Outcomes of Research or Clinical Trials Activity Levels Acute Flaccid Paralysis Ageing Anaerobic Threshold Anaesthesia Assistive Technology Brain Cardiorespiratory Cardiovascular Clinical Evaluation Cold Intolerance Complementary Therapies Continence Coping Styles and Strategies Cultural Context Diagnosis and Management Differential Diagnosis Drugs Dysphagia Dysphonia Epidemiology Exercise Falls Fatigue Fractures Gender Differences Immune Response Inflammation Late Effects of Polio Muscle Strength Muscular Atrophy Orthoses Pain Polio Immunisation Post-Polio Motor Unit Psychology Quality of Life Renal Complications Respiratory Complications and Management Restless Legs Syndrome Sleep Analaysis Surgery Vitality Vocational Implications

Title order Author order Journal order Date order
Category: Fatigue

Title: A 5-year longitudinal study of fatigue in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis
Author: Tersteeg IM (1), Koopman FS, Stolwijk-Swüste JM, Beelen A, Nollet F; CARPA Study Group
Affiliation: (1) Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. [email protected]
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011 Jun;92(6):899-904. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2011.01.005
Publication Year and Month: 2011 06

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To study the severity and 5-year course of fatigue in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis (LOSP) and to identify physical and psychosocial determinants of fatigue.

DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with 5 measurements over 5 years.

SETTING: University hospital.

PARTICIPANTS: Patients with LOSP (N=168); 89% of the subjects completed the study.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fatigue assessed with the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Potential determinants were perceived physical functioning, bodily pain and mental health, extent of paresis, walking capacity, comorbidity, sleeping disorders, coping, and social support. Associations were investigated by multivariable longitudinal analysis using generalized estimating equations.

RESULTS: The mean FSS score ± SD at baseline was 5.1±1.4, which did not change significantly during the 5-year follow-up. Reduced physical functioning, increased bodily pain, reduced sleep quality, more psychologic distress, and higher task-oriented coping were independently associated with fatigue. The extent of paresis and walking capacity were strongly associated with physical functioning.

Conclusions: Fatigue is severe and persistent in patients with LOSP due to physical and psychologic factors, which has implications for counseling and treatment. In addition to the commonly applied interventions targeting physical aspects, psychologic interventions are a potential area for reducing fatigue.

Outcome of Research: Effective

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: A comparison of 4 questionnaires to measure fatigue in postpoliomyelitis syndrome
Author: Horemans HL, Nollet F, Beelen A, Lankhorst GJ
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004 Mar;85(3):392-8
Publication Year and Month: 2004 03

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the comparability and reproducibility of 4 questionnaires used to measure fatigue in postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS).

DESIGN: Repeated-measures at a 3-week interval.

SETTING: University hospital.

PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of 65 patients with PPS.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) energy category, the Polio Problem List (PPL) fatigue item, and the Dutch Short Fatigue Questionnaire (SFQ).

RESULTS: Correlations of scores between questionnaires were all significant (P<.01) and ranged from .43 (between the NHP energy category and the PPL fatigue item) to .68 (between the PPL fatigue item and the SFQ). Scores on the second visit, normalized to a 0 to 100 scale, were: FSS, 78+/-15; NHP energy category, 47+/-35; PPL fatigue item, 81+/-17; and SFQ, 65+/-22. Except for the difference between the FSS and the PPL fatigue item, the differences in scores between the questionnaires were significant (P<.01). Scale analysis indicated that all questionnaires measured the same unidimensional construct. The reproducibility of the FSS, the PPL fatigue item, and the SFQ was moderate. The smallest detectable change was 1.5 points for the FSS, 2.0 points for the PPL fatigue item, and 1.9 points for the SFQ.

Conclusions: Although the questionnaires measure the same fatigue construct in PPS, the results are not interchangeable because the ranges of measurement differ. The NHP energy category, in particular, appeared to have a high detection threshold. The moderate reproducibility of the questionnaires indicates a lack of precision, especially when applied at the individual patient level.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Activity and post-polio fatigue
Author: Packer TL, Martins I, Krefting L, Brouwer B
Affiliation: Division of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Therapy, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1223-6
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Fatigue was studied in 12 subjects with post-polio sequelae (PPS). Results of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) demonstrated a mean score of 4.8 +/- 1.6 (non-disabled scores = 2.3 +/- 0.7). The Human Activity Profile (HAP) was not sensitive enough to measure fatigue. Fifty percent of subjects scored below the first percentile based on age and sex matched norms. The Activity Record (ACTRE) results revealed that subjects spent 5% of their time resting and 1% in planning or preparation activities. Fatigue peaked in the late morning or early afternoon and was relieved by rest periods. Use of energy conservation and work simplification skills along with frequent rest periods was suggested as a possible method for managing PPS fatigue.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

Availability of Paper:

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available):


Category: Fatigue

Title: Brain volume and fatigue in patients with postpoliomyelitis syndrome
Author: Trojan DA (1), Narayanan S (2), Francis SJ (3), Caramanos Z (4), Robinson A (5), Cardoso M (6), Arnold DL (7)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, 3801 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B4; (2) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Unit, McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Unit, McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (4) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Unit, McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (5) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (6) Clinical Research Unit, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (7) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Journal: PM&R: The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Citation: PM R. 2014 Mar;6(3):215-20. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2013.09.009
Publication Year and Month: 2014 03

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Acute paralytic poliomyelitis is associated with encephalitis. Early brain inflammation may produce permanent neuronal injury with brain atrophy, which may result in symptoms such as fatigue. Brain volume has not been assessed in postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS).

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether brain volume is decreased compared with that in normal controls, and whether brain volume is associated with fatigue in patients with PPS.

DESIGN: A cross-sectional study.

SETTING: Tertiary university-affiliated hospital postpolio and multiple sclerosis (MS) clinics.

PARTICIPANTS: Forty-nine ambulatory patients with PPS, 28 normal controls, and 53 ambulatory patients with MS.

METHODS: We studied the brains of all study subjects with magnetic resonance imaging by using a 1.5 T Siemens Sonata machine. The subjects completed the Fatigue Severity Scale. Multivariable linear regression models were computed to evaluate the contribution of PPS and MS compared with controls to explain brain volume.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Normalized brain volume (NBV) was assessed with the automated program Structured Image Evaluation, using Normalization, of Atrophy method from the acquired magnetic resonance images. This method may miss brainstem atrophy.

RESULTS: Technically adequate NBV measurements were available for 42 patients with PPS, 27 controls, and 49 patients with MS. The mean (standard deviation) age was 60.9 ± 7.6 years for patients with PPS, 47.0 ± 14.6 years for controls, and 46.2 ± 9.4 years for patients with MS. In a multivariable model adjusted for age and gender, NBV was not significantly different in patients with PPS compared with that in controls (P = .28). As expected, when using a similar model for patients with MS, NBV was significantly decreased compared with that in controls (P = .006). There was no significant association between NBV and fatigue in subjects with PPS (Spearman ρ = 0.23; P = .19).

Conclusions: No significant whole-brain atrophy was found, and no association of brain volume with fatigue in PPS. Brain atrophy was confirmed in MS. It is possible that brainstem atrophy was not recognized by this study.

Outcome of Research: Not effective

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Fatigue

Title: Circadian fatigue or unrecognized restless legs syndrome? The post-polio syndrome model
Author: Romigi A, Maestri M
Affiliation: Neurophysiopathology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, Sleep Medicine Centre, Tor Vergata University and Hospital , Rome , Italy ; IRCCS Neuromed , Pozzilli , Italy; Neurology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa , Pisa , Italy.
Journal: Frontiers in Neurology
Citation: Front Neurol. 2014 Jul 7;5:115. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2014.00115
Publication Year and Month: 2014 07

Abstract: This paper does not have an abstract.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Cognitive functioning in post‐polio patients with and without general fatigue
Author: Ostlund G, Borg K, Wahlin A.
Affiliation: Department of Public Health Science, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2005 May;37(3):147-51
Publication Year and Month: 2005 03

Abstract: OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: This study examined 2 main hypotheses. First, whether patients with post-polio suffering from general fatigue (n=10) demonstrate cognitive deficits compared with patients with post-polio without general fatigue (n=10). Secondly, by systematically varied test order administration we examined whether such differences varied as a function of increasing cognitive load during cognitive testing.

SUBJECTS: Twenty patients diagnosed with post-polio syndrome, 10 with general fatigue and 10 without fatigue.

RESULTS: Neither of the 2 hypotheses were confirmed. The group with general fatigue reported elevated levels of depression. However, no systematic association between level of depression and cognitive performance could be detected.

Conclusions: The results of this study provide no evidence that general fatigue or cognitive load affects cognitive functioning in post-polio.

Outcome of Research: Not effective.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Disability and functional assessment in former polio patients with and without postpolio syndrome
Author: Nollet F, Beelen A, Prins MH, de Visser M, Sargeant AJ, Lankhorst GJ, de Jong BA
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999 Feb;80(2):136-43
Publication Year and Month: 1999 02

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To compare perceived health problems and disability in former polio subjects with postpolio syndrome (PPS) and those without postpolio syndrome (non-PPS), and to evaluate perceived health problems, disability, physical performance, and muscle strength.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey; partially blinded data collection.

SUBJECTS: One hundred three former polio subjects, aged 32 to 60yrs. This volunteer sample came from referrals and patient contacts. Criterion for PPS: new muscle weakness among symptoms.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), adapted D-code of the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps, performance test, and muscle strength assessment.

RESULTS: PPS subjects (n = 76) showed higher scores (p < .001) than non-PPS subjects (n = 27) within the NHP categories of physical mobility, energy, and pain. On a 16-item Polio Problems List, 78% of PPS subjects selected fatigue as their major problem, followed by walking outdoors (46%) and climbing stairs (41%). The disabilities of PPS subjects were mainly seen in physical and social functioning. No differences in manually tested strength were found between patient groups. PPS subjects needed significantly more time for the performance test than non-PPS subjects and their perceived exertion was higher. Perceived health problems (NHP-PhysMobility) correlated significantly with physical disability (r = .66), performance-time (r = .54), and muscle strength (r = .38). With linear regression analysis, 54% of the NHP-PhysMobility score could be explained by the performance test (time and exertion), presence of PPS, and muscle strength, whereas strength itself explained only 14% of the NHP-PhysMobility score.

Conclusions: PPS subjects are more prone to fatigue and have more physical mobility problems than non-PPS subjects. In former polio patients, measurements of perceived health problems and performance tests are the most appropriate instruments for functional evaluation.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Fatigue

Title: Fainting and Fatigue: Causation or Coincidence?
Author: Richard L. Bruno, Ph.D.
Affiliation: Post-Polio Rehabilitation and Research Service; Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation.
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Bruno RL. Fainting and Fatigue: Causation or Coincidence? CFIDS Chronicle, 1996; 9(2): 37-39.
Publication Year and Month: 1996

Abstract: As the former autonomic nervous system fellow at New York's Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, and in my current incarnation studying chronic fatigue in polio survivors, I have read with special interest the reports from Johns Hopkins University describing neurally mediated hypotension (NMH) in adults and adolescents with CFIDS.[1] In June 1995, we presented a paper to the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine describing several of our post-polio patients who have had episodes of vasovagal syncope.[2] One patient with a 10-year history of severe, chronic and disabling post-polio fatigue had a history of frequent fainting 35 years before she ever experienced fatigue.

Conclusions: Taken together, these findings suggest that polio survivors may be predisposed to fainting because of poliovirus damage to their brainstem cardiodepressor and blood pressure regulation centers and PVN. However, it is important to note that many viruses besides polioviruses (e.g., the Coxsackie viruses) are also known to frequently and preferentially damage the brainstem, especially the reticular formation.[7,11] People with post-viral fatigue may have similar brainstem and hypothalamic damage as is seen following poliovirus infection, as Costa's finding of decreased brainstem perfusion in CFIDS suggests. Thus, damage to cardioregulatory centers could be responsible for NMH in people with CFIDS. But what of the coincidence of fainting and fatigue?

Outcome of Research:

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Fatigue in post-poliomyelitis syndrome: association with disease-related, behavioral, and psychosocial factors
Author: Trojan DA, Arnold DL, Shapiro S, Bar-Or A, Robinson A, Le Cruguel JP, Narayanan S, Tartaglia MC, Caramanos Z, Da Costa D
Affiliation: Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, 3801 University St., Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B4, Canada
Journal: PM&R: The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Citation: PM R. 2009 May;1(5):442-9. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2009.03.003
Publication Year and Month: 2009 05

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the biopsychosocial correlates of general, physical, and mental fatigue in patients with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) by assessing the additional contribution of potentially modifiable factors after accounting for important nonmodifiable disease-related factors. It was hypothesized that disease-related, behavioral, and psychosocial factors would contribute in different ways to general, physical, and mental fatigue in PPS and that a portion of fatigue would be determined by potentially modifiable factors.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.

SETTING: A tertiary university-affiliated hospital post-polio clinic.

PATIENTS: Fifty-two ambulatory patients with PPS who were not severely depressed were included.

ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS: Potential correlates for fatigue included disease-related factors (acute polio weakness, time since acute polio, PPS duration, muscle strength, pain, forced vital capacity, maximum inspiratory pressure, maximum expiratory pressure, body mass index, disability, fibromyalgia), behavioral factors (physical activity, sleep quality), and psychosocial factors (depression, stress, self-efficacy).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Fatigue was assessed with the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI; assesses fatigue on 5 subscales) and the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS).

RESULTS: Multivariate models were computed for MFI General, Physical, and Mental Fatigue. Age-adjusted multivariate models with nonmodifiable factors included the following predictors of (1) MFI General Fatigue: maximum inspiratory pressure, fibromyalgia, muscle strength; (2) MFI Physical Fatigue: maximum expiratory pressure, muscle strength, age, time since acute polio; and (3) MFI Mental Fatigue: none. The following potentially modifiable predictors made an additional contribution to the models: (1) MFI General Fatigue: stress, depression; (2) MFI Physical Fatigue: physical activity, pain; and (3) MFI Mental Fatigue: stress.

Conclusions: PPS fatigue is multidimensional. Different types of fatigue are determined by different variables. Potentially modifiable factors account for a portion of fatigue in PPS.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Fatigue

Title: Measuring fatigue in polio survivors: content comparison and reliability of the Fatigue Severity Scale and the Checklist Individual Strength
Author: Koopman FS, Brehm MA, Heerkens YF, Nollet F, Beelen A
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. [email protected]
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2014 Sep;46(8):761-7. doi: 10.2340/16501977-1838
Publication Year and Month: 2014 09

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To compare the content of the Fatigue Severity Scale and the subscale "subjective experience of fatigue" of the Checklist Individual Strength, and to assess the reliability of both questionnaires in polio survivors.

DESIGN: Repeated-measures at a 3-week interval.

SUBJECTS: Consecutive series of 61 polio survivors.

METHODS: Concepts contained in the questionnaire items were linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), using standardized linking rules. Reliability analyses included tests of internal consistency, test-retest reliability and measurement error.

RESULTS: Questionnaires differed in the extent to which they measured other than fatigue-related aspects of functioning (represented ICF components: "Body functions": 50% and 80%, "Activities and Participation": 30% and 0%, for the Fatigue Severity Scale and Checklist Individual Strength, respectively). Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were considered acceptable, while measurement error was large (Cronbach's α: 0.90 and 0.93, intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.80 and 0.85, smallest detectable change: 28.7% and 29.4% for the Fatigue Severity Scale and Checklist Individual Strength, respectively).

Conclusions: Considering the acceptable clinimetric properties, we conclude that both the Fatigue Severity Scale and the Checklist Individual Strength can be applied in research on post-poliomyelitis syndrome when measuring fatigue. However, because the 2 questionnaires differ in content they cannot be used interchangeably.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Multidimensional fatigue inventory and post-polio syndrome - a Rasch analysis
Author: Dencker A (1,3), Sunnerhagen KS (1,2), Taft C (1,3), Lundgren-Nilsson Å (1,2)
Affiliation: (1) Centre for Person-centred Care, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; (2) Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; (3) Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 405 30, Sweden - [email protected]
Journal: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Citation: Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2015 Feb 12;13(1):20. doi: 10.1186/s12955-015-0213-9
Publication Year and Month: 2015 02

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a common symptom in post-polio syndrome (PPS) and can have a substantial impact on patients. There is a need for validated questionnaires to assess fatigue in PPS for use in clinical practice and research. The aim with this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Swedish version of Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) in patients with PPS using the Rasch model.

METHODS: A total of 231 patients diagnosed with PPS completed the Swedish MFI-20 questionnaire at post-polio out-patient clinics in Sweden. The mean age of participants was 62 years and 61% were females. Data were tested against assumptions of the Rasch measurement model (i.e. unidimensionality of the scale, good item fit, independency of items and absence of differential item functioning). Reliability was tested with the person separation index (PSI). A transformation of the ordinal total scale scores into an interval scale for use in parametric analysis was performed. Dummy cases with minimum and maximum scoring were used for the transformation table to achieve interval scores between 20 and 100, which are comprehensive limits for the MFI-20 scale.

RESULTS: An initial Rasch analysis of the full scale with 20 items showed misfit to the Rasch model (p < 0.001). Seven items showed slightly disordered thresholds and person estimates were not significantly improved by rescoring items. Analysis of MFI-20 scale with the 5 MFI-20 subscales as testlets showed good fit with a non-significant x (2) value (p = 0.089). PSI for the testlet solution was 0.86. Local dependency was present in all subscales and fit to the Rasch model was solved with testlets within each subscale. PSI ranged from 0.52 to 0.82 in the subscales.

Conclusions: This study shows that the Swedish MFI-20 total scale and subscale scores yield valid and reliable measures of fatigue in persons with post-polio syndrome. The Rasch transformed total scores can be used for parametric statistical analyses in future clinical studies.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Polioencephalitis, Stress And The Etiology Of Post-Polio Sequelae
Author: Richard L. Bruno, Ph.D., Nancy M. Frick, M.Div., and Jesse Cohen, M.D.


Affiliation: Post-Polio Rehabilitation and Research Service; Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation, Harvest Center; Hackensack, New Jersey, Medical Imaging Center of the Oranges; West Orange, New Jersey
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation:
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Post-mortum neurohistopathology from 158 individuals who contracted polio before 1950 are reviewed that document polio virus-induced lesions in reticular formation, hypothalamic, thalamic, peptidergic and monoaminergic neurons in the brain. This polioencephalitis was found to occur in every case of poliomyelitis, even those without evidence of damage to spinal motor neurons. These findings, in combination with data from the 1990 National Post-Polio Survey and new magnetic resonance imaging studies documenting post-encephalitis-like lesions in the brains of polio survivors, are used to present hypotheses that polioencephalitic damage 1) to aging reticular activating system and monoaminergic neurons is responsible for post-polio fatigue and 2) to enkephalin-producing neurons is responsible for hypersensitivity to pain in polio survivors. Hypotheses are also presented that the anti-metabolic action of glucocorticoids on polio-damaged, metabolically vulnerable neurons is responsible for the fatigue and muscle weakness reported by polio survivors during emotional stress. Suggestions for the treatment of Post-Polio Sequelae based on these hypotheses are also presented.

Conclusions: The ability of the polio virus to produce symptoms by its destruction of neurons outside of the anterior horn has been accepted for more than 100 years. It is only our recent experience with PPS that has forced us to recognize that both the people who survived the original viral onslaught and their central nervous systems have been operating for decades under extreme stress. This stress now may be combining with the aging of an extensively damaged but here-to-fore remarkably functional central nervous system to reveal the previously hidden symptoms of polioencephalitis.

The above-presented hypotheses concerning the etiology of PPS fatigue suggest that reductions in both emotional and physical stress will reduce PPS. This is the experience of post-polio clinics throughout the world (36,54,55,56). As PPS fatigue continues to be treated with stress-management, work simplification and energy conservation (see 36,56), the hypotheses are being tested by studying the neuroanatomy, neuroendocrinology and neuropsychology of PPS fatigue. In addition, pharmacological means for stimulating the RAS that do not further metabolically stress its remaining aging, polio-damaged neurons are being tested.

Outcome of Research:

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Post polio syndrome: fatigued patients a specific subgroup?
Author: Östlund G (1), Wahlin Å, Sunnerhagen KS, Borg K
Affiliation: (1) Divison of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2011 Jan;43(1):39-45. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0634
Publication Year and Month: 2011 01

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the characteristics of fatigued and non-fatigued post-polio patients and to define potential subgroups across the fatigue continuum.

DESIGN: Multi-centre study.

SUBJECTS: A total of 143 post-polio patients were subdivided on the basis of percentile distribution into a fatigue group, a intermediate group, and a non-fatigue group, using the Multi Fatigue Inventory 20 general fatigue ratings.

METHODS: Data on background, quality of life, fatigue and pain were collected. Descriptive statistics and correlations in each group and analysis of variance and χ2 for group comparisons were performed. Non-linear regressions were employed to evaluate differences in the strength of associations between physical and mental fatigue, on the one hand, and vitality on the other.

RESULTS: The fatigued group was younger, had shorter polio duration, more pain, higher body mass index, lower quality of life and was more physically and mentally fatigued. A higher proportion of this group had contracted polio after 1956 and was under 65 years of age. Mental fatigue had a relatively higher explanatory value than physical fatigue for differences in vitality in the fatigued group, whereas reversed patterns were seen in the other groups.

Conclusions: Fatigued post-polio patients can be considered as a subgroup.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Psychometric properties of fatigue severity and fatigue impact scales in postpolio patients
Author: Oncu J (1), Atamaz F, Durmaz B, On A
Affiliation: (1) Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Şişli Etfal Teaching Hospital, Istanbul; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Medical Faculty of Ege University, Bornova-Izmir, Turkey.
Journal: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research
Citation: Int J Rehabil Res. 2013 Dec;36(4):339-45. doi: 10.1097/MRR.0b013e3283646b56
Publication Year and Month: 2013 12

Abstract: We evaluate the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS) and to determine whether these scales are potentially applicable for measuring fatigue in postpolio patients (PPS). After the Turkish adaptation of FSS and FIS using a forward-backward procedure, the scales were administered to 48 PPS patients without additional health problems that may induce fatigue. Reliability studies were carried out by determination of intraclass correlation coefficient and internal consistency by the Cronbach-α coefficient. Validity was tested by within-scale analyses and analyses against the external criteria including convergent validity and discriminant validity. Correlations with the Notthingham Health Profile (NHP), fatigue, pain and cramp severity (visual analog scale), and manual muscle testing were performed. Sensitivity to changes was determined by standardized response mean values. All patients completed scales, suggesting their satisfactory acceptance. Reliability studies were satisfactory, with higher Cronbach-α values and intraclass correlation coefficients than 0.80. The FSS score was correlated moderately with visual analog scale-fatigue (r=0.41) and the NHP-energy dimension (r=0.29). All FIS scores except cognitive scores were moderately related to the NHP-social isolation score (r=0.40, 0.37, and 0.43 for FIS-physical, social, and total scores, respectively). There was also a significant correlation between the FIS-physical score and the NHP-energy score (r=0.31). On the basis of the standardized response mean values, response to treatment for these two questionnaires was satisfactory (P=0.00). The Turkish versions of FSS and FIS were reliable, sensitive to clinical changes, and also well accepted by patients with PPS. Although they had somewhat satisfactory convergent validity, the absence of strong correlations did not support the validity entirely.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Fatigue

Title: The Neuropsychology of Post-Polio Fatigue
Author: Richard L. Bruno, Ph.D., Thomas Galski, Ph.D., John DeLuca, Ph.D.
Affiliation:
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Bruno RL, Galski T, DeLuca J. The neuropsychology of post-polio fatigue. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 1993; 74: 1061-1065.
Publication Year and Month: 1993

Abstract: To test the hypothesis that post-polio fatigue and its concomitant cognitive deficits are associated with an impairment of attention and not of higher-level cognitive processes, six carefully screened polio survivors were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests. Only subjects reporting severe fatigue, and not those with mild fatigue, demonstrated clinically significant deficits on all tests of attention, concentration and information processing speed while showing no impairments of cognitive ability or verbal memory. These findings suggest that an impaired ability to maintain attention and rapidly process complex information appears to be a characteristic in polio survivors reporting severe fatigue, since these deficits were documented even when their subjective rating of fatigue was low. This finding supports the hypothesis that a polio-related impairment of selective attention underlies polio survivors' subjective experience of fatigue and cognitive problems.

Conclusions: These findings provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that post-polio fatigue is associated with impaired functioning on neuropsychological tests that assess attention and not on those assessing higher-level cognitive processes. An impaired ability to maintain attention and rapidly process complex information appears to be a characteristic of these polio survivors reporting severe fatigue, since the deficits were documented during the first testing period when the subjective rating of fatigue was still low.

Outcome of Research:

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: The Pathophysiology Of Post-Polio Fatigue: A Role for the Basal Ganglia in the Generation of Fatigue
Author: Richard L. Bruno, Ph.D., Robert Sapolsky, Ph.D., Jerald R. Zimmerman, M.D., and Nancy M. Frick, Lh.D.


Affiliation: Post-Polio Rehabilitation and Research Service; Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation; UMDNJ/New Jersey Medical School, Department of Biological Sciences; Stanford University, Harvest Center; Hackensack, New Jersey
Journal: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Citation: Bruno RL, Sapolsky R, Zimmerman JR, Frick NM. The pathophysiology of a central cause of post-polio fatigue. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1995; 753: 257-275.
Publication Year and Month: 1995

Abstract: Fatigue is the most commonly reported, most debilitating and least studied Post-Polio Sequelae (PPS) affecting the more than 1.63 million American polio survivors. Post-polio fatigue is characterized by subjective reports of problems with attention, cognition and maintaining wakefulness, symptoms reminiscent of nearly two dozen outbreaks during this century of post-viral fatigue syndromes that are related clinically, historically or anatomically to poliovirus infections. These relationships, and recent studies that associate post-polio fatigue with clinically significant deficits on neuropsychologic tests of attention, histopathologic and neuroradiologic evidence of brain lesions and impaired activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, will be reviewed to described a role for the reticular activating system and basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of post-polio fatigue. The possibility of pharmacologic therapy for PPS is also discussed.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Vitality among Swedish patients with post-polio: a physiological phenomenon
Author: Ostlund G (1), Wahlin A (2), Sunnerhagen KS (3,4), Borg K (1)
Affiliation: (1) Divison of Rehabilitation Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Sciences at Danderyd Hospital, Sweden; (2) Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; (3) Institute for Neuroscience and Physiology, Section for Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden; (4) Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway - [email protected]
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2008 Oct;40(9):709-14. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0253
Publication Year and Month: 2008 10

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate vitality and fatigue in post-polio patients, and the relative contributions of physiological and psychological parameters to the level of vitality.

DESIGN: Multi-centre study.

SUBJECTS: One hundred and forty-three patients with post-polio syndrome.

METHODS: Inventories of background, quality of life, fatigue and sleep quality were used. Pain was evaluated using a visual analogue scale. Descriptive statistics and correlations were used for all selected parameters. Hierarchical regression models were constructed to examine predictors of variations in vitality, pain, reduced activity and physical fatigue.

RESULTS: General fatigue accounted for 68% of the variation in vitality. Of this, 91% was accounted for by physiological indicators. After controlling for age, physiological para notmeters accounted for 56.6% and 25%, if entered before and after the psychological parameters, respectively. The impact of the psychological parameters decreased after accounting for the physiological parameters. Physical fatigue, age and sleep quality were associated with variation in pain. Body mass index, pain and sleep quality accounted for differences in reduced activity and physical fatigue.

Conclusions: Vitality in post-polio patients depends on physio-logical parameters. Mental fatigue is not a prominent predictor. Subgroups with or without fatigue, independent of age, need further study.

Outcome of Research: More research required.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


There are currently 17 papers in this category.

Category: Fatigue

Title: Multidimensional fatigue inventory and post-polio syndrome - a Rasch analysis
Author: Dencker A (1,3), Sunnerhagen KS (1,2), Taft C (1,3), Lundgren-Nilsson Å (1,2)
Affiliation: (1) Centre for Person-centred Care, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; (2) Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; (3) Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 405 30, Sweden - [email protected]
Journal: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Citation: Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2015 Feb 12;13(1):20. doi: 10.1186/s12955-015-0213-9
Publication Year and Month: 2015 02

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a common symptom in post-polio syndrome (PPS) and can have a substantial impact on patients. There is a need for validated questionnaires to assess fatigue in PPS for use in clinical practice and research. The aim with this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Swedish version of Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) in patients with PPS using the Rasch model.

METHODS: A total of 231 patients diagnosed with PPS completed the Swedish MFI-20 questionnaire at post-polio out-patient clinics in Sweden. The mean age of participants was 62 years and 61% were females. Data were tested against assumptions of the Rasch measurement model (i.e. unidimensionality of the scale, good item fit, independency of items and absence of differential item functioning). Reliability was tested with the person separation index (PSI). A transformation of the ordinal total scale scores into an interval scale for use in parametric analysis was performed. Dummy cases with minimum and maximum scoring were used for the transformation table to achieve interval scores between 20 and 100, which are comprehensive limits for the MFI-20 scale.

RESULTS: An initial Rasch analysis of the full scale with 20 items showed misfit to the Rasch model (p < 0.001). Seven items showed slightly disordered thresholds and person estimates were not significantly improved by rescoring items. Analysis of MFI-20 scale with the 5 MFI-20 subscales as testlets showed good fit with a non-significant x (2) value (p = 0.089). PSI for the testlet solution was 0.86. Local dependency was present in all subscales and fit to the Rasch model was solved with testlets within each subscale. PSI ranged from 0.52 to 0.82 in the subscales.

Conclusions: This study shows that the Swedish MFI-20 total scale and subscale scores yield valid and reliable measures of fatigue in persons with post-polio syndrome. The Rasch transformed total scores can be used for parametric statistical analyses in future clinical studies.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: A comparison of 4 questionnaires to measure fatigue in postpoliomyelitis syndrome
Author: Horemans HL, Nollet F, Beelen A, Lankhorst GJ
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004 Mar;85(3):392-8
Publication Year and Month: 2004 03

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the comparability and reproducibility of 4 questionnaires used to measure fatigue in postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS).

DESIGN: Repeated-measures at a 3-week interval.

SETTING: University hospital.

PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of 65 patients with PPS.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) energy category, the Polio Problem List (PPL) fatigue item, and the Dutch Short Fatigue Questionnaire (SFQ).

RESULTS: Correlations of scores between questionnaires were all significant (P<.01) and ranged from .43 (between the NHP energy category and the PPL fatigue item) to .68 (between the PPL fatigue item and the SFQ). Scores on the second visit, normalized to a 0 to 100 scale, were: FSS, 78+/-15; NHP energy category, 47+/-35; PPL fatigue item, 81+/-17; and SFQ, 65+/-22. Except for the difference between the FSS and the PPL fatigue item, the differences in scores between the questionnaires were significant (P<.01). Scale analysis indicated that all questionnaires measured the same unidimensional construct. The reproducibility of the FSS, the PPL fatigue item, and the SFQ was moderate. The smallest detectable change was 1.5 points for the FSS, 2.0 points for the PPL fatigue item, and 1.9 points for the SFQ.

Conclusions: Although the questionnaires measure the same fatigue construct in PPS, the results are not interchangeable because the ranges of measurement differ. The NHP energy category, in particular, appeared to have a high detection threshold. The moderate reproducibility of the questionnaires indicates a lack of precision, especially when applied at the individual patient level.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Measuring fatigue in polio survivors: content comparison and reliability of the Fatigue Severity Scale and the Checklist Individual Strength
Author: Koopman FS, Brehm MA, Heerkens YF, Nollet F, Beelen A
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. [email protected]
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2014 Sep;46(8):761-7. doi: 10.2340/16501977-1838
Publication Year and Month: 2014 09

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To compare the content of the Fatigue Severity Scale and the subscale "subjective experience of fatigue" of the Checklist Individual Strength, and to assess the reliability of both questionnaires in polio survivors.

DESIGN: Repeated-measures at a 3-week interval.

SUBJECTS: Consecutive series of 61 polio survivors.

METHODS: Concepts contained in the questionnaire items were linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), using standardized linking rules. Reliability analyses included tests of internal consistency, test-retest reliability and measurement error.

RESULTS: Questionnaires differed in the extent to which they measured other than fatigue-related aspects of functioning (represented ICF components: "Body functions": 50% and 80%, "Activities and Participation": 30% and 0%, for the Fatigue Severity Scale and Checklist Individual Strength, respectively). Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were considered acceptable, while measurement error was large (Cronbach's α: 0.90 and 0.93, intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.80 and 0.85, smallest detectable change: 28.7% and 29.4% for the Fatigue Severity Scale and Checklist Individual Strength, respectively).

Conclusions: Considering the acceptable clinimetric properties, we conclude that both the Fatigue Severity Scale and the Checklist Individual Strength can be applied in research on post-poliomyelitis syndrome when measuring fatigue. However, because the 2 questionnaires differ in content they cannot be used interchangeably.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Disability and functional assessment in former polio patients with and without postpolio syndrome
Author: Nollet F, Beelen A, Prins MH, de Visser M, Sargeant AJ, Lankhorst GJ, de Jong BA
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999 Feb;80(2):136-43
Publication Year and Month: 1999 02

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To compare perceived health problems and disability in former polio subjects with postpolio syndrome (PPS) and those without postpolio syndrome (non-PPS), and to evaluate perceived health problems, disability, physical performance, and muscle strength.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey; partially blinded data collection.

SUBJECTS: One hundred three former polio subjects, aged 32 to 60yrs. This volunteer sample came from referrals and patient contacts. Criterion for PPS: new muscle weakness among symptoms.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), adapted D-code of the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps, performance test, and muscle strength assessment.

RESULTS: PPS subjects (n = 76) showed higher scores (p < .001) than non-PPS subjects (n = 27) within the NHP categories of physical mobility, energy, and pain. On a 16-item Polio Problems List, 78% of PPS subjects selected fatigue as their major problem, followed by walking outdoors (46%) and climbing stairs (41%). The disabilities of PPS subjects were mainly seen in physical and social functioning. No differences in manually tested strength were found between patient groups. PPS subjects needed significantly more time for the performance test than non-PPS subjects and their perceived exertion was higher. Perceived health problems (NHP-PhysMobility) correlated significantly with physical disability (r = .66), performance-time (r = .54), and muscle strength (r = .38). With linear regression analysis, 54% of the NHP-PhysMobility score could be explained by the performance test (time and exertion), presence of PPS, and muscle strength, whereas strength itself explained only 14% of the NHP-PhysMobility score.

Conclusions: PPS subjects are more prone to fatigue and have more physical mobility problems than non-PPS subjects. In former polio patients, measurements of perceived health problems and performance tests are the most appropriate instruments for functional evaluation.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Fatigue

Title: Psychometric properties of fatigue severity and fatigue impact scales in postpolio patients
Author: Oncu J (1), Atamaz F, Durmaz B, On A
Affiliation: (1) Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Şişli Etfal Teaching Hospital, Istanbul; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Medical Faculty of Ege University, Bornova-Izmir, Turkey.
Journal: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research
Citation: Int J Rehabil Res. 2013 Dec;36(4):339-45. doi: 10.1097/MRR.0b013e3283646b56
Publication Year and Month: 2013 12

Abstract: We evaluate the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS) and to determine whether these scales are potentially applicable for measuring fatigue in postpolio patients (PPS). After the Turkish adaptation of FSS and FIS using a forward-backward procedure, the scales were administered to 48 PPS patients without additional health problems that may induce fatigue. Reliability studies were carried out by determination of intraclass correlation coefficient and internal consistency by the Cronbach-α coefficient. Validity was tested by within-scale analyses and analyses against the external criteria including convergent validity and discriminant validity. Correlations with the Notthingham Health Profile (NHP), fatigue, pain and cramp severity (visual analog scale), and manual muscle testing were performed. Sensitivity to changes was determined by standardized response mean values. All patients completed scales, suggesting their satisfactory acceptance. Reliability studies were satisfactory, with higher Cronbach-α values and intraclass correlation coefficients than 0.80. The FSS score was correlated moderately with visual analog scale-fatigue (r=0.41) and the NHP-energy dimension (r=0.29). All FIS scores except cognitive scores were moderately related to the NHP-social isolation score (r=0.40, 0.37, and 0.43 for FIS-physical, social, and total scores, respectively). There was also a significant correlation between the FIS-physical score and the NHP-energy score (r=0.31). On the basis of the standardized response mean values, response to treatment for these two questionnaires was satisfactory (P=0.00). The Turkish versions of FSS and FIS were reliable, sensitive to clinical changes, and also well accepted by patients with PPS. Although they had somewhat satisfactory convergent validity, the absence of strong correlations did not support the validity entirely.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Fatigue

Title: Vitality among Swedish patients with post-polio: a physiological phenomenon
Author: Ostlund G (1), Wahlin A (2), Sunnerhagen KS (3,4), Borg K (1)
Affiliation: (1) Divison of Rehabilitation Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Sciences at Danderyd Hospital, Sweden; (2) Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; (3) Institute for Neuroscience and Physiology, Section for Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden; (4) Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway - [email protected]
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2008 Oct;40(9):709-14. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0253
Publication Year and Month: 2008 10

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate vitality and fatigue in post-polio patients, and the relative contributions of physiological and psychological parameters to the level of vitality.

DESIGN: Multi-centre study.

SUBJECTS: One hundred and forty-three patients with post-polio syndrome.

METHODS: Inventories of background, quality of life, fatigue and sleep quality were used. Pain was evaluated using a visual analogue scale. Descriptive statistics and correlations were used for all selected parameters. Hierarchical regression models were constructed to examine predictors of variations in vitality, pain, reduced activity and physical fatigue.

RESULTS: General fatigue accounted for 68% of the variation in vitality. Of this, 91% was accounted for by physiological indicators. After controlling for age, physiological para notmeters accounted for 56.6% and 25%, if entered before and after the psychological parameters, respectively. The impact of the psychological parameters decreased after accounting for the physiological parameters. Physical fatigue, age and sleep quality were associated with variation in pain. Body mass index, pain and sleep quality accounted for differences in reduced activity and physical fatigue.

Conclusions: Vitality in post-polio patients depends on physio-logical parameters. Mental fatigue is not a prominent predictor. Subgroups with or without fatigue, independent of age, need further study.

Outcome of Research: More research required.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Post polio syndrome: fatigued patients a specific subgroup?
Author: Östlund G (1), Wahlin Å, Sunnerhagen KS, Borg K
Affiliation: (1) Divison of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2011 Jan;43(1):39-45. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0634
Publication Year and Month: 2011 01

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the characteristics of fatigued and non-fatigued post-polio patients and to define potential subgroups across the fatigue continuum.

DESIGN: Multi-centre study.

SUBJECTS: A total of 143 post-polio patients were subdivided on the basis of percentile distribution into a fatigue group, a intermediate group, and a non-fatigue group, using the Multi Fatigue Inventory 20 general fatigue ratings.

METHODS: Data on background, quality of life, fatigue and pain were collected. Descriptive statistics and correlations in each group and analysis of variance and χ2 for group comparisons were performed. Non-linear regressions were employed to evaluate differences in the strength of associations between physical and mental fatigue, on the one hand, and vitality on the other.

RESULTS: The fatigued group was younger, had shorter polio duration, more pain, higher body mass index, lower quality of life and was more physically and mentally fatigued. A higher proportion of this group had contracted polio after 1956 and was under 65 years of age. Mental fatigue had a relatively higher explanatory value than physical fatigue for differences in vitality in the fatigued group, whereas reversed patterns were seen in the other groups.

Conclusions: Fatigued post-polio patients can be considered as a subgroup.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Cognitive functioning in post‐polio patients with and without general fatigue
Author: Ostlund G, Borg K, Wahlin A.
Affiliation: Department of Public Health Science, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2005 May;37(3):147-51
Publication Year and Month: 2005 03

Abstract: OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: This study examined 2 main hypotheses. First, whether patients with post-polio suffering from general fatigue (n=10) demonstrate cognitive deficits compared with patients with post-polio without general fatigue (n=10). Secondly, by systematically varied test order administration we examined whether such differences varied as a function of increasing cognitive load during cognitive testing.

SUBJECTS: Twenty patients diagnosed with post-polio syndrome, 10 with general fatigue and 10 without fatigue.

RESULTS: Neither of the 2 hypotheses were confirmed. The group with general fatigue reported elevated levels of depression. However, no systematic association between level of depression and cognitive performance could be detected.

Conclusions: The results of this study provide no evidence that general fatigue or cognitive load affects cognitive functioning in post-polio.

Outcome of Research: Not effective.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Activity and post-polio fatigue
Author: Packer TL, Martins I, Krefting L, Brouwer B
Affiliation: Division of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Therapy, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1223-6
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Fatigue was studied in 12 subjects with post-polio sequelae (PPS). Results of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) demonstrated a mean score of 4.8 +/- 1.6 (non-disabled scores = 2.3 +/- 0.7). The Human Activity Profile (HAP) was not sensitive enough to measure fatigue. Fifty percent of subjects scored below the first percentile based on age and sex matched norms. The Activity Record (ACTRE) results revealed that subjects spent 5% of their time resting and 1% in planning or preparation activities. Fatigue peaked in the late morning or early afternoon and was relieved by rest periods. Use of energy conservation and work simplification skills along with frequent rest periods was suggested as a possible method for managing PPS fatigue.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

Availability of Paper:

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available):


Category: Fatigue

Title: Fainting and Fatigue: Causation or Coincidence?
Author: Richard L. Bruno, Ph.D.
Affiliation: Post-Polio Rehabilitation and Research Service; Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation.
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Bruno RL. Fainting and Fatigue: Causation or Coincidence? CFIDS Chronicle, 1996; 9(2): 37-39.
Publication Year and Month: 1996

Abstract: As the former autonomic nervous system fellow at New York's Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, and in my current incarnation studying chronic fatigue in polio survivors, I have read with special interest the reports from Johns Hopkins University describing neurally mediated hypotension (NMH) in adults and adolescents with CFIDS.[1] In June 1995, we presented a paper to the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine describing several of our post-polio patients who have had episodes of vasovagal syncope.[2] One patient with a 10-year history of severe, chronic and disabling post-polio fatigue had a history of frequent fainting 35 years before she ever experienced fatigue.

Conclusions: Taken together, these findings suggest that polio survivors may be predisposed to fainting because of poliovirus damage to their brainstem cardiodepressor and blood pressure regulation centers and PVN. However, it is important to note that many viruses besides polioviruses (e.g., the Coxsackie viruses) are also known to frequently and preferentially damage the brainstem, especially the reticular formation.[7,11] People with post-viral fatigue may have similar brainstem and hypothalamic damage as is seen following poliovirus infection, as Costa's finding of decreased brainstem perfusion in CFIDS suggests. Thus, damage to cardioregulatory centers could be responsible for NMH in people with CFIDS. But what of the coincidence of fainting and fatigue?

Outcome of Research:

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Polioencephalitis, Stress And The Etiology Of Post-Polio Sequelae
Author: Richard L. Bruno, Ph.D., Nancy M. Frick, M.Div., and Jesse Cohen, M.D.


Affiliation: Post-Polio Rehabilitation and Research Service; Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation, Harvest Center; Hackensack, New Jersey, Medical Imaging Center of the Oranges; West Orange, New Jersey
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation:
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Post-mortum neurohistopathology from 158 individuals who contracted polio before 1950 are reviewed that document polio virus-induced lesions in reticular formation, hypothalamic, thalamic, peptidergic and monoaminergic neurons in the brain. This polioencephalitis was found to occur in every case of poliomyelitis, even those without evidence of damage to spinal motor neurons. These findings, in combination with data from the 1990 National Post-Polio Survey and new magnetic resonance imaging studies documenting post-encephalitis-like lesions in the brains of polio survivors, are used to present hypotheses that polioencephalitic damage 1) to aging reticular activating system and monoaminergic neurons is responsible for post-polio fatigue and 2) to enkephalin-producing neurons is responsible for hypersensitivity to pain in polio survivors. Hypotheses are also presented that the anti-metabolic action of glucocorticoids on polio-damaged, metabolically vulnerable neurons is responsible for the fatigue and muscle weakness reported by polio survivors during emotional stress. Suggestions for the treatment of Post-Polio Sequelae based on these hypotheses are also presented.

Conclusions: The ability of the polio virus to produce symptoms by its destruction of neurons outside of the anterior horn has been accepted for more than 100 years. It is only our recent experience with PPS that has forced us to recognize that both the people who survived the original viral onslaught and their central nervous systems have been operating for decades under extreme stress. This stress now may be combining with the aging of an extensively damaged but here-to-fore remarkably functional central nervous system to reveal the previously hidden symptoms of polioencephalitis.

The above-presented hypotheses concerning the etiology of PPS fatigue suggest that reductions in both emotional and physical stress will reduce PPS. This is the experience of post-polio clinics throughout the world (36,54,55,56). As PPS fatigue continues to be treated with stress-management, work simplification and energy conservation (see 36,56), the hypotheses are being tested by studying the neuroanatomy, neuroendocrinology and neuropsychology of PPS fatigue. In addition, pharmacological means for stimulating the RAS that do not further metabolically stress its remaining aging, polio-damaged neurons are being tested.

Outcome of Research:

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: The Pathophysiology Of Post-Polio Fatigue: A Role for the Basal Ganglia in the Generation of Fatigue
Author: Richard L. Bruno, Ph.D., Robert Sapolsky, Ph.D., Jerald R. Zimmerman, M.D., and Nancy M. Frick, Lh.D.


Affiliation: Post-Polio Rehabilitation and Research Service; Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation; UMDNJ/New Jersey Medical School, Department of Biological Sciences; Stanford University, Harvest Center; Hackensack, New Jersey
Journal: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Citation: Bruno RL, Sapolsky R, Zimmerman JR, Frick NM. The pathophysiology of a central cause of post-polio fatigue. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1995; 753: 257-275.
Publication Year and Month: 1995

Abstract: Fatigue is the most commonly reported, most debilitating and least studied Post-Polio Sequelae (PPS) affecting the more than 1.63 million American polio survivors. Post-polio fatigue is characterized by subjective reports of problems with attention, cognition and maintaining wakefulness, symptoms reminiscent of nearly two dozen outbreaks during this century of post-viral fatigue syndromes that are related clinically, historically or anatomically to poliovirus infections. These relationships, and recent studies that associate post-polio fatigue with clinically significant deficits on neuropsychologic tests of attention, histopathologic and neuroradiologic evidence of brain lesions and impaired activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, will be reviewed to described a role for the reticular activating system and basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of post-polio fatigue. The possibility of pharmacologic therapy for PPS is also discussed.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: The Neuropsychology of Post-Polio Fatigue
Author: Richard L. Bruno, Ph.D., Thomas Galski, Ph.D., John DeLuca, Ph.D.
Affiliation:
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Bruno RL, Galski T, DeLuca J. The neuropsychology of post-polio fatigue. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 1993; 74: 1061-1065.
Publication Year and Month: 1993

Abstract: To test the hypothesis that post-polio fatigue and its concomitant cognitive deficits are associated with an impairment of attention and not of higher-level cognitive processes, six carefully screened polio survivors were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests. Only subjects reporting severe fatigue, and not those with mild fatigue, demonstrated clinically significant deficits on all tests of attention, concentration and information processing speed while showing no impairments of cognitive ability or verbal memory. These findings suggest that an impaired ability to maintain attention and rapidly process complex information appears to be a characteristic in polio survivors reporting severe fatigue, since these deficits were documented even when their subjective rating of fatigue was low. This finding supports the hypothesis that a polio-related impairment of selective attention underlies polio survivors' subjective experience of fatigue and cognitive problems.

Conclusions: These findings provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that post-polio fatigue is associated with impaired functioning on neuropsychological tests that assess attention and not on those assessing higher-level cognitive processes. An impaired ability to maintain attention and rapidly process complex information appears to be a characteristic of these polio survivors reporting severe fatigue, since the deficits were documented during the first testing period when the subjective rating of fatigue was still low.

Outcome of Research:

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Circadian fatigue or unrecognized restless legs syndrome? The post-polio syndrome model
Author: Romigi A, Maestri M
Affiliation: Neurophysiopathology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, Sleep Medicine Centre, Tor Vergata University and Hospital , Rome , Italy ; IRCCS Neuromed , Pozzilli , Italy; Neurology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa , Pisa , Italy.
Journal: Frontiers in Neurology
Citation: Front Neurol. 2014 Jul 7;5:115. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2014.00115
Publication Year and Month: 2014 07

Abstract: This paper does not have an abstract.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: A 5-year longitudinal study of fatigue in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis
Author: Tersteeg IM (1), Koopman FS, Stolwijk-Swüste JM, Beelen A, Nollet F; CARPA Study Group
Affiliation: (1) Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. [email protected]
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011 Jun;92(6):899-904. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2011.01.005
Publication Year and Month: 2011 06

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To study the severity and 5-year course of fatigue in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis (LOSP) and to identify physical and psychosocial determinants of fatigue.

DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with 5 measurements over 5 years.

SETTING: University hospital.

PARTICIPANTS: Patients with LOSP (N=168); 89% of the subjects completed the study.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fatigue assessed with the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Potential determinants were perceived physical functioning, bodily pain and mental health, extent of paresis, walking capacity, comorbidity, sleeping disorders, coping, and social support. Associations were investigated by multivariable longitudinal analysis using generalized estimating equations.

RESULTS: The mean FSS score ± SD at baseline was 5.1±1.4, which did not change significantly during the 5-year follow-up. Reduced physical functioning, increased bodily pain, reduced sleep quality, more psychologic distress, and higher task-oriented coping were independently associated with fatigue. The extent of paresis and walking capacity were strongly associated with physical functioning.

Conclusions: Fatigue is severe and persistent in patients with LOSP due to physical and psychologic factors, which has implications for counseling and treatment. In addition to the commonly applied interventions targeting physical aspects, psychologic interventions are a potential area for reducing fatigue.

Outcome of Research: Effective

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Brain volume and fatigue in patients with postpoliomyelitis syndrome
Author: Trojan DA (1), Narayanan S (2), Francis SJ (3), Caramanos Z (4), Robinson A (5), Cardoso M (6), Arnold DL (7)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, 3801 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B4; (2) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Unit, McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Unit, McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (4) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Unit, McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (5) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (6) Clinical Research Unit, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (7) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Journal: PM&R: The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Citation: PM R. 2014 Mar;6(3):215-20. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2013.09.009
Publication Year and Month: 2014 03

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Acute paralytic poliomyelitis is associated with encephalitis. Early brain inflammation may produce permanent neuronal injury with brain atrophy, which may result in symptoms such as fatigue. Brain volume has not been assessed in postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS).

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether brain volume is decreased compared with that in normal controls, and whether brain volume is associated with fatigue in patients with PPS.

DESIGN: A cross-sectional study.

SETTING: Tertiary university-affiliated hospital postpolio and multiple sclerosis (MS) clinics.

PARTICIPANTS: Forty-nine ambulatory patients with PPS, 28 normal controls, and 53 ambulatory patients with MS.

METHODS: We studied the brains of all study subjects with magnetic resonance imaging by using a 1.5 T Siemens Sonata machine. The subjects completed the Fatigue Severity Scale. Multivariable linear regression models were computed to evaluate the contribution of PPS and MS compared with controls to explain brain volume.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Normalized brain volume (NBV) was assessed with the automated program Structured Image Evaluation, using Normalization, of Atrophy method from the acquired magnetic resonance images. This method may miss brainstem atrophy.

RESULTS: Technically adequate NBV measurements were available for 42 patients with PPS, 27 controls, and 49 patients with MS. The mean (standard deviation) age was 60.9 ± 7.6 years for patients with PPS, 47.0 ± 14.6 years for controls, and 46.2 ± 9.4 years for patients with MS. In a multivariable model adjusted for age and gender, NBV was not significantly different in patients with PPS compared with that in controls (P = .28). As expected, when using a similar model for patients with MS, NBV was significantly decreased compared with that in controls (P = .006). There was no significant association between NBV and fatigue in subjects with PPS (Spearman ρ = 0.23; P = .19).

Conclusions: No significant whole-brain atrophy was found, and no association of brain volume with fatigue in PPS. Brain atrophy was confirmed in MS. It is possible that brainstem atrophy was not recognized by this study.

Outcome of Research: Not effective

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Fatigue

Title: Fatigue in post-poliomyelitis syndrome: association with disease-related, behavioral, and psychosocial factors
Author: Trojan DA, Arnold DL, Shapiro S, Bar-Or A, Robinson A, Le Cruguel JP, Narayanan S, Tartaglia MC, Caramanos Z, Da Costa D
Affiliation: Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, 3801 University St., Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B4, Canada
Journal: PM&R: The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Citation: PM R. 2009 May;1(5):442-9. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2009.03.003
Publication Year and Month: 2009 05

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the biopsychosocial correlates of general, physical, and mental fatigue in patients with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) by assessing the additional contribution of potentially modifiable factors after accounting for important nonmodifiable disease-related factors. It was hypothesized that disease-related, behavioral, and psychosocial factors would contribute in different ways to general, physical, and mental fatigue in PPS and that a portion of fatigue would be determined by potentially modifiable factors.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.

SETTING: A tertiary university-affiliated hospital post-polio clinic.

PATIENTS: Fifty-two ambulatory patients with PPS who were not severely depressed were included.

ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS: Potential correlates for fatigue included disease-related factors (acute polio weakness, time since acute polio, PPS duration, muscle strength, pain, forced vital capacity, maximum inspiratory pressure, maximum expiratory pressure, body mass index, disability, fibromyalgia), behavioral factors (physical activity, sleep quality), and psychosocial factors (depression, stress, self-efficacy).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Fatigue was assessed with the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI; assesses fatigue on 5 subscales) and the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS).

RESULTS: Multivariate models were computed for MFI General, Physical, and Mental Fatigue. Age-adjusted multivariate models with nonmodifiable factors included the following predictors of (1) MFI General Fatigue: maximum inspiratory pressure, fibromyalgia, muscle strength; (2) MFI Physical Fatigue: maximum expiratory pressure, muscle strength, age, time since acute polio; and (3) MFI Mental Fatigue: none. The following potentially modifiable predictors made an additional contribution to the models: (1) MFI General Fatigue: stress, depression; (2) MFI Physical Fatigue: physical activity, pain; and (3) MFI Mental Fatigue: stress.

Conclusions: PPS fatigue is multidimensional. Different types of fatigue are determined by different variables. Potentially modifiable factors account for a portion of fatigue in PPS.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


There are currently 17 papers in this category.

Category: Fatigue

Title: The Pathophysiology Of Post-Polio Fatigue: A Role for the Basal Ganglia in the Generation of Fatigue
Author: Richard L. Bruno, Ph.D., Robert Sapolsky, Ph.D., Jerald R. Zimmerman, M.D., and Nancy M. Frick, Lh.D.


Affiliation: Post-Polio Rehabilitation and Research Service; Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation; UMDNJ/New Jersey Medical School, Department of Biological Sciences; Stanford University, Harvest Center; Hackensack, New Jersey
Journal: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Citation: Bruno RL, Sapolsky R, Zimmerman JR, Frick NM. The pathophysiology of a central cause of post-polio fatigue. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1995; 753: 257-275.
Publication Year and Month: 1995

Abstract: Fatigue is the most commonly reported, most debilitating and least studied Post-Polio Sequelae (PPS) affecting the more than 1.63 million American polio survivors. Post-polio fatigue is characterized by subjective reports of problems with attention, cognition and maintaining wakefulness, symptoms reminiscent of nearly two dozen outbreaks during this century of post-viral fatigue syndromes that are related clinically, historically or anatomically to poliovirus infections. These relationships, and recent studies that associate post-polio fatigue with clinically significant deficits on neuropsychologic tests of attention, histopathologic and neuroradiologic evidence of brain lesions and impaired activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, will be reviewed to described a role for the reticular activating system and basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of post-polio fatigue. The possibility of pharmacologic therapy for PPS is also discussed.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Disability and functional assessment in former polio patients with and without postpolio syndrome
Author: Nollet F, Beelen A, Prins MH, de Visser M, Sargeant AJ, Lankhorst GJ, de Jong BA
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999 Feb;80(2):136-43
Publication Year and Month: 1999 02

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To compare perceived health problems and disability in former polio subjects with postpolio syndrome (PPS) and those without postpolio syndrome (non-PPS), and to evaluate perceived health problems, disability, physical performance, and muscle strength.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey; partially blinded data collection.

SUBJECTS: One hundred three former polio subjects, aged 32 to 60yrs. This volunteer sample came from referrals and patient contacts. Criterion for PPS: new muscle weakness among symptoms.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), adapted D-code of the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps, performance test, and muscle strength assessment.

RESULTS: PPS subjects (n = 76) showed higher scores (p < .001) than non-PPS subjects (n = 27) within the NHP categories of physical mobility, energy, and pain. On a 16-item Polio Problems List, 78% of PPS subjects selected fatigue as their major problem, followed by walking outdoors (46%) and climbing stairs (41%). The disabilities of PPS subjects were mainly seen in physical and social functioning. No differences in manually tested strength were found between patient groups. PPS subjects needed significantly more time for the performance test than non-PPS subjects and their perceived exertion was higher. Perceived health problems (NHP-PhysMobility) correlated significantly with physical disability (r = .66), performance-time (r = .54), and muscle strength (r = .38). With linear regression analysis, 54% of the NHP-PhysMobility score could be explained by the performance test (time and exertion), presence of PPS, and muscle strength, whereas strength itself explained only 14% of the NHP-PhysMobility score.

Conclusions: PPS subjects are more prone to fatigue and have more physical mobility problems than non-PPS subjects. In former polio patients, measurements of perceived health problems and performance tests are the most appropriate instruments for functional evaluation.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Fatigue

Title: A 5-year longitudinal study of fatigue in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis
Author: Tersteeg IM (1), Koopman FS, Stolwijk-Swüste JM, Beelen A, Nollet F; CARPA Study Group
Affiliation: (1) Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. [email protected]
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011 Jun;92(6):899-904. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2011.01.005
Publication Year and Month: 2011 06

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To study the severity and 5-year course of fatigue in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis (LOSP) and to identify physical and psychosocial determinants of fatigue.

DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with 5 measurements over 5 years.

SETTING: University hospital.

PARTICIPANTS: Patients with LOSP (N=168); 89% of the subjects completed the study.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fatigue assessed with the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Potential determinants were perceived physical functioning, bodily pain and mental health, extent of paresis, walking capacity, comorbidity, sleeping disorders, coping, and social support. Associations were investigated by multivariable longitudinal analysis using generalized estimating equations.

RESULTS: The mean FSS score ± SD at baseline was 5.1±1.4, which did not change significantly during the 5-year follow-up. Reduced physical functioning, increased bodily pain, reduced sleep quality, more psychologic distress, and higher task-oriented coping were independently associated with fatigue. The extent of paresis and walking capacity were strongly associated with physical functioning.

Conclusions: Fatigue is severe and persistent in patients with LOSP due to physical and psychologic factors, which has implications for counseling and treatment. In addition to the commonly applied interventions targeting physical aspects, psychologic interventions are a potential area for reducing fatigue.

Outcome of Research: Effective

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: A comparison of 4 questionnaires to measure fatigue in postpoliomyelitis syndrome
Author: Horemans HL, Nollet F, Beelen A, Lankhorst GJ
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004 Mar;85(3):392-8
Publication Year and Month: 2004 03

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the comparability and reproducibility of 4 questionnaires used to measure fatigue in postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS).

DESIGN: Repeated-measures at a 3-week interval.

SETTING: University hospital.

PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of 65 patients with PPS.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) energy category, the Polio Problem List (PPL) fatigue item, and the Dutch Short Fatigue Questionnaire (SFQ).

RESULTS: Correlations of scores between questionnaires were all significant (P<.01) and ranged from .43 (between the NHP energy category and the PPL fatigue item) to .68 (between the PPL fatigue item and the SFQ). Scores on the second visit, normalized to a 0 to 100 scale, were: FSS, 78+/-15; NHP energy category, 47+/-35; PPL fatigue item, 81+/-17; and SFQ, 65+/-22. Except for the difference between the FSS and the PPL fatigue item, the differences in scores between the questionnaires were significant (P<.01). Scale analysis indicated that all questionnaires measured the same unidimensional construct. The reproducibility of the FSS, the PPL fatigue item, and the SFQ was moderate. The smallest detectable change was 1.5 points for the FSS, 2.0 points for the PPL fatigue item, and 1.9 points for the SFQ.

Conclusions: Although the questionnaires measure the same fatigue construct in PPS, the results are not interchangeable because the ranges of measurement differ. The NHP energy category, in particular, appeared to have a high detection threshold. The moderate reproducibility of the questionnaires indicates a lack of precision, especially when applied at the individual patient level.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: The Neuropsychology of Post-Polio Fatigue
Author: Richard L. Bruno, Ph.D., Thomas Galski, Ph.D., John DeLuca, Ph.D.
Affiliation:
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Bruno RL, Galski T, DeLuca J. The neuropsychology of post-polio fatigue. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 1993; 74: 1061-1065.
Publication Year and Month: 1993

Abstract: To test the hypothesis that post-polio fatigue and its concomitant cognitive deficits are associated with an impairment of attention and not of higher-level cognitive processes, six carefully screened polio survivors were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests. Only subjects reporting severe fatigue, and not those with mild fatigue, demonstrated clinically significant deficits on all tests of attention, concentration and information processing speed while showing no impairments of cognitive ability or verbal memory. These findings suggest that an impaired ability to maintain attention and rapidly process complex information appears to be a characteristic in polio survivors reporting severe fatigue, since these deficits were documented even when their subjective rating of fatigue was low. This finding supports the hypothesis that a polio-related impairment of selective attention underlies polio survivors' subjective experience of fatigue and cognitive problems.

Conclusions: These findings provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that post-polio fatigue is associated with impaired functioning on neuropsychological tests that assess attention and not on those assessing higher-level cognitive processes. An impaired ability to maintain attention and rapidly process complex information appears to be a characteristic of these polio survivors reporting severe fatigue, since the deficits were documented during the first testing period when the subjective rating of fatigue was still low.

Outcome of Research:

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Circadian fatigue or unrecognized restless legs syndrome? The post-polio syndrome model
Author: Romigi A, Maestri M
Affiliation: Neurophysiopathology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, Sleep Medicine Centre, Tor Vergata University and Hospital , Rome , Italy ; IRCCS Neuromed , Pozzilli , Italy; Neurology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa , Pisa , Italy.
Journal: Frontiers in Neurology
Citation: Front Neurol. 2014 Jul 7;5:115. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2014.00115
Publication Year and Month: 2014 07

Abstract: This paper does not have an abstract.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Multidimensional fatigue inventory and post-polio syndrome - a Rasch analysis
Author: Dencker A (1,3), Sunnerhagen KS (1,2), Taft C (1,3), Lundgren-Nilsson Å (1,2)
Affiliation: (1) Centre for Person-centred Care, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; (2) Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; (3) Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 405 30, Sweden - [email protected]
Journal: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Citation: Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2015 Feb 12;13(1):20. doi: 10.1186/s12955-015-0213-9
Publication Year and Month: 2015 02

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a common symptom in post-polio syndrome (PPS) and can have a substantial impact on patients. There is a need for validated questionnaires to assess fatigue in PPS for use in clinical practice and research. The aim with this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Swedish version of Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) in patients with PPS using the Rasch model.

METHODS: A total of 231 patients diagnosed with PPS completed the Swedish MFI-20 questionnaire at post-polio out-patient clinics in Sweden. The mean age of participants was 62 years and 61% were females. Data were tested against assumptions of the Rasch measurement model (i.e. unidimensionality of the scale, good item fit, independency of items and absence of differential item functioning). Reliability was tested with the person separation index (PSI). A transformation of the ordinal total scale scores into an interval scale for use in parametric analysis was performed. Dummy cases with minimum and maximum scoring were used for the transformation table to achieve interval scores between 20 and 100, which are comprehensive limits for the MFI-20 scale.

RESULTS: An initial Rasch analysis of the full scale with 20 items showed misfit to the Rasch model (p < 0.001). Seven items showed slightly disordered thresholds and person estimates were not significantly improved by rescoring items. Analysis of MFI-20 scale with the 5 MFI-20 subscales as testlets showed good fit with a non-significant x (2) value (p = 0.089). PSI for the testlet solution was 0.86. Local dependency was present in all subscales and fit to the Rasch model was solved with testlets within each subscale. PSI ranged from 0.52 to 0.82 in the subscales.

Conclusions: This study shows that the Swedish MFI-20 total scale and subscale scores yield valid and reliable measures of fatigue in persons with post-polio syndrome. The Rasch transformed total scores can be used for parametric statistical analyses in future clinical studies.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Psychometric properties of fatigue severity and fatigue impact scales in postpolio patients
Author: Oncu J (1), Atamaz F, Durmaz B, On A
Affiliation: (1) Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Şişli Etfal Teaching Hospital, Istanbul; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Medical Faculty of Ege University, Bornova-Izmir, Turkey.
Journal: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research
Citation: Int J Rehabil Res. 2013 Dec;36(4):339-45. doi: 10.1097/MRR.0b013e3283646b56
Publication Year and Month: 2013 12

Abstract: We evaluate the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS) and to determine whether these scales are potentially applicable for measuring fatigue in postpolio patients (PPS). After the Turkish adaptation of FSS and FIS using a forward-backward procedure, the scales were administered to 48 PPS patients without additional health problems that may induce fatigue. Reliability studies were carried out by determination of intraclass correlation coefficient and internal consistency by the Cronbach-α coefficient. Validity was tested by within-scale analyses and analyses against the external criteria including convergent validity and discriminant validity. Correlations with the Notthingham Health Profile (NHP), fatigue, pain and cramp severity (visual analog scale), and manual muscle testing were performed. Sensitivity to changes was determined by standardized response mean values. All patients completed scales, suggesting their satisfactory acceptance. Reliability studies were satisfactory, with higher Cronbach-α values and intraclass correlation coefficients than 0.80. The FSS score was correlated moderately with visual analog scale-fatigue (r=0.41) and the NHP-energy dimension (r=0.29). All FIS scores except cognitive scores were moderately related to the NHP-social isolation score (r=0.40, 0.37, and 0.43 for FIS-physical, social, and total scores, respectively). There was also a significant correlation between the FIS-physical score and the NHP-energy score (r=0.31). On the basis of the standardized response mean values, response to treatment for these two questionnaires was satisfactory (P=0.00). The Turkish versions of FSS and FIS were reliable, sensitive to clinical changes, and also well accepted by patients with PPS. Although they had somewhat satisfactory convergent validity, the absence of strong correlations did not support the validity entirely.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Fatigue

Title: Cognitive functioning in post‐polio patients with and without general fatigue
Author: Ostlund G, Borg K, Wahlin A.
Affiliation: Department of Public Health Science, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2005 May;37(3):147-51
Publication Year and Month: 2005 03

Abstract: OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: This study examined 2 main hypotheses. First, whether patients with post-polio suffering from general fatigue (n=10) demonstrate cognitive deficits compared with patients with post-polio without general fatigue (n=10). Secondly, by systematically varied test order administration we examined whether such differences varied as a function of increasing cognitive load during cognitive testing.

SUBJECTS: Twenty patients diagnosed with post-polio syndrome, 10 with general fatigue and 10 without fatigue.

RESULTS: Neither of the 2 hypotheses were confirmed. The group with general fatigue reported elevated levels of depression. However, no systematic association between level of depression and cognitive performance could be detected.

Conclusions: The results of this study provide no evidence that general fatigue or cognitive load affects cognitive functioning in post-polio.

Outcome of Research: Not effective.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Vitality among Swedish patients with post-polio: a physiological phenomenon
Author: Ostlund G (1), Wahlin A (2), Sunnerhagen KS (3,4), Borg K (1)
Affiliation: (1) Divison of Rehabilitation Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Sciences at Danderyd Hospital, Sweden; (2) Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; (3) Institute for Neuroscience and Physiology, Section for Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden; (4) Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway - [email protected]
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2008 Oct;40(9):709-14. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0253
Publication Year and Month: 2008 10

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate vitality and fatigue in post-polio patients, and the relative contributions of physiological and psychological parameters to the level of vitality.

DESIGN: Multi-centre study.

SUBJECTS: One hundred and forty-three patients with post-polio syndrome.

METHODS: Inventories of background, quality of life, fatigue and sleep quality were used. Pain was evaluated using a visual analogue scale. Descriptive statistics and correlations were used for all selected parameters. Hierarchical regression models were constructed to examine predictors of variations in vitality, pain, reduced activity and physical fatigue.

RESULTS: General fatigue accounted for 68% of the variation in vitality. Of this, 91% was accounted for by physiological indicators. After controlling for age, physiological para notmeters accounted for 56.6% and 25%, if entered before and after the psychological parameters, respectively. The impact of the psychological parameters decreased after accounting for the physiological parameters. Physical fatigue, age and sleep quality were associated with variation in pain. Body mass index, pain and sleep quality accounted for differences in reduced activity and physical fatigue.

Conclusions: Vitality in post-polio patients depends on physio-logical parameters. Mental fatigue is not a prominent predictor. Subgroups with or without fatigue, independent of age, need further study.

Outcome of Research: More research required.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Measuring fatigue in polio survivors: content comparison and reliability of the Fatigue Severity Scale and the Checklist Individual Strength
Author: Koopman FS, Brehm MA, Heerkens YF, Nollet F, Beelen A
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. [email protected]
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2014 Sep;46(8):761-7. doi: 10.2340/16501977-1838
Publication Year and Month: 2014 09

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To compare the content of the Fatigue Severity Scale and the subscale "subjective experience of fatigue" of the Checklist Individual Strength, and to assess the reliability of both questionnaires in polio survivors.

DESIGN: Repeated-measures at a 3-week interval.

SUBJECTS: Consecutive series of 61 polio survivors.

METHODS: Concepts contained in the questionnaire items were linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), using standardized linking rules. Reliability analyses included tests of internal consistency, test-retest reliability and measurement error.

RESULTS: Questionnaires differed in the extent to which they measured other than fatigue-related aspects of functioning (represented ICF components: "Body functions": 50% and 80%, "Activities and Participation": 30% and 0%, for the Fatigue Severity Scale and Checklist Individual Strength, respectively). Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were considered acceptable, while measurement error was large (Cronbach's α: 0.90 and 0.93, intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.80 and 0.85, smallest detectable change: 28.7% and 29.4% for the Fatigue Severity Scale and Checklist Individual Strength, respectively).

Conclusions: Considering the acceptable clinimetric properties, we conclude that both the Fatigue Severity Scale and the Checklist Individual Strength can be applied in research on post-poliomyelitis syndrome when measuring fatigue. However, because the 2 questionnaires differ in content they cannot be used interchangeably.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Post polio syndrome: fatigued patients a specific subgroup?
Author: Östlund G (1), Wahlin Å, Sunnerhagen KS, Borg K
Affiliation: (1) Divison of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2011 Jan;43(1):39-45. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0634
Publication Year and Month: 2011 01

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the characteristics of fatigued and non-fatigued post-polio patients and to define potential subgroups across the fatigue continuum.

DESIGN: Multi-centre study.

SUBJECTS: A total of 143 post-polio patients were subdivided on the basis of percentile distribution into a fatigue group, a intermediate group, and a non-fatigue group, using the Multi Fatigue Inventory 20 general fatigue ratings.

METHODS: Data on background, quality of life, fatigue and pain were collected. Descriptive statistics and correlations in each group and analysis of variance and χ2 for group comparisons were performed. Non-linear regressions were employed to evaluate differences in the strength of associations between physical and mental fatigue, on the one hand, and vitality on the other.

RESULTS: The fatigued group was younger, had shorter polio duration, more pain, higher body mass index, lower quality of life and was more physically and mentally fatigued. A higher proportion of this group had contracted polio after 1956 and was under 65 years of age. Mental fatigue had a relatively higher explanatory value than physical fatigue for differences in vitality in the fatigued group, whereas reversed patterns were seen in the other groups.

Conclusions: Fatigued post-polio patients can be considered as a subgroup.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Fainting and Fatigue: Causation or Coincidence?
Author: Richard L. Bruno, Ph.D.
Affiliation: Post-Polio Rehabilitation and Research Service; Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation.
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Bruno RL. Fainting and Fatigue: Causation or Coincidence? CFIDS Chronicle, 1996; 9(2): 37-39.
Publication Year and Month: 1996

Abstract: As the former autonomic nervous system fellow at New York's Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, and in my current incarnation studying chronic fatigue in polio survivors, I have read with special interest the reports from Johns Hopkins University describing neurally mediated hypotension (NMH) in adults and adolescents with CFIDS.[1] In June 1995, we presented a paper to the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine describing several of our post-polio patients who have had episodes of vasovagal syncope.[2] One patient with a 10-year history of severe, chronic and disabling post-polio fatigue had a history of frequent fainting 35 years before she ever experienced fatigue.

Conclusions: Taken together, these findings suggest that polio survivors may be predisposed to fainting because of poliovirus damage to their brainstem cardiodepressor and blood pressure regulation centers and PVN. However, it is important to note that many viruses besides polioviruses (e.g., the Coxsackie viruses) are also known to frequently and preferentially damage the brainstem, especially the reticular formation.[7,11] People with post-viral fatigue may have similar brainstem and hypothalamic damage as is seen following poliovirus infection, as Costa's finding of decreased brainstem perfusion in CFIDS suggests. Thus, damage to cardioregulatory centers could be responsible for NMH in people with CFIDS. But what of the coincidence of fainting and fatigue?

Outcome of Research:

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Activity and post-polio fatigue
Author: Packer TL, Martins I, Krefting L, Brouwer B
Affiliation: Division of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Therapy, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1223-6
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Fatigue was studied in 12 subjects with post-polio sequelae (PPS). Results of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) demonstrated a mean score of 4.8 +/- 1.6 (non-disabled scores = 2.3 +/- 0.7). The Human Activity Profile (HAP) was not sensitive enough to measure fatigue. Fifty percent of subjects scored below the first percentile based on age and sex matched norms. The Activity Record (ACTRE) results revealed that subjects spent 5% of their time resting and 1% in planning or preparation activities. Fatigue peaked in the late morning or early afternoon and was relieved by rest periods. Use of energy conservation and work simplification skills along with frequent rest periods was suggested as a possible method for managing PPS fatigue.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

Availability of Paper:

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available):


Category: Fatigue

Title: Polioencephalitis, Stress And The Etiology Of Post-Polio Sequelae
Author: Richard L. Bruno, Ph.D., Nancy M. Frick, M.Div., and Jesse Cohen, M.D.


Affiliation: Post-Polio Rehabilitation and Research Service; Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation, Harvest Center; Hackensack, New Jersey, Medical Imaging Center of the Oranges; West Orange, New Jersey
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation:
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Post-mortum neurohistopathology from 158 individuals who contracted polio before 1950 are reviewed that document polio virus-induced lesions in reticular formation, hypothalamic, thalamic, peptidergic and monoaminergic neurons in the brain. This polioencephalitis was found to occur in every case of poliomyelitis, even those without evidence of damage to spinal motor neurons. These findings, in combination with data from the 1990 National Post-Polio Survey and new magnetic resonance imaging studies documenting post-encephalitis-like lesions in the brains of polio survivors, are used to present hypotheses that polioencephalitic damage 1) to aging reticular activating system and monoaminergic neurons is responsible for post-polio fatigue and 2) to enkephalin-producing neurons is responsible for hypersensitivity to pain in polio survivors. Hypotheses are also presented that the anti-metabolic action of glucocorticoids on polio-damaged, metabolically vulnerable neurons is responsible for the fatigue and muscle weakness reported by polio survivors during emotional stress. Suggestions for the treatment of Post-Polio Sequelae based on these hypotheses are also presented.

Conclusions: The ability of the polio virus to produce symptoms by its destruction of neurons outside of the anterior horn has been accepted for more than 100 years. It is only our recent experience with PPS that has forced us to recognize that both the people who survived the original viral onslaught and their central nervous systems have been operating for decades under extreme stress. This stress now may be combining with the aging of an extensively damaged but here-to-fore remarkably functional central nervous system to reveal the previously hidden symptoms of polioencephalitis.

The above-presented hypotheses concerning the etiology of PPS fatigue suggest that reductions in both emotional and physical stress will reduce PPS. This is the experience of post-polio clinics throughout the world (36,54,55,56). As PPS fatigue continues to be treated with stress-management, work simplification and energy conservation (see 36,56), the hypotheses are being tested by studying the neuroanatomy, neuroendocrinology and neuropsychology of PPS fatigue. In addition, pharmacological means for stimulating the RAS that do not further metabolically stress its remaining aging, polio-damaged neurons are being tested.

Outcome of Research:

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Brain volume and fatigue in patients with postpoliomyelitis syndrome
Author: Trojan DA (1), Narayanan S (2), Francis SJ (3), Caramanos Z (4), Robinson A (5), Cardoso M (6), Arnold DL (7)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, 3801 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B4; (2) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Unit, McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Unit, McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (4) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Unit, McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (5) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (6) Clinical Research Unit, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (7) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Journal: PM&R: The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Citation: PM R. 2014 Mar;6(3):215-20. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2013.09.009
Publication Year and Month: 2014 03

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Acute paralytic poliomyelitis is associated with encephalitis. Early brain inflammation may produce permanent neuronal injury with brain atrophy, which may result in symptoms such as fatigue. Brain volume has not been assessed in postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS).

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether brain volume is decreased compared with that in normal controls, and whether brain volume is associated with fatigue in patients with PPS.

DESIGN: A cross-sectional study.

SETTING: Tertiary university-affiliated hospital postpolio and multiple sclerosis (MS) clinics.

PARTICIPANTS: Forty-nine ambulatory patients with PPS, 28 normal controls, and 53 ambulatory patients with MS.

METHODS: We studied the brains of all study subjects with magnetic resonance imaging by using a 1.5 T Siemens Sonata machine. The subjects completed the Fatigue Severity Scale. Multivariable linear regression models were computed to evaluate the contribution of PPS and MS compared with controls to explain brain volume.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Normalized brain volume (NBV) was assessed with the automated program Structured Image Evaluation, using Normalization, of Atrophy method from the acquired magnetic resonance images. This method may miss brainstem atrophy.

RESULTS: Technically adequate NBV measurements were available for 42 patients with PPS, 27 controls, and 49 patients with MS. The mean (standard deviation) age was 60.9 ± 7.6 years for patients with PPS, 47.0 ± 14.6 years for controls, and 46.2 ± 9.4 years for patients with MS. In a multivariable model adjusted for age and gender, NBV was not significantly different in patients with PPS compared with that in controls (P = .28). As expected, when using a similar model for patients with MS, NBV was significantly decreased compared with that in controls (P = .006). There was no significant association between NBV and fatigue in subjects with PPS (Spearman ρ = 0.23; P = .19).

Conclusions: No significant whole-brain atrophy was found, and no association of brain volume with fatigue in PPS. Brain atrophy was confirmed in MS. It is possible that brainstem atrophy was not recognized by this study.

Outcome of Research: Not effective

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Fatigue

Title: Fatigue in post-poliomyelitis syndrome: association with disease-related, behavioral, and psychosocial factors
Author: Trojan DA, Arnold DL, Shapiro S, Bar-Or A, Robinson A, Le Cruguel JP, Narayanan S, Tartaglia MC, Caramanos Z, Da Costa D
Affiliation: Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, 3801 University St., Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B4, Canada
Journal: PM&R: The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Citation: PM R. 2009 May;1(5):442-9. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2009.03.003
Publication Year and Month: 2009 05

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the biopsychosocial correlates of general, physical, and mental fatigue in patients with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) by assessing the additional contribution of potentially modifiable factors after accounting for important nonmodifiable disease-related factors. It was hypothesized that disease-related, behavioral, and psychosocial factors would contribute in different ways to general, physical, and mental fatigue in PPS and that a portion of fatigue would be determined by potentially modifiable factors.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.

SETTING: A tertiary university-affiliated hospital post-polio clinic.

PATIENTS: Fifty-two ambulatory patients with PPS who were not severely depressed were included.

ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS: Potential correlates for fatigue included disease-related factors (acute polio weakness, time since acute polio, PPS duration, muscle strength, pain, forced vital capacity, maximum inspiratory pressure, maximum expiratory pressure, body mass index, disability, fibromyalgia), behavioral factors (physical activity, sleep quality), and psychosocial factors (depression, stress, self-efficacy).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Fatigue was assessed with the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI; assesses fatigue on 5 subscales) and the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS).

RESULTS: Multivariate models were computed for MFI General, Physical, and Mental Fatigue. Age-adjusted multivariate models with nonmodifiable factors included the following predictors of (1) MFI General Fatigue: maximum inspiratory pressure, fibromyalgia, muscle strength; (2) MFI Physical Fatigue: maximum expiratory pressure, muscle strength, age, time since acute polio; and (3) MFI Mental Fatigue: none. The following potentially modifiable predictors made an additional contribution to the models: (1) MFI General Fatigue: stress, depression; (2) MFI Physical Fatigue: physical activity, pain; and (3) MFI Mental Fatigue: stress.

Conclusions: PPS fatigue is multidimensional. Different types of fatigue are determined by different variables. Potentially modifiable factors account for a portion of fatigue in PPS.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


There are currently 17 papers in this category.

Category: Fatigue

Title: Multidimensional fatigue inventory and post-polio syndrome - a Rasch analysis
Author: Dencker A (1,3), Sunnerhagen KS (1,2), Taft C (1,3), Lundgren-Nilsson Å (1,2)
Affiliation: (1) Centre for Person-centred Care, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; (2) Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; (3) Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 405 30, Sweden - [email protected]
Journal: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Citation: Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2015 Feb 12;13(1):20. doi: 10.1186/s12955-015-0213-9
Publication Year and Month: 2015 02

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a common symptom in post-polio syndrome (PPS) and can have a substantial impact on patients. There is a need for validated questionnaires to assess fatigue in PPS for use in clinical practice and research. The aim with this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Swedish version of Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) in patients with PPS using the Rasch model.

METHODS: A total of 231 patients diagnosed with PPS completed the Swedish MFI-20 questionnaire at post-polio out-patient clinics in Sweden. The mean age of participants was 62 years and 61% were females. Data were tested against assumptions of the Rasch measurement model (i.e. unidimensionality of the scale, good item fit, independency of items and absence of differential item functioning). Reliability was tested with the person separation index (PSI). A transformation of the ordinal total scale scores into an interval scale for use in parametric analysis was performed. Dummy cases with minimum and maximum scoring were used for the transformation table to achieve interval scores between 20 and 100, which are comprehensive limits for the MFI-20 scale.

RESULTS: An initial Rasch analysis of the full scale with 20 items showed misfit to the Rasch model (p < 0.001). Seven items showed slightly disordered thresholds and person estimates were not significantly improved by rescoring items. Analysis of MFI-20 scale with the 5 MFI-20 subscales as testlets showed good fit with a non-significant x (2) value (p = 0.089). PSI for the testlet solution was 0.86. Local dependency was present in all subscales and fit to the Rasch model was solved with testlets within each subscale. PSI ranged from 0.52 to 0.82 in the subscales.

Conclusions: This study shows that the Swedish MFI-20 total scale and subscale scores yield valid and reliable measures of fatigue in persons with post-polio syndrome. The Rasch transformed total scores can be used for parametric statistical analyses in future clinical studies.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Measuring fatigue in polio survivors: content comparison and reliability of the Fatigue Severity Scale and the Checklist Individual Strength
Author: Koopman FS, Brehm MA, Heerkens YF, Nollet F, Beelen A
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. [email protected]
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2014 Sep;46(8):761-7. doi: 10.2340/16501977-1838
Publication Year and Month: 2014 09

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To compare the content of the Fatigue Severity Scale and the subscale "subjective experience of fatigue" of the Checklist Individual Strength, and to assess the reliability of both questionnaires in polio survivors.

DESIGN: Repeated-measures at a 3-week interval.

SUBJECTS: Consecutive series of 61 polio survivors.

METHODS: Concepts contained in the questionnaire items were linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), using standardized linking rules. Reliability analyses included tests of internal consistency, test-retest reliability and measurement error.

RESULTS: Questionnaires differed in the extent to which they measured other than fatigue-related aspects of functioning (represented ICF components: "Body functions": 50% and 80%, "Activities and Participation": 30% and 0%, for the Fatigue Severity Scale and Checklist Individual Strength, respectively). Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were considered acceptable, while measurement error was large (Cronbach's α: 0.90 and 0.93, intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.80 and 0.85, smallest detectable change: 28.7% and 29.4% for the Fatigue Severity Scale and Checklist Individual Strength, respectively).

Conclusions: Considering the acceptable clinimetric properties, we conclude that both the Fatigue Severity Scale and the Checklist Individual Strength can be applied in research on post-poliomyelitis syndrome when measuring fatigue. However, because the 2 questionnaires differ in content they cannot be used interchangeably.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Circadian fatigue or unrecognized restless legs syndrome? The post-polio syndrome model
Author: Romigi A, Maestri M
Affiliation: Neurophysiopathology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, Sleep Medicine Centre, Tor Vergata University and Hospital , Rome , Italy ; IRCCS Neuromed , Pozzilli , Italy; Neurology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa , Pisa , Italy.
Journal: Frontiers in Neurology
Citation: Front Neurol. 2014 Jul 7;5:115. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2014.00115
Publication Year and Month: 2014 07

Abstract: This paper does not have an abstract.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Brain volume and fatigue in patients with postpoliomyelitis syndrome
Author: Trojan DA (1), Narayanan S (2), Francis SJ (3), Caramanos Z (4), Robinson A (5), Cardoso M (6), Arnold DL (7)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, 3801 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B4; (2) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Unit, McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Unit, McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (4) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Unit, McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (5) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (6) Clinical Research Unit, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (7) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Journal: PM&R: The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Citation: PM R. 2014 Mar;6(3):215-20. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2013.09.009
Publication Year and Month: 2014 03

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Acute paralytic poliomyelitis is associated with encephalitis. Early brain inflammation may produce permanent neuronal injury with brain atrophy, which may result in symptoms such as fatigue. Brain volume has not been assessed in postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS).

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether brain volume is decreased compared with that in normal controls, and whether brain volume is associated with fatigue in patients with PPS.

DESIGN: A cross-sectional study.

SETTING: Tertiary university-affiliated hospital postpolio and multiple sclerosis (MS) clinics.

PARTICIPANTS: Forty-nine ambulatory patients with PPS, 28 normal controls, and 53 ambulatory patients with MS.

METHODS: We studied the brains of all study subjects with magnetic resonance imaging by using a 1.5 T Siemens Sonata machine. The subjects completed the Fatigue Severity Scale. Multivariable linear regression models were computed to evaluate the contribution of PPS and MS compared with controls to explain brain volume.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Normalized brain volume (NBV) was assessed with the automated program Structured Image Evaluation, using Normalization, of Atrophy method from the acquired magnetic resonance images. This method may miss brainstem atrophy.

RESULTS: Technically adequate NBV measurements were available for 42 patients with PPS, 27 controls, and 49 patients with MS. The mean (standard deviation) age was 60.9 ± 7.6 years for patients with PPS, 47.0 ± 14.6 years for controls, and 46.2 ± 9.4 years for patients with MS. In a multivariable model adjusted for age and gender, NBV was not significantly different in patients with PPS compared with that in controls (P = .28). As expected, when using a similar model for patients with MS, NBV was significantly decreased compared with that in controls (P = .006). There was no significant association between NBV and fatigue in subjects with PPS (Spearman ρ = 0.23; P = .19).

Conclusions: No significant whole-brain atrophy was found, and no association of brain volume with fatigue in PPS. Brain atrophy was confirmed in MS. It is possible that brainstem atrophy was not recognized by this study.

Outcome of Research: Not effective

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Fatigue

Title: Psychometric properties of fatigue severity and fatigue impact scales in postpolio patients
Author: Oncu J (1), Atamaz F, Durmaz B, On A
Affiliation: (1) Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Şişli Etfal Teaching Hospital, Istanbul; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Medical Faculty of Ege University, Bornova-Izmir, Turkey.
Journal: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research
Citation: Int J Rehabil Res. 2013 Dec;36(4):339-45. doi: 10.1097/MRR.0b013e3283646b56
Publication Year and Month: 2013 12

Abstract: We evaluate the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS) and to determine whether these scales are potentially applicable for measuring fatigue in postpolio patients (PPS). After the Turkish adaptation of FSS and FIS using a forward-backward procedure, the scales were administered to 48 PPS patients without additional health problems that may induce fatigue. Reliability studies were carried out by determination of intraclass correlation coefficient and internal consistency by the Cronbach-α coefficient. Validity was tested by within-scale analyses and analyses against the external criteria including convergent validity and discriminant validity. Correlations with the Notthingham Health Profile (NHP), fatigue, pain and cramp severity (visual analog scale), and manual muscle testing were performed. Sensitivity to changes was determined by standardized response mean values. All patients completed scales, suggesting their satisfactory acceptance. Reliability studies were satisfactory, with higher Cronbach-α values and intraclass correlation coefficients than 0.80. The FSS score was correlated moderately with visual analog scale-fatigue (r=0.41) and the NHP-energy dimension (r=0.29). All FIS scores except cognitive scores were moderately related to the NHP-social isolation score (r=0.40, 0.37, and 0.43 for FIS-physical, social, and total scores, respectively). There was also a significant correlation between the FIS-physical score and the NHP-energy score (r=0.31). On the basis of the standardized response mean values, response to treatment for these two questionnaires was satisfactory (P=0.00). The Turkish versions of FSS and FIS were reliable, sensitive to clinical changes, and also well accepted by patients with PPS. Although they had somewhat satisfactory convergent validity, the absence of strong correlations did not support the validity entirely.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Fatigue

Title: A 5-year longitudinal study of fatigue in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis
Author: Tersteeg IM (1), Koopman FS, Stolwijk-Swüste JM, Beelen A, Nollet F; CARPA Study Group
Affiliation: (1) Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. [email protected]
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011 Jun;92(6):899-904. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2011.01.005
Publication Year and Month: 2011 06

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To study the severity and 5-year course of fatigue in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis (LOSP) and to identify physical and psychosocial determinants of fatigue.

DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with 5 measurements over 5 years.

SETTING: University hospital.

PARTICIPANTS: Patients with LOSP (N=168); 89% of the subjects completed the study.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fatigue assessed with the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Potential determinants were perceived physical functioning, bodily pain and mental health, extent of paresis, walking capacity, comorbidity, sleeping disorders, coping, and social support. Associations were investigated by multivariable longitudinal analysis using generalized estimating equations.

RESULTS: The mean FSS score ± SD at baseline was 5.1±1.4, which did not change significantly during the 5-year follow-up. Reduced physical functioning, increased bodily pain, reduced sleep quality, more psychologic distress, and higher task-oriented coping were independently associated with fatigue. The extent of paresis and walking capacity were strongly associated with physical functioning.

Conclusions: Fatigue is severe and persistent in patients with LOSP due to physical and psychologic factors, which has implications for counseling and treatment. In addition to the commonly applied interventions targeting physical aspects, psychologic interventions are a potential area for reducing fatigue.

Outcome of Research: Effective

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Post polio syndrome: fatigued patients a specific subgroup?
Author: Östlund G (1), Wahlin Å, Sunnerhagen KS, Borg K
Affiliation: (1) Divison of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2011 Jan;43(1):39-45. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0634
Publication Year and Month: 2011 01

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the characteristics of fatigued and non-fatigued post-polio patients and to define potential subgroups across the fatigue continuum.

DESIGN: Multi-centre study.

SUBJECTS: A total of 143 post-polio patients were subdivided on the basis of percentile distribution into a fatigue group, a intermediate group, and a non-fatigue group, using the Multi Fatigue Inventory 20 general fatigue ratings.

METHODS: Data on background, quality of life, fatigue and pain were collected. Descriptive statistics and correlations in each group and analysis of variance and χ2 for group comparisons were performed. Non-linear regressions were employed to evaluate differences in the strength of associations between physical and mental fatigue, on the one hand, and vitality on the other.

RESULTS: The fatigued group was younger, had shorter polio duration, more pain, higher body mass index, lower quality of life and was more physically and mentally fatigued. A higher proportion of this group had contracted polio after 1956 and was under 65 years of age. Mental fatigue had a relatively higher explanatory value than physical fatigue for differences in vitality in the fatigued group, whereas reversed patterns were seen in the other groups.

Conclusions: Fatigued post-polio patients can be considered as a subgroup.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Fatigue in post-poliomyelitis syndrome: association with disease-related, behavioral, and psychosocial factors
Author: Trojan DA, Arnold DL, Shapiro S, Bar-Or A, Robinson A, Le Cruguel JP, Narayanan S, Tartaglia MC, Caramanos Z, Da Costa D
Affiliation: Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, 3801 University St., Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B4, Canada
Journal: PM&R: The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Citation: PM R. 2009 May;1(5):442-9. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2009.03.003
Publication Year and Month: 2009 05

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the biopsychosocial correlates of general, physical, and mental fatigue in patients with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) by assessing the additional contribution of potentially modifiable factors after accounting for important nonmodifiable disease-related factors. It was hypothesized that disease-related, behavioral, and psychosocial factors would contribute in different ways to general, physical, and mental fatigue in PPS and that a portion of fatigue would be determined by potentially modifiable factors.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.

SETTING: A tertiary university-affiliated hospital post-polio clinic.

PATIENTS: Fifty-two ambulatory patients with PPS who were not severely depressed were included.

ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS: Potential correlates for fatigue included disease-related factors (acute polio weakness, time since acute polio, PPS duration, muscle strength, pain, forced vital capacity, maximum inspiratory pressure, maximum expiratory pressure, body mass index, disability, fibromyalgia), behavioral factors (physical activity, sleep quality), and psychosocial factors (depression, stress, self-efficacy).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Fatigue was assessed with the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI; assesses fatigue on 5 subscales) and the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS).

RESULTS: Multivariate models were computed for MFI General, Physical, and Mental Fatigue. Age-adjusted multivariate models with nonmodifiable factors included the following predictors of (1) MFI General Fatigue: maximum inspiratory pressure, fibromyalgia, muscle strength; (2) MFI Physical Fatigue: maximum expiratory pressure, muscle strength, age, time since acute polio; and (3) MFI Mental Fatigue: none. The following potentially modifiable predictors made an additional contribution to the models: (1) MFI General Fatigue: stress, depression; (2) MFI Physical Fatigue: physical activity, pain; and (3) MFI Mental Fatigue: stress.

Conclusions: PPS fatigue is multidimensional. Different types of fatigue are determined by different variables. Potentially modifiable factors account for a portion of fatigue in PPS.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Fatigue

Title: Vitality among Swedish patients with post-polio: a physiological phenomenon
Author: Ostlund G (1), Wahlin A (2), Sunnerhagen KS (3,4), Borg K (1)
Affiliation: (1) Divison of Rehabilitation Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Sciences at Danderyd Hospital, Sweden; (2) Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; (3) Institute for Neuroscience and Physiology, Section for Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden; (4) Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway - [email protected]
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2008 Oct;40(9):709-14. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0253
Publication Year and Month: 2008 10

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate vitality and fatigue in post-polio patients, and the relative contributions of physiological and psychological parameters to the level of vitality.

DESIGN: Multi-centre study.

SUBJECTS: One hundred and forty-three patients with post-polio syndrome.

METHODS: Inventories of background, quality of life, fatigue and sleep quality were used. Pain was evaluated using a visual analogue scale. Descriptive statistics and correlations were used for all selected parameters. Hierarchical regression models were constructed to examine predictors of variations in vitality, pain, reduced activity and physical fatigue.

RESULTS: General fatigue accounted for 68% of the variation in vitality. Of this, 91% was accounted for by physiological indicators. After controlling for age, physiological para notmeters accounted for 56.6% and 25%, if entered before and after the psychological parameters, respectively. The impact of the psychological parameters decreased after accounting for the physiological parameters. Physical fatigue, age and sleep quality were associated with variation in pain. Body mass index, pain and sleep quality accounted for differences in reduced activity and physical fatigue.

Conclusions: Vitality in post-polio patients depends on physio-logical parameters. Mental fatigue is not a prominent predictor. Subgroups with or without fatigue, independent of age, need further study.

Outcome of Research: More research required.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Cognitive functioning in post‐polio patients with and without general fatigue
Author: Ostlund G, Borg K, Wahlin A.
Affiliation: Department of Public Health Science, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2005 May;37(3):147-51
Publication Year and Month: 2005 03

Abstract: OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: This study examined 2 main hypotheses. First, whether patients with post-polio suffering from general fatigue (n=10) demonstrate cognitive deficits compared with patients with post-polio without general fatigue (n=10). Secondly, by systematically varied test order administration we examined whether such differences varied as a function of increasing cognitive load during cognitive testing.

SUBJECTS: Twenty patients diagnosed with post-polio syndrome, 10 with general fatigue and 10 without fatigue.

RESULTS: Neither of the 2 hypotheses were confirmed. The group with general fatigue reported elevated levels of depression. However, no systematic association between level of depression and cognitive performance could be detected.

Conclusions: The results of this study provide no evidence that general fatigue or cognitive load affects cognitive functioning in post-polio.

Outcome of Research: Not effective.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: A comparison of 4 questionnaires to measure fatigue in postpoliomyelitis syndrome
Author: Horemans HL, Nollet F, Beelen A, Lankhorst GJ
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004 Mar;85(3):392-8
Publication Year and Month: 2004 03

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the comparability and reproducibility of 4 questionnaires used to measure fatigue in postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS).

DESIGN: Repeated-measures at a 3-week interval.

SETTING: University hospital.

PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of 65 patients with PPS.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) energy category, the Polio Problem List (PPL) fatigue item, and the Dutch Short Fatigue Questionnaire (SFQ).

RESULTS: Correlations of scores between questionnaires were all significant (P<.01) and ranged from .43 (between the NHP energy category and the PPL fatigue item) to .68 (between the PPL fatigue item and the SFQ). Scores on the second visit, normalized to a 0 to 100 scale, were: FSS, 78+/-15; NHP energy category, 47+/-35; PPL fatigue item, 81+/-17; and SFQ, 65+/-22. Except for the difference between the FSS and the PPL fatigue item, the differences in scores between the questionnaires were significant (P<.01). Scale analysis indicated that all questionnaires measured the same unidimensional construct. The reproducibility of the FSS, the PPL fatigue item, and the SFQ was moderate. The smallest detectable change was 1.5 points for the FSS, 2.0 points for the PPL fatigue item, and 1.9 points for the SFQ.

Conclusions: Although the questionnaires measure the same fatigue construct in PPS, the results are not interchangeable because the ranges of measurement differ. The NHP energy category, in particular, appeared to have a high detection threshold. The moderate reproducibility of the questionnaires indicates a lack of precision, especially when applied at the individual patient level.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Disability and functional assessment in former polio patients with and without postpolio syndrome
Author: Nollet F, Beelen A, Prins MH, de Visser M, Sargeant AJ, Lankhorst GJ, de Jong BA
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999 Feb;80(2):136-43
Publication Year and Month: 1999 02

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To compare perceived health problems and disability in former polio subjects with postpolio syndrome (PPS) and those without postpolio syndrome (non-PPS), and to evaluate perceived health problems, disability, physical performance, and muscle strength.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey; partially blinded data collection.

SUBJECTS: One hundred three former polio subjects, aged 32 to 60yrs. This volunteer sample came from referrals and patient contacts. Criterion for PPS: new muscle weakness among symptoms.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), adapted D-code of the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps, performance test, and muscle strength assessment.

RESULTS: PPS subjects (n = 76) showed higher scores (p < .001) than non-PPS subjects (n = 27) within the NHP categories of physical mobility, energy, and pain. On a 16-item Polio Problems List, 78% of PPS subjects selected fatigue as their major problem, followed by walking outdoors (46%) and climbing stairs (41%). The disabilities of PPS subjects were mainly seen in physical and social functioning. No differences in manually tested strength were found between patient groups. PPS subjects needed significantly more time for the performance test than non-PPS subjects and their perceived exertion was higher. Perceived health problems (NHP-PhysMobility) correlated significantly with physical disability (r = .66), performance-time (r = .54), and muscle strength (r = .38). With linear regression analysis, 54% of the NHP-PhysMobility score could be explained by the performance test (time and exertion), presence of PPS, and muscle strength, whereas strength itself explained only 14% of the NHP-PhysMobility score.

Conclusions: PPS subjects are more prone to fatigue and have more physical mobility problems than non-PPS subjects. In former polio patients, measurements of perceived health problems and performance tests are the most appropriate instruments for functional evaluation.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Fatigue

Title: Fainting and Fatigue: Causation or Coincidence?
Author: Richard L. Bruno, Ph.D.
Affiliation: Post-Polio Rehabilitation and Research Service; Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation.
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Bruno RL. Fainting and Fatigue: Causation or Coincidence? CFIDS Chronicle, 1996; 9(2): 37-39.
Publication Year and Month: 1996

Abstract: As the former autonomic nervous system fellow at New York's Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, and in my current incarnation studying chronic fatigue in polio survivors, I have read with special interest the reports from Johns Hopkins University describing neurally mediated hypotension (NMH) in adults and adolescents with CFIDS.[1] In June 1995, we presented a paper to the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine describing several of our post-polio patients who have had episodes of vasovagal syncope.[2] One patient with a 10-year history of severe, chronic and disabling post-polio fatigue had a history of frequent fainting 35 years before she ever experienced fatigue.

Conclusions: Taken together, these findings suggest that polio survivors may be predisposed to fainting because of poliovirus damage to their brainstem cardiodepressor and blood pressure regulation centers and PVN. However, it is important to note that many viruses besides polioviruses (e.g., the Coxsackie viruses) are also known to frequently and preferentially damage the brainstem, especially the reticular formation.[7,11] People with post-viral fatigue may have similar brainstem and hypothalamic damage as is seen following poliovirus infection, as Costa's finding of decreased brainstem perfusion in CFIDS suggests. Thus, damage to cardioregulatory centers could be responsible for NMH in people with CFIDS. But what of the coincidence of fainting and fatigue?

Outcome of Research:

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: The Pathophysiology Of Post-Polio Fatigue: A Role for the Basal Ganglia in the Generation of Fatigue
Author: Richard L. Bruno, Ph.D., Robert Sapolsky, Ph.D., Jerald R. Zimmerman, M.D., and Nancy M. Frick, Lh.D.


Affiliation: Post-Polio Rehabilitation and Research Service; Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation; UMDNJ/New Jersey Medical School, Department of Biological Sciences; Stanford University, Harvest Center; Hackensack, New Jersey
Journal: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Citation: Bruno RL, Sapolsky R, Zimmerman JR, Frick NM. The pathophysiology of a central cause of post-polio fatigue. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1995; 753: 257-275.
Publication Year and Month: 1995

Abstract: Fatigue is the most commonly reported, most debilitating and least studied Post-Polio Sequelae (PPS) affecting the more than 1.63 million American polio survivors. Post-polio fatigue is characterized by subjective reports of problems with attention, cognition and maintaining wakefulness, symptoms reminiscent of nearly two dozen outbreaks during this century of post-viral fatigue syndromes that are related clinically, historically or anatomically to poliovirus infections. These relationships, and recent studies that associate post-polio fatigue with clinically significant deficits on neuropsychologic tests of attention, histopathologic and neuroradiologic evidence of brain lesions and impaired activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, will be reviewed to described a role for the reticular activating system and basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of post-polio fatigue. The possibility of pharmacologic therapy for PPS is also discussed.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: The Neuropsychology of Post-Polio Fatigue
Author: Richard L. Bruno, Ph.D., Thomas Galski, Ph.D., John DeLuca, Ph.D.
Affiliation:
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Bruno RL, Galski T, DeLuca J. The neuropsychology of post-polio fatigue. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 1993; 74: 1061-1065.
Publication Year and Month: 1993

Abstract: To test the hypothesis that post-polio fatigue and its concomitant cognitive deficits are associated with an impairment of attention and not of higher-level cognitive processes, six carefully screened polio survivors were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests. Only subjects reporting severe fatigue, and not those with mild fatigue, demonstrated clinically significant deficits on all tests of attention, concentration and information processing speed while showing no impairments of cognitive ability or verbal memory. These findings suggest that an impaired ability to maintain attention and rapidly process complex information appears to be a characteristic in polio survivors reporting severe fatigue, since these deficits were documented even when their subjective rating of fatigue was low. This finding supports the hypothesis that a polio-related impairment of selective attention underlies polio survivors' subjective experience of fatigue and cognitive problems.

Conclusions: These findings provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that post-polio fatigue is associated with impaired functioning on neuropsychological tests that assess attention and not on those assessing higher-level cognitive processes. An impaired ability to maintain attention and rapidly process complex information appears to be a characteristic of these polio survivors reporting severe fatigue, since the deficits were documented during the first testing period when the subjective rating of fatigue was still low.

Outcome of Research:

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Fatigue

Title: Activity and post-polio fatigue
Author: Packer TL, Martins I, Krefting L, Brouwer B
Affiliation: Division of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Therapy, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1223-6
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Fatigue was studied in 12 subjects with post-polio sequelae (PPS). Results of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) demonstrated a mean score of 4.8 +/- 1.6 (non-disabled scores = 2.3 +/- 0.7). The Human Activity Profile (HAP) was not sensitive enough to measure fatigue. Fifty percent of subjects scored below the first percentile based on age and sex matched norms. The Activity Record (ACTRE) results revealed that subjects spent 5% of their time resting and 1% in planning or preparation activities. Fatigue peaked in the late morning or early afternoon and was relieved by rest periods. Use of energy conservation and work simplification skills along with frequent rest periods was suggested as a possible method for managing PPS fatigue.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

Availability of Paper:

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available):


Category: Fatigue

Title: Polioencephalitis, Stress And The Etiology Of Post-Polio Sequelae
Author: Richard L. Bruno, Ph.D., Nancy M. Frick, M.Div., and Jesse Cohen, M.D.


Affiliation: Post-Polio Rehabilitation and Research Service; Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation, Harvest Center; Hackensack, New Jersey, Medical Imaging Center of the Oranges; West Orange, New Jersey
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation:
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Post-mortum neurohistopathology from 158 individuals who contracted polio before 1950 are reviewed that document polio virus-induced lesions in reticular formation, hypothalamic, thalamic, peptidergic and monoaminergic neurons in the brain. This polioencephalitis was found to occur in every case of poliomyelitis, even those without evidence of damage to spinal motor neurons. These findings, in combination with data from the 1990 National Post-Polio Survey and new magnetic resonance imaging studies documenting post-encephalitis-like lesions in the brains of polio survivors, are used to present hypotheses that polioencephalitic damage 1) to aging reticular activating system and monoaminergic neurons is responsible for post-polio fatigue and 2) to enkephalin-producing neurons is responsible for hypersensitivity to pain in polio survivors. Hypotheses are also presented that the anti-metabolic action of glucocorticoids on polio-damaged, metabolically vulnerable neurons is responsible for the fatigue and muscle weakness reported by polio survivors during emotional stress. Suggestions for the treatment of Post-Polio Sequelae based on these hypotheses are also presented.

Conclusions: The ability of the polio virus to produce symptoms by its destruction of neurons outside of the anterior horn has been accepted for more than 100 years. It is only our recent experience with PPS that has forced us to recognize that both the people who survived the original viral onslaught and their central nervous systems have been operating for decades under extreme stress. This stress now may be combining with the aging of an extensively damaged but here-to-fore remarkably functional central nervous system to reveal the previously hidden symptoms of polioencephalitis.

The above-presented hypotheses concerning the etiology of PPS fatigue suggest that reductions in both emotional and physical stress will reduce PPS. This is the experience of post-polio clinics throughout the world (36,54,55,56). As PPS fatigue continues to be treated with stress-management, work simplification and energy conservation (see 36,56), the hypotheses are being tested by studying the neuroanatomy, neuroendocrinology and neuropsychology of PPS fatigue. In addition, pharmacological means for stimulating the RAS that do not further metabolically stress its remaining aging, polio-damaged neurons are being tested.

Outcome of Research:

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


There are currently 17 papers in this category.

Outcomes of Research or Clinical Trials Activity Levels Acute Flaccid Paralysis Ageing Anaerobic Threshold Anaesthesia Assistive Technology Brain Cardiorespiratory Cardiovascular Clinical Evaluation Cold Intolerance Complementary Therapies Continence Coping Styles and Strategies Cultural Context Diagnosis and Management Differential Diagnosis Drugs Dysphagia Dysphonia Epidemiology Exercise Falls Fatigue Fractures Gender Differences Immune Response Inflammation Late Effects of Polio Muscle Strength Muscular Atrophy Orthoses Pain Polio Immunisation Post-Polio Motor Unit Psychology Quality of Life Renal Complications Respiratory Complications and Management Restless Legs Syndrome Sleep Analaysis Surgery Vitality Vocational Implications