered by primary care physicians. A 1987 National Health Interview Survey estimated that about half of the 640,000 survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis in the United States had new late manifestations of PPS. Subsequent studies in the 1990s have found the occurrence of PPS among patients with previous poliomyelitis to range from 28.5% to 64%. The average time in various reports from the acute poliomyelitis until the onset of PPS is about 35 years, with a range from 8 to 71 years. However, it is unclear if the occurrence of PPS increases with aging, which may be the case based on the most accepted etiologic hypothesis.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Nonparalytic polio and postpolio syndrome
Author: Halstead LS, Silver JK
Affiliation: National Rehabilitation Hospital, Washington, DC 20010, USA
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2000 Jan-Feb;79(1):13-8
Publication Year and Month: 2000 01

Abstract: We describe four cases of postpolio syndrome with typical histories, physical examination results, and electrodiagnostic evidence of extensive anterior horn cell disease, as well as the putative pathophysiology of postpolio syndrome in persons with histories of nonparalytic polio and the diagnostic implications for individuals older than 40 yr of age who are experiencing unexplained new weakness, fatigue, and muscle or joint pain. Although the diagnosis of postpolio syndrome traditionally has required a remote history of paralytic polio, many persons such as the ones described here with typical symptoms of postpolio syndrome have no clear history of paralytic disease and are being misdiagnosed. With this in mind, we believe that the diagnostic criteria for postpolio syndrome should be modified to include the following: a history of remote paralytic polio or findings on history, physical examination results, and laboratory studies compatible with poliovirus damage of the central nervous system earlier in life.

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Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Paralytic vs "nonparalytic" polio: distinction without a difference?
Author: Bruno RL
Affiliation: The Post-Polio Institute, Englewood Hospital and Medical Center, New Jersey, USA
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2000 Jan-Feb;79(1):4-12
Publication Year and Month: 2000 01

Abstract: Nonparalytic polio (NPP) is commonly thought to be synonymous with "abortive polio," in which the poliovirus neither entered the central nervous system nor damaged neurons. Described are two epidemic illness-"The Summer Grippe" and Iceland disease-apparently caused by a low virulence but neuropathic type 2 poliovirus. Studies show that neuronal lesions in the brain and spinal cord and muscle weakness were common in NPP, and epidemiologic studies document late-onset weakness and fatigue in 14% to 42% of NPP survivors. These findings indicate that clinicians should not require a history of paralytic polio, electromyographic evidence of denervation, and new muscle weakness for the diagnosis of "Postpolio Syndrome" but should be aware that NPP, and possibly even poliovirus-induced "minor illnesses," can be associated with acute central nervous system damage and late-onset muscle weakness and fatigue.

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Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Management of post-polio syndrome
Author: Trojan DA, Finch L
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: NeuroRehabilitation
Citation: NeuroRehabil. 1997;8:93-105
Publication Year and Month: 1997 08

Abstract: The management of patients presenting with post-poliomyelitis syndrome is discussed. It is essential to identify and treat other medical and neurological conditions which could produce these symptoms. New weakness can be managed with exercise, avoidance of muscular overuse, weight loss, orthoses and assistive devices. Fatigue can be managed with energy conservation techniques. The management of pain is dependent upon its causes. Treatments are reviewed.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: The post-polio syndrome as an evolved clinical entity. Definition and clinical description.
Author: Dalakas MC
Affiliation: Medical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Journal: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Citation: Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995 May 25;753:68-80
Publication Year and Month: 1995 05

Abstract: Post-polio syndrome (PPS) refers to the new neuromuscular symptoms that occur at least 15 years after stability in patients with prior acute paralytic polio-myelitis. They include: (1) new muscle weakness and atrophy in the limbs, the bulbar or the respiratory muscles [post-poliomyelitis muscular atrophy (PPMA)] and (2) excessive muscle fatigue and diminished physical endurance. PPS is a clinical diagnosis that requires exclusion of all other medical, neurological, orthopedic or psychiatric diseases that could explain the cause of the new symptoms. Routine electromyography is useful to confirm chronic and ongoing denervation and exclude neuropathies. Muscle biopsy, single fiber electromyography (EMG), macro-EMG, serum antibody titers to polio virus, and spinal fluid studies are very useful research tools but they are rarely needed to establish the clinical diagnosis. PPS is a slowly progressive phenomenon with periods of stability that vary from 3 to 10 years. Current evidence indicates that PPS is the evolution of a subclinically ongoing motor neuron dysfunction that begins after the time of the acute polio. It is clinically manifested as PPS when the well-compensated reinnervating process crosses a critical threshold beyond which the remaining motor neurons cannot maintain the innervation to all the muscle fibers within their motor unit territory.

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Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: National Rehabilitation Hospital Limb Classification for Exercise, Research, and Clinical Trials in Post-Polio Patients
Author: Lauro S. Halstead, Anne Carrington Gawne, and Bao T. Pham

Affiliation: The Post-Polio Program; National Rehabilitation Hospital, Washington, DC


Journal: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Citation: The Post-Polio Syndrome: Advances in the Pathogenesis and Treatment Volume 753 pp 343-353 of the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences May 25, 1995.
Publication Year and Month: 1995 05

Abstract:

Conclusions: A need exists for an objective classification of polio patients for clinical and research purposes that takes into account the focal, asymmetric, and frequent subclinical nature of polio lesions. In order to prescribe a safe, effective exercise program, we developed a five-level (Classes I-V) limb-specific classification system based on remote and recent history, physical examination, and a four-extremity electrodiagnostic study (EMG/NCS). Class I limbs have no history of remote or recent weakness, normal strength, and a normal EMG. Class II limbs have no history of remote or recent weakness (or if remote history of weakness, full recovery occurred), normal strength and EMG evidence of prior anterior horn cell disease (AHCD). Class III limbs have a history of remote weakness with variable recovery, no new weakness, decreased strength, and EMG evidence of prior AHCD. Class IV limbs have a history of remote weakness with variable recovery, new clinical weakness, decreased strength, and EMG evidence of AHCD. Class V limbs have a history of severe weakness with little-to-no recovery, severely decreased strength and atrophy, and few-to-no motor units on EMG. In a prospective study of 400 limbs in 100 consecutive post-polio patients attending our clinic, 94 (23%) limbs were Class I, 88 (22%) were Class II, 95 (24%) were Class III, 75 (19%) were Class IV, and 48 (12%) were Class V. Guidelines for the use of this classification in a clinical/research setting are presented along with sample case histories and class-specific exercise recommendations.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Predictive factors for post-poliomyelitis syndrome
Author: Trojan DA, Cashman NR, Shapiro S, Tansey CM, Esdaile JM
Affiliation: Department of Neurology, Montreal Neurological Institute, Quebec, Canada
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1994 Jul;75(7):770-7
Publication Year and Month: 1994 07

Abstract: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) is generally defined as a clinical syndrome of new weakness, fatigue, and pain in individuals who have previously recovered from acute paralytic poliomyelitis. The purpose of this study was to identify, through a case-control study design, factors that predict subsequent PPS in patients with prior paralytic poliomyelitis. Among patients attending a university-affiliated hospital post-polio clinic, "cases" were patients with new weakness and fatigue, and "controls" were patients without these complaints. A chart review of 353 patients identified 127 cases and 39 controls. Logistic regression modeling was used to calculate adjusted and unadjusted odds ratios. In univariate analyses, significant risk factors for PPS were a greater age at time of presentation to clinic (p = 0.01), a longer time since acute polio (p = 0.01), and more weakness at acute polio (p = 0.02). Other significant associated, but not necessarily causal factors were a recent weight gain (p = 0.005), muscle pain (p = 0.01) particularly that associated with exercise (p = 0.005), and joint pain (p = 0.04). Multivariate analyses revealed that a model containing age at presentation to clinic, severity of weakness at acute polio, muscle pain with exercise, recent weight gain, and joint pain best distinguished cases from controls. Age at acute polio, degree of recovery after polio, weakness at best point after polio, physical activity, and sex were not contributing factors. These findings suggest that the degree of initial motor unit involvement as measured by weakness at acute polio, and possibly the aging process and overuse are important in predicting PPS.

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Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Predictive Factors for Post-Poliomyelitis Syndrome
Author: Daria A. Trojan, MD, MSc, Neil R. Cashman, MD, Stanley Shapiro, PhD, Catherine M. Tansey, MSc, John M. Esdaile, MD
Affiliation: From the Department of Neurology (Drs. Trojan, Cashman), Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, the Department of Medicine (Dr. Esdaile), Montreal General Hospital, and the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (Dr. Shapiro, Ms. Tansey), McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 75, July 1994, 770-777
Publication Year and Month: 1994 07

Abstract: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) is generally defined as a clinical syndrome of new weakness, fatigue, and pain in individuals who have previously recovered from acute paralytic poliomyelitis. The purpose of this study was to identify, through a case-control study design, factors that predict subsequent PPS in patients with prior paralytic poliomyelitis. Among patients attending a university-affiliate hospital post-polio clinic, "cases" were patients with new weakness and fatigue, and "controls" were patients without these complaints. A chart review of 353 patients identified 127 cases and 39 controls. Logistic regression modeling was used to calculate adjusted and unadjusted odds ratios. In univariate analyses, significant risk factors for PPS were a greater age at time of presentation to clinic (p = 0.01), a longer time since acute polio (p = 0.01), and more weakness at acute polio (p = 0.02). Other significant associated, but not necessarily causal factors were a recent weight gain (p = 0.005), muscle pain (p = 0.01) particularly that associated with exercise (p = 0.005), and joint pain (p = 0.04). Multivariate analyses revealed that a model containing age at presentation to clinic, severity of weakness at acute polio, muscle pain with exercise, recent weight gain, and joint pain best distinguished cases from controls. Age at acute polio, degree of recovery after polio, weakness at best point after polio, physical activity, and sex were not contributing factors. These findings suggest that the degree of initial motor unit involvement as measured by weakness at acute polio, and possibly the aging process and overuse are important in predicting PPS.

Conclusions: In conclusion, the results from this study provide insight on predictive factors for PPS, and can be applied in the clinical management of patients who have recovered from paralytic poliomyelitis. Our findings support the hypothesis that the severity of initial motor unit involvement as estimated by weakness at acute polio, and possibly the normal ageing process and overuse are important in predicting PPS. Even though patients have no control over the severity of weakness as a result of acute polio, they do have control over some predictive factors for PPS. Patients can be advised that they should avoid gaining weight and exercising to the point of muscle pain because these variables have been found to be strongly associated with PPS. The exact role of physical activity will still need further evaluation; however, the usual recommendations of low-level aerobic exercise with avoidance of muscle pain and fatigue appear valid. Thus, this study can provide the basis for physiologically reasonable and practical advice to post-polio patients to minimize or delay the risk of PPS.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any): Paul Cavendish (Clinical Health Educator): The best multivariate model for predicting who will develop PPS indicates that patients who had a greater weakness at acute polio, are currently older, have muscle pain with exercise, a recent weight gain, and joint pain are those most likely to develop PPS. Other factors shown to be important in univariate analyses are a longer time since acute polio, and muscle pain (at rest or with exercise). Age at acute polio, recovery after polio, weakness at "best point" after polio, physical activity, and sex were not contributing factors.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Epidemiology of the post-polio syndrome
Author: Ramlow J, Alexander M, LaPorte R, Kaufmann C, Kuller L
Affiliation: Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA
Journal: American Journal of Epidemiology
Citation: Am J Epidemiol. 1992 Oct 1;136(7):769-86
Publication Year and Month: 1992 10

Abstract: A late-onset syndrome, consisting of muscle weakness, muscle pain, and unaccustomed fatigue, has been reported with increasing frequency among former poliomyelitis patients. A population-based cohort of poliomyelitis patients from Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, was traced and surveyed to estimate the prevalence and incidence and to identify determinants of the post-polio syndrome. A questionnaire validated in clinical examinations of 40 cohort members was used in the survey. The prevalence of the post-polio syndrome was 28.5% of all paralytic cases (95% confidence interval 24.4-32.6). The risk of post-polio syndrome was significantly higher among patients who sustained substantial permanent impairment after polio and among females. The incidence did not vary with age at acute onset, acute severity, or level of physical activity after recovery. The strongest determinant of post-polio syndrome onset was the length of the interval following the acute illness, with incidence peaking at 30-34 years. Of all cases of post-polio syndrome, 79% reported no major change in impairment status since onset. This study demonstrates that poliomyelitis patients are not equally susceptible to post-polio syndrome within the interval of 30-40 years after the original illness. For syndrome cases, the onset was associated with new neuromuscular symptoms and functional changes but not with major new impairment.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: The cultural context of polio biographies
Author: Scheer J, Luborsky ML
Affiliation: National Rehabilitation Hospital Research Center, Washington, DC 20010
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1173-81
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Cultural contexts influence the ways individuals interpret and experience functional losses associated with post-polio sequelae. Using in-depth multiple interview case studies from two National Institute on Aging projects, the concept of “biographies” is presented to place the individuals’ polio-related experiences within the context of their lives. Two major cultural contexts shape the construction of polio biographies: normative life course expectations and developmental tasks; and traditions associated with polio recovery and rehabilitation. The authors identify key dimensions of personal concern among polio survivors that can be used as entrance points for effective clinical intervention and to promote treatment compliance.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Effect of treatment and noncompliance on post-polio sequelae
Author: Peach PE, Olejnik S
Affiliation: Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehabilitation, Georgia 31830
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1199-203
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: In this study of 77 patients with post-polio sequelae (PPS), symptoms and manual test scores on initial evaluation were compared with those at subsequent follow-up evaluations. Patients were divided into three groups based on the degree to which they had complied with clinically recommended interventions: compliers, partial compliers, and noncompliers. At the end of the follow-up period (2.2 +/- 1.2 years), the mean muscle function scores of the entire study group had declined -1.5%, which represented a decline of -0.7% annually. On follow-up evaluations, the complier group had realized an improvement or resolution of post-polio symptoms, and also an improvement in muscle function of +0.6% annually. The partial complier group had realized either no improvement, or improvement in post-polio symptoms, but showed a further decline in muscle function of -3.0%, or an annual decline of -1.3%. The noncomplier group showed either no change, or a worsening of post-polio symptoms, and also showed a further decline in muscle function of -4.1%, which represented an annual decline of -2.0%.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Polioencephalitis, stress, and the etiology of post-polio sequelae
Author: Bruno RL, Frick NM, Cohen J
Affiliation: Post-Polio Rehabilitation and Research Service, Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation, East Orange, NJ 07018
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1269-76
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Post-mortem neurohistopathologies that document polio virus-induced lesions in reticular formation and hypothalamic, thalamic, peptidergic, and monoaminergic neurons in the brain are reviewed from 158 individuals who contracted polio before 1950. This polioencephalitis was found to occur in every case of poliomyelitis, even those without evidence of damage to spinal motor neurons. These findings, in combination with data from the 1990 National Post-Polio Survey and new magnetic resonance imaging studies documenting post-encephalitis-like lesions in the brains of polio survivors, are used to present two hypotheses: 1) polioencephalitic damage to aging reticular activating system and monoaminergic neurons is responsible for post-polio fatigue, and 2) polioencephalitic damage to enkephalin-producing neurons is responsible for hypersensitivity to pain in polio survivors. In addition, the antimetabolic action of glucocorticoids on polio-damaged, metabolically vulnerable neurons may be responsible for the fatigue and muscle weakness reported by polio survivors during emotional stress.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Effect of Treatment and Noncompliance on Post-Polio Sequelae
Author: Paul E. Peach, MD, Stephen Olejnik, PhD
Affiliation:
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics November 1991 Vol 14 No. 11 1199-1203
Publication Year and Month: 1991

Abstract: In this study of 77 patients with post-polio sequelae (PPS), symptoms and manual test scores on initial evaluation were compared with those at subsequent follow-up evaluations. Patients were divided into three groups based on the degree to which they had complied with clinically recommended interventions: compliers, partial compliers, and noncompliers. At the end of the followup period (2.2 ± 1.2 years), the mean muscle function scores of the entire study group had declined - l.5%, which represented a decline of -0.7% annually. On follow-up evaluations, the complier group had realized an improvement or resolution of post-polio symptoms, and also an improvement in muscle function of +0.6% annually. The partial complier group had realized either no improvement, or improvement in post-polio symptoms, but showed a further decline in muscle function of -3.0%, or an annual decline of -1.3%. The noncomplier group showed either no change, or a worsening of post-polio symptoms, and also showed a further decline in muscle function of - 4.1% which represented an annual decline of - 2.0%.

Conclusions: The disparate outcomes among our post-polio patients underscore the need to develop more effective intervention strategies to achieve improved patient compliance, given the favorable outcomes experienced by patients who complied with clinical recommendations.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Post-polio sequelae: physiological and psychological overview
Author: Frick NM, Bruno RL
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: Rehabilitation Literature
Citation: Rehabil Lit. 1986 May-Jun; 47(5-6):106-11
Publication Year and Month: 1986 05

Abstract: When the Salk and Sabin vaccines brought an end to the annual summer nightmare of polio epidemics, most Americans simply forgot about polio. Even many of those who had paralytic poliomyelitis put the disease out of their minds once they had achieved maximum recovery of function. Unfortunately, polio has again forced itself into the nation's consciousness. Over the past five years, many of those who had polio have been experiencing new and unexpected symptoms that range in severity from being merely unpleasant to severely debilitating.

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Category: Diagnosis and Management

Title: Post-polio sequelae - differential diagnosis and management
Author: Maynard FM
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1985 Jul; 8(7):857-61
Publication Year and Month: 1985 07

Abstract: Forty-two patients with a past history of poliomyelitis were evaluated at a post-polio clinic for new problems or impairments. Evaluation included a complete history, neurological and biomechanical examination and electrodiagnostic studies. Based on this evaluation patients were placed into three groups: 23 patients were considered to have or likely to have Progressive Post-Polio Muscular Atrophy (PPPMA); 17 patients were considered to have other post-polio sequelae; and two patients had problems unrelated to a past history of polio but mistaken for post-polio sequelae. Musculoskeletal pain was a common complaint among all groups of patients. Twenty-two of the 40 patients with post-polio sequelae were advised to alter their method of ambulation and/or decrease their activity pattern in order to decrease strain and/or excessive exertion of involved muscles. The role of chronic overuse and exercise in producing PPPMA or musculoskeletal pain problems is discussed. Characteristic clinical problems and useful management plans are described.

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Outcomes of Research or Clinical Trials Activity Levels Acute Flaccid Paralysis Ageing Anaerobic Threshold Anaesthesia Assistive Technology Brain Cardiorespiratory Cardiovascular Clinical Evaluation Cold Intolerance Complementary Therapies Continence Coping Styles and Strategies Cultural Context Diagnosis and Management Differential Diagnosis Drugs Dysphagia Dysphonia Epidemiology Exercise Falls Fatigue Fractures Gender Differences Immune Response Inflammation Late Effects of Polio Muscle Strength Muscular Atrophy Orthoses Pain Polio Immunisation Post-Polio Motor Unit Psychology Quality of Life Renal Complications Respiratory Complications and Management Restless Legs Syndrome Sleep Analaysis Surgery Vitality Vocational Implications