Outcomes of Research or Clinical Trials Activity Levels Acute Flaccid Paralysis Ageing Anaerobic Threshold Anaesthesia Assistive Technology Brain Cardiorespiratory Cardiovascular Clinical Evaluation Cold Intolerance Complementary Therapies Continence Coping Styles and Strategies Cultural Context Diagnosis and Management Differential Diagnosis Drugs Dysphagia Dysphonia Epidemiology Exercise Falls Fatigue Fractures Gender Differences Immune Response Inflammation Late Effects of Polio Muscle Strength Muscular Atrophy Orthoses Pain Polio Immunisation Post-Polio Motor Unit Psychology Quality of Life Renal Complications Respiratory Complications and Management Restless Legs Syndrome Sleep Analaysis Surgery Vitality Vocational Implications

Title order Author order Journal order Date order
Category: Pain

Title: Analysis of long-standing nociceptive and neuropathic pain in patients with post-polio syndrome
Author: Werhagen L, Borg K
Affiliation: Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet Danderyds Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. [email protected]
Journal: Journal of Neurology
Citation: J Neurol. 2010 Jun;257(6):1027-31. doi: 10.1007/s00415-010-5456-0
Publication Year and Month: 2010 06

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyze pain, both nociceptive and neuropathic, in patients with post-polio syndrome (PPS) and relate the pain to age at the initial polio infection, age at examination, to gender and disability. The study was conducted in a university hospital department. Patients with PPS were interviewed at their regular visits about pain, its character, intensity and localization. A clinical examination, including a thorough neurological examination, was performed. Data included age at time of polio infection, age at time of examination and gender. Pain intensity was measured with the VAS-scale and walking capability by the WISCI-scale. One hundred sixty-three (88 women, 75 men) patients were included in the study. Pain was present in 109 (67%). Pain was more frequently reported by women (82%) than by men (49%). 96 patients experienced nociceptive pain, 10 patients both neuropathic and nociceptive pain and three experienced pure neuropathic pain. Half of the patients with pain experienced pain in more than one body region. When neuropathic pain was present, another additional neurological disorder was diagnosed. Pain was more often found in younger patients (around 70%) than in older patients (around 50%). In summary pain is common in patients with PPS and most patients experienced nociceptive pain. Women have pain more often than men. Older patients experience pain more seldom than younger patients. Age at time of primary polio infection is important for the development of pain. When neuropathic pain is present, it is important to proceed with neurological examination to find an adequate diagnosis.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): View Abstract here


Category: Pain, Quality of Life

Title: Impact of pain on quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome
Author: Werhagen L, Borg K
Affiliation: Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2013; 45: 161–163. doi: 10.2340/16501977-1096
Publication Year and Month: 2013 00

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Post-polio syndrome is a neurological disorder occurring several years after an acute polio infection. The main symptoms are increased muscular weakness and atrophy, fatigue and pain. Pain is present more often in younger individuals and in females and, according to the visual analogue scale (VAS), the intensity of pain is relatively high. The aim of the present study was to analyse the impact of pain on quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome.

DESIGN: Transversal study.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with post-polio syndrome underwent a thorough neurological and general examination. They were interviewed about the presence and intensity of pain during the previous 3 months, then completed the quality of life inventory Short-Form 36 (SF-36), which included questions about pain during the previous 4 weeks, and rated their pain intensity during the previous 24 h according to the VAS.

RESULTS: Seventy-seven of the patients (68%) experienced pain at the examination. Pain was found to have a significant impact on the SF-36 subdomains Vitality and General health. A correlation was found between pain during the previous 3 months, the previous 4 weeks, and the previous 24 h.

DISCUSSION: Pain is common in patients with post-polio syndrome. Although patients have a high mean VAS score the pain only affects quality of life for Vitality and General Health, but not for other physical and mental domains.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Pain

Title: Pain in persons with post-polio syndrome: frequency, intensity, and impact
Author: Stoelb BL, Carter GT, Abresch RT, Purekal S, McDonald CM, Jensen MP
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (Stoelb, Carter, Purekal, Jensen); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of California/Davis, Sacramento, CA
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008 Oct; 89(10): 1933–1940. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2008.03.018
Publication Year and Month: 2008 10

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency, intensity, and impact of pain in persons with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS).

DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional survey.

SETTING: Community-based survey.

PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of people with PPS.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall intensity and duration of pain, pain sites, pain interference, pain treatments, and relief provided by pain treatments.

RESULTS: A total of 91% (n=57) of the study participants (N=63) reported pain. The most frequently reported pain sites were the shoulders, lower back, legs, and hips. Participants reported pain intensity to be the greatest in the knees, legs, wrists, lower back, and head. Pain interfered most with sleep and with activities requiring a high level of musculoskeletal involvement. Respondents also reported pain problems that were more severe than those of the general population and than those of a sample of people with multiple sclerosis. Many treatments had been tried previously for pain, but continued use of treatments was reported by relatively few participants at the time of the survey.

Conclusions: The findings indicate that pain is a persistent and common problem in persons with PPS, highlighting the need for effective and accessible pain treatments for this population.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Pain

Title: Predictive factors and correlates for pain in postpoliomyelitis syndrome patients
Author: Vasiliadis HM, Collet JP, Shapiro S, Venturini A, Trojan DA
Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Que, Canada
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002 Aug;83(8):1109-15
Publication Year and Month: 2002 08

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To identify predictive and associated factors for muscle and joint pain in postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS).

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study design.

SETTING: Postpolio clinics.

PARTICIPANTS: Baseline data on 126 PPS patients entered into a multicentered clinical trial.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adjusted odds ratios were computed by using logistic regression modeling. Patients with or without muscle or joint pain were compared with regard to predictors and associated factors.

RESULTS: In multivariate analyses for muscle pain, significant predictive and associated factors were female gender (P=.0006), longer duration of general fatigue (P=.019), and a lower score on the general health scale (P=.009) of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-From Health Survey (SF-36). In multivariate analyses for joint pain, significant predictive and associated factors were female gender (P<.003), longer latency (duration of stability after polio; P=.008), younger age at interview (P<.002), greater weakness at acute polio (P<.07), weaker lower-extremity muscle strength (P<.04), and a lower SF-36 general health scale score (P<.02).

Conclusions: Women are more likely to report muscle and joint pain in PPS. Greater initial motor unit involvement and lower-extremity weakness may be additional important factors for determining joint pain. Both muscle and joint pain are associated with reductions in quality of life.

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Pain

Title: Psychosocial factors and adjustment to pain in individuals with postpolio syndrome
Author: Hirsh AT, Kupper AE, Carter GT, Jensen MP
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2010 Mar;89(3):213-24. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0b013e3181c9f9a1
Publication Year and Month: 2010 03

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current study was to examine the associations among measures of psychosocial factors, pain, and adjustment in persons with postpoliomyelitis syndrome.

DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey design was used. Sixty-three community-dwelling individuals with postpoliomyelitis syndrome returned completed questionnaires (71% response rate) that included measures of pain intensity and interference, psychological functioning, pain catastrophizing, social support, and pain-related beliefs and coping.

RESULTS: After controlling for demographic variables, the group of psychosocial variables accounted for an additional 23% of the variance in pain intensity. These variables explained an additional 35% and 50% of the variance in pain interference and psychological functioning, respectively, after accounting for demographic variables and pain intensity. Social support was associated with both psychological functioning and pain interference, whereas catastrophizing was most closely related to psychological functioning. Individual pain beliefs and coping strategies were variably related to the three criterion measures.

Conclusions: The overall results of the current study are consistent with a biopsychosocial framework for understanding pain and functioning in individuals with postpoliomyelitis syndrome. Although additional research is needed to clarify the nature of the relationships between individual psychosocial variables and functional indices, the findings suggest the need for a multidisciplinary approach to pain management in individuals with postpoliomyelitis syndrome.

Outcome of Research: More research required.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


There are currently 5 papers in this category.

Category: Pain

Title: Psychosocial factors and adjustment to pain in individuals with postpolio syndrome
Author: Hirsh AT, Kupper AE, Carter GT, Jensen MP
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2010 Mar;89(3):213-24. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0b013e3181c9f9a1
Publication Year and Month: 2010 03

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current study was to examine the associations among measures of psychosocial factors, pain, and adjustment in persons with postpoliomyelitis syndrome.

DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey design was used. Sixty-three community-dwelling individuals with postpoliomyelitis syndrome returned completed questionnaires (71% response rate) that included measures of pain intensity and interference, psychological functioning, pain catastrophizing, social support, and pain-related beliefs and coping.

RESULTS: After controlling for demographic variables, the group of psychosocial variables accounted for an additional 23% of the variance in pain intensity. These variables explained an additional 35% and 50% of the variance in pain interference and psychological functioning, respectively, after accounting for demographic variables and pain intensity. Social support was associated with both psychological functioning and pain interference, whereas catastrophizing was most closely related to psychological functioning. Individual pain beliefs and coping strategies were variably related to the three criterion measures.

Conclusions: The overall results of the current study are consistent with a biopsychosocial framework for understanding pain and functioning in individuals with postpoliomyelitis syndrome. Although additional research is needed to clarify the nature of the relationships between individual psychosocial variables and functional indices, the findings suggest the need for a multidisciplinary approach to pain management in individuals with postpoliomyelitis syndrome.

Outcome of Research: More research required.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Pain

Title: Pain in persons with post-polio syndrome: frequency, intensity, and impact
Author: Stoelb BL, Carter GT, Abresch RT, Purekal S, McDonald CM, Jensen MP
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (Stoelb, Carter, Purekal, Jensen); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of California/Davis, Sacramento, CA
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008 Oct; 89(10): 1933–1940. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2008.03.018
Publication Year and Month: 2008 10

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency, intensity, and impact of pain in persons with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS).

DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional survey.

SETTING: Community-based survey.

PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of people with PPS.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall intensity and duration of pain, pain sites, pain interference, pain treatments, and relief provided by pain treatments.

RESULTS: A total of 91% (n=57) of the study participants (N=63) reported pain. The most frequently reported pain sites were the shoulders, lower back, legs, and hips. Participants reported pain intensity to be the greatest in the knees, legs, wrists, lower back, and head. Pain interfered most with sleep and with activities requiring a high level of musculoskeletal involvement. Respondents also reported pain problems that were more severe than those of the general population and than those of a sample of people with multiple sclerosis. Many treatments had been tried previously for pain, but continued use of treatments was reported by relatively few participants at the time of the survey.

Conclusions: The findings indicate that pain is a persistent and common problem in persons with PPS, highlighting the need for effective and accessible pain treatments for this population.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Pain

Title: Predictive factors and correlates for pain in postpoliomyelitis syndrome patients
Author: Vasiliadis HM, Collet JP, Shapiro S, Venturini A, Trojan DA
Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Que, Canada
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002 Aug;83(8):1109-15
Publication Year and Month: 2002 08

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To identify predictive and associated factors for muscle and joint pain in postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS).

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study design.

SETTING: Postpolio clinics.

PARTICIPANTS: Baseline data on 126 PPS patients entered into a multicentered clinical trial.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adjusted odds ratios were computed by using logistic regression modeling. Patients with or without muscle or joint pain were compared with regard to predictors and associated factors.

RESULTS: In multivariate analyses for muscle pain, significant predictive and associated factors were female gender (P=.0006), longer duration of general fatigue (P=.019), and a lower score on the general health scale (P=.009) of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-From Health Survey (SF-36). In multivariate analyses for joint pain, significant predictive and associated factors were female gender (P<.003), longer latency (duration of stability after polio; P=.008), younger age at interview (P<.002), greater weakness at acute polio (P<.07), weaker lower-extremity muscle strength (P<.04), and a lower SF-36 general health scale score (P<.02).

Conclusions: Women are more likely to report muscle and joint pain in PPS. Greater initial motor unit involvement and lower-extremity weakness may be additional important factors for determining joint pain. Both muscle and joint pain are associated with reductions in quality of life.

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Pain, Quality of Life

Title: Impact of pain on quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome
Author: Werhagen L, Borg K
Affiliation: Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2013; 45: 161–163. doi: 10.2340/16501977-1096
Publication Year and Month: 2013 00

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Post-polio syndrome is a neurological disorder occurring several years after an acute polio infection. The main symptoms are increased muscular weakness and atrophy, fatigue and pain. Pain is present more often in younger individuals and in females and, according to the visual analogue scale (VAS), the intensity of pain is relatively high. The aim of the present study was to analyse the impact of pain on quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome.

DESIGN: Transversal study.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with post-polio syndrome underwent a thorough neurological and general examination. They were interviewed about the presence and intensity of pain during the previous 3 months, then completed the quality of life inventory Short-Form 36 (SF-36), which included questions about pain during the previous 4 weeks, and rated their pain intensity during the previous 24 h according to the VAS.

RESULTS: Seventy-seven of the patients (68%) experienced pain at the examination. Pain was found to have a significant impact on the SF-36 subdomains Vitality and General health. A correlation was found between pain during the previous 3 months, the previous 4 weeks, and the previous 24 h.

DISCUSSION: Pain is common in patients with post-polio syndrome. Although patients have a high mean VAS score the pain only affects quality of life for Vitality and General Health, but not for other physical and mental domains.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Pain

Title: Analysis of long-standing nociceptive and neuropathic pain in patients with post-polio syndrome
Author: Werhagen L, Borg K
Affiliation: Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet Danderyds Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. [email protected]
Journal: Journal of Neurology
Citation: J Neurol. 2010 Jun;257(6):1027-31. doi: 10.1007/s00415-010-5456-0
Publication Year and Month: 2010 06

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyze pain, both nociceptive and neuropathic, in patients with post-polio syndrome (PPS) and relate the pain to age at the initial polio infection, age at examination, to gender and disability. The study was conducted in a university hospital department. Patients with PPS were interviewed at their regular visits about pain, its character, intensity and localization. A clinical examination, including a thorough neurological examination, was performed. Data included age at time of polio infection, age at time of examination and gender. Pain intensity was measured with the VAS-scale and walking capability by the WISCI-scale. One hundred sixty-three (88 women, 75 men) patients were included in the study. Pain was present in 109 (67%). Pain was more frequently reported by women (82%) than by men (49%). 96 patients experienced nociceptive pain, 10 patients both neuropathic and nociceptive pain and three experienced pure neuropathic pain. Half of the patients with pain experienced pain in more than one body region. When neuropathic pain was present, another additional neurological disorder was diagnosed. Pain was more often found in younger patients (around 70%) than in older patients (around 50%). In summary pain is common in patients with PPS and most patients experienced nociceptive pain. Women have pain more often than men. Older patients experience pain more seldom than younger patients. Age at time of primary polio infection is important for the development of pain. When neuropathic pain is present, it is important to proceed with neurological examination to find an adequate diagnosis.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): View Abstract here


There are currently 5 papers in this category.

Category: Pain

Title: Psychosocial factors and adjustment to pain in individuals with postpolio syndrome
Author: Hirsh AT, Kupper AE, Carter GT, Jensen MP
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2010 Mar;89(3):213-24. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0b013e3181c9f9a1
Publication Year and Month: 2010 03

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current study was to examine the associations among measures of psychosocial factors, pain, and adjustment in persons with postpoliomyelitis syndrome.

DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey design was used. Sixty-three community-dwelling individuals with postpoliomyelitis syndrome returned completed questionnaires (71% response rate) that included measures of pain intensity and interference, psychological functioning, pain catastrophizing, social support, and pain-related beliefs and coping.

RESULTS: After controlling for demographic variables, the group of psychosocial variables accounted for an additional 23% of the variance in pain intensity. These variables explained an additional 35% and 50% of the variance in pain interference and psychological functioning, respectively, after accounting for demographic variables and pain intensity. Social support was associated with both psychological functioning and pain interference, whereas catastrophizing was most closely related to psychological functioning. Individual pain beliefs and coping strategies were variably related to the three criterion measures.

Conclusions: The overall results of the current study are consistent with a biopsychosocial framework for understanding pain and functioning in individuals with postpoliomyelitis syndrome. Although additional research is needed to clarify the nature of the relationships between individual psychosocial variables and functional indices, the findings suggest the need for a multidisciplinary approach to pain management in individuals with postpoliomyelitis syndrome.

Outcome of Research: More research required.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Pain

Title: Pain in persons with post-polio syndrome: frequency, intensity, and impact
Author: Stoelb BL, Carter GT, Abresch RT, Purekal S, McDonald CM, Jensen MP
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (Stoelb, Carter, Purekal, Jensen); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of California/Davis, Sacramento, CA
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008 Oct; 89(10): 1933–1940. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2008.03.018
Publication Year and Month: 2008 10

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency, intensity, and impact of pain in persons with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS).

DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional survey.

SETTING: Community-based survey.

PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of people with PPS.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall intensity and duration of pain, pain sites, pain interference, pain treatments, and relief provided by pain treatments.

RESULTS: A total of 91% (n=57) of the study participants (N=63) reported pain. The most frequently reported pain sites were the shoulders, lower back, legs, and hips. Participants reported pain intensity to be the greatest in the knees, legs, wrists, lower back, and head. Pain interfered most with sleep and with activities requiring a high level of musculoskeletal involvement. Respondents also reported pain problems that were more severe than those of the general population and than those of a sample of people with multiple sclerosis. Many treatments had been tried previously for pain, but continued use of treatments was reported by relatively few participants at the time of the survey.

Conclusions: The findings indicate that pain is a persistent and common problem in persons with PPS, highlighting the need for effective and accessible pain treatments for this population.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Pain

Title: Predictive factors and correlates for pain in postpoliomyelitis syndrome patients
Author: Vasiliadis HM, Collet JP, Shapiro S, Venturini A, Trojan DA
Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Que, Canada
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002 Aug;83(8):1109-15
Publication Year and Month: 2002 08

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To identify predictive and associated factors for muscle and joint pain in postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS).

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study design.

SETTING: Postpolio clinics.

PARTICIPANTS: Baseline data on 126 PPS patients entered into a multicentered clinical trial.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adjusted odds ratios were computed by using logistic regression modeling. Patients with or without muscle or joint pain were compared with regard to predictors and associated factors.

RESULTS: In multivariate analyses for muscle pain, significant predictive and associated factors were female gender (P=.0006), longer duration of general fatigue (P=.019), and a lower score on the general health scale (P=.009) of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-From Health Survey (SF-36). In multivariate analyses for joint pain, significant predictive and associated factors were female gender (P<.003), longer latency (duration of stability after polio; P=.008), younger age at interview (P<.002), greater weakness at acute polio (P<.07), weaker lower-extremity muscle strength (P<.04), and a lower SF-36 general health scale score (P<.02).

Conclusions: Women are more likely to report muscle and joint pain in PPS. Greater initial motor unit involvement and lower-extremity weakness may be additional important factors for determining joint pain. Both muscle and joint pain are associated with reductions in quality of life.

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Pain

Title: Analysis of long-standing nociceptive and neuropathic pain in patients with post-polio syndrome
Author: Werhagen L, Borg K
Affiliation: Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet Danderyds Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. [email protected]
Journal: Journal of Neurology
Citation: J Neurol. 2010 Jun;257(6):1027-31. doi: 10.1007/s00415-010-5456-0
Publication Year and Month: 2010 06

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyze pain, both nociceptive and neuropathic, in patients with post-polio syndrome (PPS) and relate the pain to age at the initial polio infection, age at examination, to gender and disability. The study was conducted in a university hospital department. Patients with PPS were interviewed at their regular visits about pain, its character, intensity and localization. A clinical examination, including a thorough neurological examination, was performed. Data included age at time of polio infection, age at time of examination and gender. Pain intensity was measured with the VAS-scale and walking capability by the WISCI-scale. One hundred sixty-three (88 women, 75 men) patients were included in the study. Pain was present in 109 (67%). Pain was more frequently reported by women (82%) than by men (49%). 96 patients experienced nociceptive pain, 10 patients both neuropathic and nociceptive pain and three experienced pure neuropathic pain. Half of the patients with pain experienced pain in more than one body region. When neuropathic pain was present, another additional neurological disorder was diagnosed. Pain was more often found in younger patients (around 70%) than in older patients (around 50%). In summary pain is common in patients with PPS and most patients experienced nociceptive pain. Women have pain more often than men. Older patients experience pain more seldom than younger patients. Age at time of primary polio infection is important for the development of pain. When neuropathic pain is present, it is important to proceed with neurological examination to find an adequate diagnosis.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): View Abstract here


Category: Pain, Quality of Life

Title: Impact of pain on quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome
Author: Werhagen L, Borg K
Affiliation: Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2013; 45: 161–163. doi: 10.2340/16501977-1096
Publication Year and Month: 2013 00

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Post-polio syndrome is a neurological disorder occurring several years after an acute polio infection. The main symptoms are increased muscular weakness and atrophy, fatigue and pain. Pain is present more often in younger individuals and in females and, according to the visual analogue scale (VAS), the intensity of pain is relatively high. The aim of the present study was to analyse the impact of pain on quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome.

DESIGN: Transversal study.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with post-polio syndrome underwent a thorough neurological and general examination. They were interviewed about the presence and intensity of pain during the previous 3 months, then completed the quality of life inventory Short-Form 36 (SF-36), which included questions about pain during the previous 4 weeks, and rated their pain intensity during the previous 24 h according to the VAS.

RESULTS: Seventy-seven of the patients (68%) experienced pain at the examination. Pain was found to have a significant impact on the SF-36 subdomains Vitality and General health. A correlation was found between pain during the previous 3 months, the previous 4 weeks, and the previous 24 h.

DISCUSSION: Pain is common in patients with post-polio syndrome. Although patients have a high mean VAS score the pain only affects quality of life for Vitality and General Health, but not for other physical and mental domains.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


There are currently 5 papers in this category.

Category: Pain, Quality of Life

Title: Impact of pain on quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome
Author: Werhagen L, Borg K
Affiliation: Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2013; 45: 161–163. doi: 10.2340/16501977-1096
Publication Year and Month: 2013 00

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Post-polio syndrome is a neurological disorder occurring several years after an acute polio infection. The main symptoms are increased muscular weakness and atrophy, fatigue and pain. Pain is present more often in younger individuals and in females and, according to the visual analogue scale (VAS), the intensity of pain is relatively high. The aim of the present study was to analyse the impact of pain on quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome.

DESIGN: Transversal study.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with post-polio syndrome underwent a thorough neurological and general examination. They were interviewed about the presence and intensity of pain during the previous 3 months, then completed the quality of life inventory Short-Form 36 (SF-36), which included questions about pain during the previous 4 weeks, and rated their pain intensity during the previous 24 h according to the VAS.

RESULTS: Seventy-seven of the patients (68%) experienced pain at the examination. Pain was found to have a significant impact on the SF-36 subdomains Vitality and General health. A correlation was found between pain during the previous 3 months, the previous 4 weeks, and the previous 24 h.

DISCUSSION: Pain is common in patients with post-polio syndrome. Although patients have a high mean VAS score the pain only affects quality of life for Vitality and General Health, but not for other physical and mental domains.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Pain

Title: Analysis of long-standing nociceptive and neuropathic pain in patients with post-polio syndrome
Author: Werhagen L, Borg K
Affiliation: Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet Danderyds Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. [email protected]
Journal: Journal of Neurology
Citation: J Neurol. 2010 Jun;257(6):1027-31. doi: 10.1007/s00415-010-5456-0
Publication Year and Month: 2010 06

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyze pain, both nociceptive and neuropathic, in patients with post-polio syndrome (PPS) and relate the pain to age at the initial polio infection, age at examination, to gender and disability. The study was conducted in a university hospital department. Patients with PPS were interviewed at their regular visits about pain, its character, intensity and localization. A clinical examination, including a thorough neurological examination, was performed. Data included age at time of polio infection, age at time of examination and gender. Pain intensity was measured with the VAS-scale and walking capability by the WISCI-scale. One hundred sixty-three (88 women, 75 men) patients were included in the study. Pain was present in 109 (67%). Pain was more frequently reported by women (82%) than by men (49%). 96 patients experienced nociceptive pain, 10 patients both neuropathic and nociceptive pain and three experienced pure neuropathic pain. Half of the patients with pain experienced pain in more than one body region. When neuropathic pain was present, another additional neurological disorder was diagnosed. Pain was more often found in younger patients (around 70%) than in older patients (around 50%). In summary pain is common in patients with PPS and most patients experienced nociceptive pain. Women have pain more often than men. Older patients experience pain more seldom than younger patients. Age at time of primary polio infection is important for the development of pain. When neuropathic pain is present, it is important to proceed with neurological examination to find an adequate diagnosis.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

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Category: Pain

Title: Psychosocial factors and adjustment to pain in individuals with postpolio syndrome
Author: Hirsh AT, Kupper AE, Carter GT, Jensen MP
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2010 Mar;89(3):213-24. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0b013e3181c9f9a1
Publication Year and Month: 2010 03

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current study was to examine the associations among measures of psychosocial factors, pain, and adjustment in persons with postpoliomyelitis syndrome.

DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey design was used. Sixty-three community-dwelling individuals with postpoliomyelitis syndrome returned completed questionnaires (71% response rate) that included measures of pain intensity and interference, psychological functioning, pain catastrophizing, social support, and pain-related beliefs and coping.

RESULTS: After controlling for demographic variables, the group of psychosocial variables accounted for an additional 23% of the variance in pain intensity. These variables explained an additional 35% and 50% of the variance in pain interference and psychological functioning, respectively, after accounting for demographic variables and pain intensity. Social support was associated with both psychological functioning and pain interference, whereas catastrophizing was most closely related to psychological functioning. Individual pain beliefs and coping strategies were variably related to the three criterion measures.

Conclusions: The overall results of the current study are consistent with a biopsychosocial framework for understanding pain and functioning in individuals with postpoliomyelitis syndrome. Although additional research is needed to clarify the nature of the relationships between individual psychosocial variables and functional indices, the findings suggest the need for a multidisciplinary approach to pain management in individuals with postpoliomyelitis syndrome.

Outcome of Research: More research required.

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Category: Pain

Title: Pain in persons with post-polio syndrome: frequency, intensity, and impact
Author: Stoelb BL, Carter GT, Abresch RT, Purekal S, McDonald CM, Jensen MP
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (Stoelb, Carter, Purekal, Jensen); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of California/Davis, Sacramento, CA
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008 Oct; 89(10): 1933–1940. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2008.03.018
Publication Year and Month: 2008 10

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency, intensity, and impact of pain in persons with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS).

DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional survey.

SETTING: Community-based survey.

PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of people with PPS.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall intensity and duration of pain, pain sites, pain interference, pain treatments, and relief provided by pain treatments.

RESULTS: A total of 91% (n=57) of the study participants (N=63) reported pain. The most frequently reported pain sites were the shoulders, lower back, legs, and hips. Participants reported pain intensity to be the greatest in the knees, legs, wrists, lower back, and head. Pain interfered most with sleep and with activities requiring a high level of musculoskeletal involvement. Respondents also reported pain problems that were more severe than those of the general population and than those of a sample of people with multiple sclerosis. Many treatments had been tried previously for pain, but continued use of treatments was reported by relatively few participants at the time of the survey.

Conclusions: The findings indicate that pain is a persistent and common problem in persons with PPS, highlighting the need for effective and accessible pain treatments for this population.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

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Category: Pain

Title: Predictive factors and correlates for pain in postpoliomyelitis syndrome patients
Author: Vasiliadis HM, Collet JP, Shapiro S, Venturini A, Trojan DA
Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Que, Canada
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002 Aug;83(8):1109-15
Publication Year and Month: 2002 08

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To identify predictive and associated factors for muscle and joint pain in postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS).

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study design.

SETTING: Postpolio clinics.

PARTICIPANTS: Baseline data on 126 PPS patients entered into a multicentered clinical trial.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adjusted odds ratios were computed by using logistic regression modeling. Patients with or without muscle or joint pain were compared with regard to predictors and associated factors.

RESULTS: In multivariate analyses for muscle pain, significant predictive and associated factors were female gender (P=.0006), longer duration of general fatigue (P=.019), and a lower score on the general health scale (P=.009) of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-From Health Survey (SF-36). In multivariate analyses for joint pain, significant predictive and associated factors were female gender (P<.003), longer latency (duration of stability after polio; P=.008), younger age at interview (P<.002), greater weakness at acute polio (P<.07), weaker lower-extremity muscle strength (P<.04), and a lower SF-36 general health scale score (P<.02).

Conclusions: Women are more likely to report muscle and joint pain in PPS. Greater initial motor unit involvement and lower-extremity weakness may be additional important factors for determining joint pain. Both muscle and joint pain are associated with reductions in quality of life.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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