Outcomes of Research or Clinical Trials Activity Levels Acute Flaccid Paralysis Ageing Anaerobic Threshold Anaesthesia Assistive Technology Brain Cardiorespiratory Cardiovascular Clinical Evaluation Cold Intolerance Complementary Therapies Continence Coping Styles and Strategies Cultural Context Diagnosis and Management Differential Diagnosis Drugs Dysphagia Dysphonia Epidemiology Exercise Falls Fatigue Fractures Gender Differences Immune Response Inflammation Late Effects of Polio Muscle Strength Muscular Atrophy Orthoses Pain Polio Immunisation Post-Polio Motor Unit Psychology Quality of Life Renal Complications Respiratory Complications and Management Restless Legs Syndrome Sleep Analaysis Surgery Vitality Vocational Implications

Title order Author order Journal order Date order
Category: Exercise

Title: Assessment of subjective and motor fatigue in Polio survivors, attending a Postpolio clinic, comparison with healthy controls and an exploration of clinical correlates.
Author: Murray D, Hardiman O, Meldrum D.
Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, Beaumont Hospital , Beaumont, Dublin , Ireland .
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 2014 May;30(4):229-35.
Publication Year and Month: 2014 05

Abstract: PURPOSE:
Polio survivors experience declining mobility, pain and fatigue. The extent of motor fatigue and its impact on mobility and quality of life, in addition to other commonly reported impairments requires evaluation.

METHODS:
An observational, case-control, cross-sectional design was used to assess 30 Polio survivors and 30 age- and sex-matched controls. Muscle strength and motor fatigue were assessed using fixed dynamometry. Fatigue, pain and quality of life were assessed using the Piper Fatigue Scale, the Fatigue Severity Scale, visual analogue scales and the RAND Short Form-36, respectively. An 8-min walking test, including physiological cost index (PCI), evaluated mobility.

RESULTS:
A significant difference in motor fatigue was identified only in hand grip (p = 0.03). Polio survivors were significantly weaker (p < 0.001) and more fatigued (p < 0.001) than controls. Motor fatigue was not related to subjective fatigue, mobility or quality of life. Muscle strength predicted mobility. Pain and fatigue were associated with lower mental quality of life, while PCI was associated with physical quality of life.

Conclusions: Motor fatigue has been identified in Polio survivors but was only significantly different in hand grip, using this approach. Pain, fatigue and elevated energy cost of walking negatively influenced quality of life. Motor fatigue was unrelated to subjective fatigue, mobility or quality of life.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Exercise

Title: Cardiorespiratory responses to aerobic training by patients with postpoliomyelitis sequelae
Author: Jones DR, Speier J, Canine K, Owen R, Stull GA
Affiliation: Sister Kenny Institute, Minneapolis, Minn (Mr Jones and Drs Speier, Canine, and Owen)
School of Health Related Professions, State University of New York at Buffalo (Dr Stull)
Journal: The Journal of the American Medical Association
Citation: JAMA. 1989 Jun 9;261(22):3255-58
Publication Year and Month: 1989 06

Abstract: We examined the cardiorespiratory responses of 16 patients with postpoliomyelitis sequelae to a 16-week aerobic exercise program. The patients exercised at 70% of maximal heart rate. Dependent variables were resting and maximal heart rates, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, maximum oxygen consumption, maximum carbon dioxide consumption, respiratory quotient, and maximum expired volume per unit time. The exercise group was superior to the control group in watts, exercise time, maximum expired volume per unit time, and maximum oxygen consumption. No untoward events or loss of leg strength occurred as a result of the exercise regimen. We conclude that the aerobic training program employed in this study is a safe, short-term procedure and that patients with postpolio sequelae respond to training in a manner similar to healthy adults.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Cardiorespiratory responses to upper extremity aerobic training by postpolio subjects
Author: Kriz, J.L., Jones, D.R., Speier, J.L., Canine, J.K., Owen, R.R., Serfass, R.C.
Affiliation: Sister Kenny Institute
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Kriz, J.L., Jones, D.R., Speier, J.L., Canine, J.K., Owen, R.R., Serfass, R.C. (1992) Cardiorespiratory responses to upper extremity aerobic training by postpolio subjects. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 73(1): 49-54
Publication Year and Month: 1992 01

Abstract: The cardiorespiratory responses of ten postpolio subjects participating in a 16-week upper extremity aerobic exercise program were compared to ten non-exercised controls. The subjects trained three times a week for 20 minutes per session. Exercise intensity was prescribed at 70% to 75% of heart rate reserve plus resting heart rate. Dependent variables were resting heart rate, maximal heart rate, resting and immediate-post-exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressures, maximal oxygen consumption, maximal carbon dioxide production, minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, power, and exercise time. After training, the exercise group was superior to the control group in oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, minute ventilation, power, and exercise time. There was no reported loss of muscle strength. It was concluded that postpolio subjects can safely achieve an increase in aerobic capacity with a properly modified upper extremity exercise program. This improvement is comparable to that demonstrated by able-bodied adults.

Conclusions: Postpolio subjects can safely achieve an increase in aerobic capacity with a properly modified upper extremity exercise program. This improvement is comparable to that demonstrated by able-bodied adults.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Exercise

Title: Comparison of two 6-minute walk tests to assess walking capacity in polio survivors
Author: Merel-Anne Brehm, PhD, Suzan Verduijn, MSc, Jurgen Bon, MD, Nicoline Bredt, MSc and Frans Nollet, MD, PhD
Affiliation: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: Merel-Anne Brehm, PhD, Suzan Verduijn, MSc, Jurgen Bon, MD, Nicoline Bredt, MSc and Frans Nollet, MD, PhD. Comparison of two 6-minute walk tests to assess walking capacity in polio survivors. J Rehabil Med 2017; 49: 00–00
Publication Year and Month: 2017 09

Abstract: Objective: To compare walking dynamics and test-retest reliability for 2 frequently applied walk tests in polio survivors: the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) to walk as far as possible; and the 6-minute walking energy cost test (WECT) at comfortable speed.

Design: Observational study.

Participants: Thirty-three polio survivors, able to walk ≥ 150 m.

Methods: On the same day participants performed a 6MWT and a WECT, which were repeated 1–3 weeks later. For each test, distance walked, heart rate and reduction in speed were assessed.

Results: The mean distance walked and mean heart rate were significantly higher in the 6MWT (441 m (standard deviation) (SD 79.7); 118 bpm (SD 19.2)) compared with the WECT (366 m (SD 67.3); 103 bpm (SD 14.3)); p < 0.001. Furthermore, during the 6MWT, patients continuously slowed down (–6%), while during the WECT speed dropped only slightly during the first 2 min, by –1.8% in total. Test-retest reliability of both tests was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) ≥ 0.95; lower bound 95% confidence interval (95% CI) ≥ 0.87). The smallest detectable change for the walked distance was 42 m (9.7% change from the mean) and 50 m (13.7%) on the 6MWT and WECT, respectively.

Conclusion: Both the 6MWT and the WECT are reliable to assess walking capacity in polio survivors, with slightly superior sensitivity to detect change for the 6MWT. Differences in walking dynamics confirm that the tests cannot be used interchangeably. The 6MWT is recommended for measuring maximal walking capacity and the WECT for measuring submaximal walking capacity.

Conclusions: In conclusion, this study of polio survivors with a minimum self-reported walking distance of 150 m shows that both the 6MWT and the WECT are reliable and can be used to evaluate changes in walking capacity, with the 6MWT showing slightly superior sensitivity to detect change. The study also shows a significantly higher heart rate (57%HRR on average) at the expense of a reduction in walking speed at this heart rate during the 6MWT compared with the WECT. These findings indicate distinct patterns of walking dynamics between the 6MWT and WECT, where the 6MWT is more likely a measure of maximal walking capacity (i.e. what a person can do) and the WECT of submaximal walking capacity (i.e. what a person does do). The difference in walking dynamics confirms that these tests cannot be used interchangeably, and that the choice to use either test should be tailored to the construct to be measured. Responsiveness to change in this patient population should be further investigated for both tests.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Exercise

Title: Daily Well-Being Benefits of Physical Activity in Older Adults: Does Time or Type Matter?
Author: Whitehead BR, Blaxton JM
Affiliation: 1 Behavioral Sciences Department, University of Michigan-Dearborn.
2 Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame, Indiana.
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Gerontologist. 2017 Nov 10;57(6):1062-1071
Publication Year and Month: 2017 11

Abstract: PURPOSE OF THE STUDY:
There is little debate that maintaining some level of physical activity in later life conveys positive benefits both physically and psychologically. What is less understood is the extent to which the type of activity or the length of time spent doing it matters when it comes to these benefits on the daily level. Here, we investigated (a) whether the presence of daily purposeful exercise (Exercise) or non-exercise physical activity (Activity) is sufficient for experiencing day-level benefits, or if time spent matters, and (b) whether there are differential well-being benefits of Exercise and Activity on the daily level.

DESIGN AND METHODS:
Older adults (N = 127; aged 60-95, Mage = 79.4) filled out surveys for 14 days, reporting daily Exercise and Activity behaviors as well as Positive and Negative Affect (PA/NA), Perceived Stress (PS), Perceived Health (PH), and Sleep Quality (SQ).

RESULTS:
Multilevel regression models showed that for purposeful exercise, more time spent was beneficial for PA, NA, and PH, but for PS, only the presence of exercise was important (time did not matter). For non-exercise activity, time did not have as great an influence as presence-doing any form of activity was beneficial for both PA and SQ. Exercise and Activity had largely independent (additive) effects.

Conclusions: Results reveal that both purposeful exercise and non-exercise activity convey independent daily well-being benefits, and that for some aspects of daily well-being, duration does matter. Findings can be applied in the development of physical activity education or engagement programs for older adults.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Exercise

Title: Determining the anaerobic threshold in postpolio syndrome: comparison with current guidelines for training intensity prescription
Author: Voorn EL (1), Gerrits KH (2), Koopman FS (3), Nollet F (3), Beelen A (3)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: [email protected]; (2) MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; (3) Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 May;95(5):935-40. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2014.01.015
Publication Year and Month: 2014 05

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the anaerobic threshold (AT) can be identified in individuals with postpolio syndrome (PPS) using submaximal incremental exercise testing, and to compare current guidelines for intensity prescription in PPS with the AT.

DESIGN: Cohort study.

SETTING: Research laboratory.

PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with PPS (N=82).

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Power output, gas exchange variables, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured in an incremental submaximal cycle ergometry test. Two independent observers identified the AT. Comparison of current guidelines for training intensity prescription in PPS (40%-60% heart rate reserve [HRR] or RPE of 12) with the AT was based on correlations between recommended heart rate and the heart rate at the AT. In addition, we determined the proportion of individuals that would have been recommended to train at an intensity corresponding to their AT.

RESULTS: The AT was identified in 63 (77%) of the participants. Pearson correlation coefficients between the recommended heart rate and the heart rate at the AT were lower in cases of 40% HRR (r=.56) and 60% HRR (r=.50) than in cases of prescription based on the RPE (r=.86). Based on the RPE, 55% of the individuals would have been recommended to train at an intensity corresponding to their AT. This proportion was higher compared with 40% HRR (41%) or 60% HRR (18%) as criterion.

Conclusions: The AT can be identified in most individuals with PPS offering an individualized target for aerobic training. If the AT cannot be identified (eg, because gas analysis equipment is not available), intensity prescription can best be based on the RPE.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Exercise

Title: Dynamic water exercise in individuals with late poliomyelitis
Author: Willén C, Sunnerhagen KS, Grimby G
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden - [email protected]
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001 Jan;82(1):66-72
Publication Year and Month: 2001 01

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the specific effects of general dynamic water exercise in individuals with late effects of poliomyelitis.

DESIGN: Before-after tests.

SETTING: A university hospital department.

PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-eight individuals with late effects of polio, 15 assigned to the training group (TG) and 13 to the control group (CG).

INTERVENTION: The TG completed a 40-minute general fitness training session in warm water twice weekly. Assessment instruments included the bicycle ergometer test, isokinetic muscle strength, a 30-meter walk indoors, Berg balance scale, a pain drawing, a visual analog scale, the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, and the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Peak load, peak work load, peak oxygen uptake, peak heart rate (HR), muscle function in knee extensors and flexors, and pain dimension of the NHP.

RESULTS: The average training period was 5 months; compliance was 75% (range, 55-98). No negative effects were seen. The exercise did not influence the peak work load, peak oxygen uptake, or muscle function in knee extensors compared with the controls. However, a decreased HR at the same individual work load was seen, as well as a significantly lower distress in the dimension pain of the NHP. Qualitative aspects such as increased well-being, pain relief, and increased physical fitness were reported.

Conclusions: A program of nonswimming dynamic exercises in heated water has a positive impact on individuals with late effects of polio, with a decreased HR at exercise, less pain, and a subjective positive experience. The program was well tolerated (no adverse effects were reported) and can be recommended for this group of individuals.

Outcome of Research: Effective.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Effect of aquatic exercise training in persons with poliomyelitis disability
Author: Prins, J.H., Hartung, H.G., Merritt, D.J., Blancq, R.J., Goebert, D.A.
Affiliation:
Journal:
Citation: Prins, J.H., Hartung, H.G., Merritt, D.J., Blancq, R.J., Goebert, D.A. (1994) Effect of aquatic exercise training in persons with poliomyelitis disability. Sports Medicine, Training and Rehabilitation. 5(1):29-39
Publication Year and Month: 1994 01

Abstract: Aquatic exercise, including swimming, reduces the effect of body weight on limbs and joints. A combination of swimming and specific activities involving resistive devices was used in an attempt to improve strength in persons who had symptomatic weakness related to poliomyelitis. Dynamic muscular force application in selected limb movements and range of motion were measured before and after an 8‐week aquatic exercise intervention. Peak (PF) and average force (AF) were determined in the water using a differential pressure transducer attached to either the hand, foot, or a resistive device. Arm flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and horizontal adduction and abduction along with combined hip flexion and knee extension were tested for both PF and AF Subjects were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups; complete data were available on nine experimental and four control subjects. PF and AF changes were greater (p ≤ 0.05) for experimental compared with control for right arm flexion (PF, 96 versus 6%) and extension (PR 105 versus ‐15%; AF, 76 versus ‐30%), respectively. Changes were greater (p ≤0.05) in experimental than control for left arm extension (PF, 88% versus 19%) and horizontal abduction (PF, 127% versus ‐21%; AF, 122% versus ‐17%). Aquatic exercise training in subjects with poliomyelitis disability resulted in significant dynamic strength changes of the upper body while appearing not to exacerbate symptomatic fatigue or pain.

Conclusions: Aquatic exercise training in subjects with poliomyelitis disability resulted in significant dynamic strength changes of the upper body while appearing not to exacerbate symptomatic fatigue or pain.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Comments (if any): Baseline strength measurements and functional outcomes (land-based) would have assisted greatly to determine the benefits of the increased forces produced from this aquatic training.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Effect of modified aerobic training on movement energetics in polio survivors
Author: Dean E, Ross J
Affiliation: School of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1243-6
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Given that individuals with disabilities may be unable to achieve maximal oxygen uptake in an exercise test and that maximal exercise testing may cause increased fatigue, pain, and muscle weakness, we examined the role of submaximal exercise testing and training based on objective as well as subjective parameters in polio survivors. Experimental (N = 7) and control subjects (N = 13) were tested before and after a 6-week period. The experimental subjects participated in a 6-week exercise training program for 30 to 40 minutes, three times a week. The program consisted of treadmill walking at 55% to 70% of age-predicted maximum heart rates; however, exercise intensity was modified to minimize discomfort/pain and fatigue. Neither objective nor subjective exercise responses were significantly different in the control group over the 6 weeks. No change was observed in cardiorespiratory conditioning in the experimental group. However, movement economy, which is related to the energy cost of walking, was significantly improved; and walking duration was significantly increased at the end of training. Modified aerobic training may have a role in enhancing endurance and reducing fatigue during activities of daily living in polio survivors.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Effects of resistance training in combination with coenzyme Q10 supplementation in patients with post-polio: a pilot study.
Author: Skough K, Krossén C, Heiwe S, Theorell H, Borg K.
Affiliation: Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Danderyds Hospital, Stockolm, Sweden.
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: 2008 Oct;40(9):773-5.
Publication Year and Month: 2008 10

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
Coenzyme Q10 supplementation leads to increased muscle metabolism in patients with post-polio syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training in combination with oral supplementation with coenzyme Q10 in patients with post-polio syndrome regarding muscle strength and endurance as well as functional capacity and health-related quality of life.

DESIGN:
Parallel randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:
A total of 14 patients (8 women and 6 men) with post-polio syndrome participated in a 12-week muscular resistance training, 3 days/week. The patients were randomized for oral supplementation with coenzyme Q10, 200 mg/day, or placebo. Measurements used were: sit-stand-sit test, timed up & go test, 6-minute walk test, muscle strength measurement by means of dynamic dynamometer and short-form (SF)-36 questionnaire.

RESULTS:
Muscle strength, muscle endurance and quality of life regarding mental health increased statistically significantly in all 14 patients. There was no significant difference between the coenzyme Q10 and placebo groups regarding muscle strength, muscle endurance and quality of life.

Conclusions: There was no effect of coenzyme Q10 supplementation during resistance training on post-polio syndrome symptoms. Thus, supplementation with coenzyme Q10 has no beneficial effect on muscle function in patients with post-polio syndrome.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Exercise

Title: Effort-limited treadmill walk test: reliability and validity in subjects with postpolio syndrome.
Author: Finch LE, Venturini A, Mayo NE, Trojan DA.
Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, McGill University Health Center, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: 2004 Aug;83(8):613-23.
Publication Year and Month: 2004 08

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To determine the reliability and construct validity of an effort-limited treadmill walk test to measure functional ability in subjects with postpolio syndrome in an outpatient postpolio clinic.

DESIGN:
Functioning and distance walked on a treadmill to a Borg "hard" effort level were measured three times, a week apart, by two blinded raters in 15 subjects with postpolio syndrome, aged 37-67 yrs, with new weakness, fatigue, and pain but with no other cause of symptomatology or condition-limiting walking. One rater tested them twice. Fatigue activity level, mobility, and health-related quality of life (Medical Outcome Study Short Form Health Survey [SF-36]) defined functioning. Generalizability correlation coefficients determined intrarater, test-retest and interrater reliability. The correlations relating the distance walked and functioning determined construct validity.

RESULTS:
Reliability for generalizability correlation coefficients were: intrarater, 0.91; test-retest, 0.85; and interrater, 0.58. Interrater reliability improved to 0.91 with adherence to a standardized protocol. Validity was established with correlations between the distance walked and SF-36 physical component score (0.66), physical role (0.60), bodily pain (0.60), and vitality (0.55).

Conclusions: The treadmill walk test provides a reproducible and valid measure of ability in persons with postpolio syndrome with a single rater, but a standardized protocol is essential for reliability.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Exercise

Title: Endurance Training Effect on Individuals With Postpoliomyelitis
Author: Brian Ernstoff, MD, Hakon Wetterqvist, MD, PhD, Henry Kvist, MD, PhD, Gunnar Grimby, MD, PhD
Affiliation:
Journal:
Citation: Ernstoff B, Wetterqvist H, Kvist H, Grimby G. Endurance training effect on individuals with postpoliomyelitis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1996;77:843-8.
Publication Year and Month: 1996

Abstract: Objective: To determine the effects of an endurance training program on the exercise capacity and muscle structure and function in individuals with postpolio syndrome.

Design: Preexercise and postexercise testing was performed with muscle strength evaluations using isokinetic testing as well as hand-held Myometer. Muscle fatigue was determined by use of isokinetic testing, and endurance was determined by exercise testing. Enzymatic evaluation was performed with muscle biopsies taken at the same site; preexercise and postexercise muscle cross-sectional area was measured by computed tomography. Disability and psychosocial evaluation was performed by a Functional Status Questionnaire.

Setting: A university.

Subjects: Seventeen postpolio subjects ranging in age from 39 to 49 years volunteered for a 6-month combined endurance and strength training program. They had a history of acute poliomyelitis at least 25 years earlier and were able to walk with or without aid.

Intervention: Twelve of the subjects (mean age 42 years) completed the program, attending an average of 29 sessions, which were offered for 60 minutes twice a week.

Main Outcome Measures: Strength, endurance, enzymatic activity, and cross-sectional area were measured 3 months before the beginning of training, just before training, and at the completion of the exercise program.

Conclusions: Results: Knee extension was reduced to an average of 60% of control values and did not change with training. Strength measured with a hand-held Myometer increased significantly for elbow flexion, wrist extension, and hip abduction. Exercise test on a bicycle-ergometer showed significant reduction (6 beats/min) in heart rate at 70W and increase (12 beats/min) in maximal heart rate with training. The training program could be performed without major complications and resulted in an increase in muscle strength in some muscle groups and in work performance with respect to heart rate at submaximal work load.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Gait characteristics and influence of fatigue during the 6-minute walk test in patients with post-polio syndrome
Author: Vreede KS, Henriksson J, Borg K, Henriksson M
Affiliation: Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, SE-182 88 Stockholm, Sweden - [email protected]
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2013 Sep;45(9):924-8. doi: 10.2340/16501977-1209.
Publication Year and Month: 2013 09

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate gait in patients with post-polio syndrome, using the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) combined with three-dimensional kinematic analysis.

DESIGN: Descriptive study.

SUBJECTS: Eighteen patients and 11 healthy controls.

METHODS: Kinematic data were obtained during a 6MWT by a Vicon motion capture system. Distance, heart rate, leg tiredness, dyspnoea and exertion were also recorded.

RESULTS: Patients with post-polio syndrome showed larger increases in leg tiredness (p < 0.001) and dyspnoea (p < 0.05) as a result of the 6MWT than did controls. Walking speed decreased by 14.1% in patients vs 4.7% in controls (p < 0.05). Fourteen out of 18 patients displayed plantar-flexed ankle at initial contact (1/11 controls). At foot-off, the patients had a flexed hip (extended in controls) and a more flexed knee. Walking speed in patients correlated with hip angle at footoff, at the start (r = –0.60, p < 0.001) and the end of the 6MWT (r = –0.74, p < 0.001), being higher the more the hip was extended.

CONCLUSION: The 6MWT is fatiguing for patients with post polio syndrome, and this was reflected in the kinematic data. Walking speed was negatively correlated with the increased hip flexion, but not with the ankle plantar-flexion at foot-off in the patients with post-polio syndrome. The three-dimensional results underscore the importance of hip function in this patient group.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Low-intensity, alternate-day exercise improves muscle performance without apparent adverse affect in postpolio patients.
Author: Agre, J., Rodriguez, A., Franke, T., Swiggum, E., Harmon, R., Curt, J.
Affiliation: Agre- Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison Medical School, 53791, USA.
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1996;75(1):50-8.
Publication Year and Month: 1996 01

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a low-intensity, alternate-day, 12 wk quadriceps muscle-strengthening exercise program on muscle strength and muscle and motor unit integrity in 12 postpolio patients. Patients performed six to ten repetitions of a 5-s duration knee extension exercise with ankle weights. After completing six repetitions, patients rated the perceived exertion (RPE) in the exercised muscle. The patient continued repetitions until RPE was >/= 17 or ten repetitions were performed. The weight was increased the next exercise day whenever the RPE was < 17 after ten repetitions. Before and after the training program, median macroamplitude as well as jitter and blocking were determined electromyographically (EMG), serum creatine kinase (CK) was measured, and quadriceps muscle strength was assessed. The ankle weight lifted after 2 wk of training and at the end of the program were also recorded. Although the ankle weight lifted at the end of the program significantly (P < 0.05) increased from a mean +/- SD of 7.1 +/- 2.7 to 11.2 +/- 4.7 kg, the dynametrically determined muscle strength measures did not significantly (P > 0.05) increase. The EMG and the serum CK variables also did not significantly (P >0.05) change as a result of the exercise program. We conclude that performance was improved, as demonstrated by an increase in the amount of weight the patients lifted in the exercise program. No evidence was found to show that this program adversely affected the motor units or the muscle as the EMG and CK did not change.

Conclusions: Patients increased leg strength without changes in motor unit innervation or fatigue levels.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Comments (if any): This is a good result on the efficacy of exercise. Caution should be applied to using these results across all people with a history of polio. Reasonable leg strength existed for all people involved in this study. Further investigations are required on they type, frequency and intensity of exercise as well as confirming results over a longer period of time.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Polio residuals clinic: conditioning exercise program
Author: Owen RR, Jones D
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1985 Jul; 8(7):882-3
Publication Year and Month: 1985 07

Abstract: The additional disability experienced by individuals who had poliomyelitis many years earlier has a variety of expressions and a variety of interacting origins. Undertraining and deconditioning are addressed in this article. Weakened musculature often fatigues before a conditioning level of activity is reached. An adapted exercise program for cardiac endurance will reduce symptoms of fatigue and pain. An intentional training program for muscles weakened further by disuse or underutilization will supplement the conditioning program. The clinical assessment and exercise prescription is described.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Post-polio fatigue: a 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigation
Author: Thompson RT, Barton PM, Marsh GD, Cameron MG, Gravelle DG, Hsieh JT, Hayes KC, Driedger AA
Affiliation: Department of Nuclear Medicine, St. Joseph's Health Center, London, Ontario, Canada
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1263-7
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Changes in high energy phosphates (HEP) and intramuscular pH during exercise were measured in 17 patients with post-polio fatigue and in 28 healthy controls using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Subjects performed a dynamic hand grip exercise at low and high intensity. Mean changes in the HEP and pH showed no significant differences between the groups, although the post-polio group's response was highly variable. Six patients showed evidence of a lower lactate accumulation during the high intensity exercise when compared with controls. These data suggest that the whole body fatigue experienced by polio survivors is not related to any systemic metabolic abnormality.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Postpolio syndrome and cardiopulmonary conditioning
Author: Owen RR
Affiliation: Sister Kenny Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55407
Journal: The Western Journal of Medicine
Citation: West J Med. 1991 May;154(5):557-8 (Rehabilitation Medicine - Adding Life to Years [Special Issue])
Publication Year and Month: 1991 05

Abstract: Postpolio syndrome is a group of related signs and symptoms occurring in people who had paralytic poliomyelitis years earlier. New weakness, fatigue, poor endurance, pain, reduced mobility, increased breathing difficulty, intolerance to cold, and sleep disturbance in various degrees and expressions make up the syndrome. The reported incidence is between 25% and 80%. The origins are multifactorial and can be associated with underexertion, overexertion, inactivity due to intercurrent illness or injury, hypo-oxygenation, sleep apnea, deconditioning, and the failure of sprouted, compensatory large motor units. The exercise question in postpolio syndrome is related to the experience of new weakness or loss of muscle function due to overuse, which is often associated with injudicious repeated challenges to weakened musculature. Carefully prescribed exercise can be used for increasing strength and endurance and improving cardiopulmonary conditioning.

Conclusions: Stretching and flexibility exercises are critical physical hygiene measures for the management of pain, instability, and deformity. These exercises should also precede cardiopulmonary conditioning and other vigorous physical pursuits. Muscle training and strengthening when carefully defined and judiciously implemented can safely build force and power. Resistive exercises should be prescribed for specific goals rather than for purposes of general muscle training. An adapted cardiopulmonary conditioning program has been created to provide improved cardiac status without the risk of overuse damage to nerve and muscle.

The management of postpolio syndrome requires applying traditional physical treatment principles with specific attention to the factors of the vulnerability of compensatory mechanisms to injury by overuse, underuse, underoxygenation, and an inefficient use of weakened musculature. Clinicians must provide information and a balanced prescription of exercise, rest, activity, support, and intelligent accommodation to additional disability.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Previous Acute Polio and Post-Polio Syndrome: Recognizing the Pathophysiology for the Establishment of Rehabilitation Programs
Author: Orsini M (1), de Souza JA (2), Araújo Leite MA (2), Teixeira S (3), de Sá Ferreira A (4), Bastos VH (3), de Freitas MR (2), Oliveira AB (5)
Affiliation: (1) Rehabilitation Sciences, Augusto Motta University Center, UNISUAN, Bonsucesso, Brazil; Neurology Service, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói, Brazil; (2) Neurology Service, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói, Brazil; (3) Physical Therapy Department, Federal University of Piauí, Brazil; (4) Rehabilitation Sciences, Augusto Motta University Center, UNISUAN, Bonsucesso, Brazil; (5) Neurology Service, Paulista School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil
Journal: Neurology International
Citation: Neurol Int. 2015 Mar 9;7(1):5452. doi: 10.4081/ni.2015.5452. eCollection 2015
Publication Year and Month: 2015 03

Abstract: NO ABSTRACT AVAILABLE - THIS IS AN EXTRACT:
Previous acute poliomyelitis (PAP) can be defined as an endemic human disease caused by an enterovirus of worldwide distribution, which compromises the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord. Poliovirus has infected and victimized thousands of people all over the world. Only after the development of the inactivated virus vaccine by Jonas Salk, in 1955, and then with the attenuated virus vaccine, by Albert Bruce Sabin, in 1961, we saw a reduction in the number of poliomyelitis cases in the world.

The patients present clinical status characterized by muscle atrophy and paresis, especially in the lower limbs, under asymmetrical and disproportional form. There is a second form, bulbar, which compromises the motor neurons of the medulla, resulting in impairments in speech, swallowing and breathing. The purpose of this letter to the Editor is to alert readers about the risks of therapeutic exercise for this group of patients.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Exercise

Title: Short-term effects of aerobic exercise on functional capacity, fatigue, and quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome.
Author: Oncu J, Durmaz B, Karapolat H.
Affiliation: Ege University Medical Faculty Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Izmir, Turkey.
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Clin Rehabil. 2009 Feb;23(2):155-63
Publication Year and Month: 2009 02

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To investigate and compare the impact of hospital and home exercise programmes on aerobic capacity, fatigue, and quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome.

DESIGN:
A prospective, randomized controlled trial.

SETTING:
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University Hospital.

SUBJECTS:
Thirty-two patients were divided into two groups for either hospital- or home-based aerobic exercise programme.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Patients were assessed before and after the rehabilitation programme, with respect to functional capacity (pVo2), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale, Fatigue Impact Scale) and quality of life (Nottingham Heath Profile).

RESULTS:
After the exercise programme, improvement was observed in the hospital exercise group compared to a pre-exercise period in all Nottingham Heath Profile scores (except sleep scores), pVo2, Fatigue Severity Scale and Fatigue Impact Scale (cognitive, physical, psychosocial, total) (P<0.05). In contrast, in the home exercise group a decrease was observed in pVo2 scores after the rehabilitation programme, compared to a pre-rehabilitation period (P<0.05). In addition, a significant improvement was observed in the home exercise group after the rehabilitation programme in all parameters excluding Fatigue Impact Scale-physical, Fatigue Impact Scale-psychosocial, and Nottingham Heath Profile-sleep (P<0.05). When the two exercise groups were compared, improvement was observed in the hospital exercise group compared to the home exercise group in pVo2 and Fatigue Severity Scale-total, Fatigue Impact Scale-physical, Fatigue Impact Scale-psychosocial, Fatigue Impact Scale-total, and Nottingham Heath Profile-energy scores (P<0.05).

Conclusions: CONCLUSION:
Fatigue and quality of life were both improved in the home and hospital exercise groups. An increase was also found in the functional capacity in the hospital exercise group. A regular exercise programme is beneficial to patients with post-polio syndrome.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Exercise

Title: Strength, endurance and work capacity after muscle strengthening exercise in postpolio subjects.
Author: Agre, J., Rodriguez, A., Franke, T.
Affiliation: Agre - Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, USA.
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997;78(7):681-6.
Publication Year and Month: 1997 07

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To determine whether a 12-week home quadriceps muscle strengthening exercise program would increase muscle strength, isometric endurance, and tension time index (TTI) in postpolio syndrome subjects without adversely affecting the surviving motor units or the muscle.

DESIGN:
A longitudinal study to investigate the effect of a 12-week exercise program on neuromuscular function and electromyographic variables.

SETTING:
Neuromuscular laboratory of a university hospital.

SUBJECTS:
Seven subjects were recruited from a cohort of 12 subjects who had participated in a previous exercise study. All subjects had greater than antigravity strength of the quadriceps. Upon completion of a postpolio questionnaire, all acknowledged common postpolio syndrome symptoms such as new fatigue, pain, and weakness; 6 of the 7 acknowledged new strength decline.

INTERVENTION:
On Mondays and Thursdays subjects performed three sets of four maximal isometric contractions of the quadriceps held for 5 seconds each. On Tuesdays and Fridays subjects performed three sets of 12 dynamic knee extension exercises with ankle weights.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Neuromuscular variables of the quadriceps muscles were measured at the beginning and completion of the exercise program and included: isokinetic peak torque (ISOKPT, at 60 degrees/sec angular velocity) and total work performed of four contractions (ISOKTW), isometric peak torque (MVC), endurance (EDUR, time subject could hold isometric contraction at 40% of the initial MVC), isometric tension time index (TTI, product of endurance time and torque at 40% of MVC), and initial and final ankle weight (WGT, kg) lifted. Electromyographic variables included: fiber density (FD), jitter (MCD), and blocking (BLK) from single fiber assessment and median macro amplitude (MACRO). Serum creatine kinase (CK) was also measured initially and at 4-week intervals throughout the study.

RESULTS:
The following variables significantly (p < .05) increased: WGT by 47%, ISOKPT, 15%, ISOKTW, 15%; MVC, 36%; EDUR, 21%; TTI, 18%. The following variables did not significantly (p > .05) change: FD, MCD, BLK, MACRO, and CK.

CONCLUSIONS:
This home exercise program significantly increased strength, endurance, and TTI without apparently adversely affecting the motor units or the muscle, as the EMG and CK variables did not change.

Conclusions: A home exercise at low-moderate exercise with rest periods can improve or maintain leg strength and endurance in some post-polio subjects.

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any): These results are positive for exercise and have been included in more recent literature reviews. More research is required on the appropriate recommendation for strength programs for people who are experiencing lower limb weakness. Further guidance on exercise prescription is required.

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Exercise

Title: Submaximal exercise capacity and maximal power output in polio subjects
Author: Nollet F, Beelen A, Sargeant AJ, de Visser M, Lankhorst GJ, de Jong BA
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001 Dec;82(12):1678-85
Publication Year and Month: 2001 12

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To compare the submaximal exercise capacity of polio subjects with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) and without (non-PPS) with that of healthy control subjects, to investigate the relationship of this capacity with maximal short-term power and quadriceps strength, and to evaluate movement economy.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey.

SETTING: University hospital.

PARTICIPANTS: Forty-three polio subjects (25 PPS, 18 non-PPS) and 12 control subjects.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Power output, oxygen uptake, and heart rate were measured in an incremental submaximal cycle ergometry test. Maximal short-term power was measured in 5-second all-out efforts. Knee extensor strength was measured on a chair dynamometer.

RESULTS: The mean submaximal power +/- standard deviation at 80% of heart rate reserve of 83.8 +/- 29.9 watts in the polio subjects was significantly less than the mean submaximal power of 142.1 +/- 30.4 watts in the control group. However, expressed as a percentage of the maximal short-term power, submaximal power did not differ between the groups. Strength and maximal short-term power correlated significantly (p < .005) with submaximal power (r = .64 and .76, respectively). The oxygen uptake was higher than theoretically expected for the given submaximal power output in polio subjects, and appeared to increase with increasing asymmetry in strength and power between legs. No differences were found between PPS and non-PPS subjects.

Conclusions: The submaximal work capacity of polio subjects was severely reduced, mainly in association with the reduced muscle capacity. And, because of a reduced movement economy, their energy cost was elevated. Although muscle loads in activities such as walking and climbing stairs differ from cycling, they also may require elevated relative levels of effort, predisposing subjects to premature fatigue in sustained activity.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Exercise

Title: The development of an instrument to assess post-exertional malaise in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome
Author: Leonard A Jason, Carly S Holtzman, Madison Sunnquist, Joseph Cotler
Affiliation: Department of Psychology, DePaul University, Chicago, IL 60614, USA. Email: [email protected]
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Journal of Health Psychology, Article first published online: October 24, 2018
Publication Year and Month: 2018 10

Abstract: Post-exertional malaise, or a variation of this term, is a key symptom of myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome, as this symptom is mentioned in almost all myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome case definitions. Until now there has not been a comprehensive questionnaire to assess post-exertional malaise. To rectify this situation, in this article we describe the development of a new questionnaire, called the DePaul Post-Exertional Malaise Questionnaire, which was based on input from hundreds of patients. Preliminary validation was provided by the findings of significant and predictable relationships between different domains of this post-exertional malaise questionnaire and physical functioning.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Exercise

Title: The effects of long-term non-fatiguing resistance exercise in subjects with post-polio syndrome
Author: Fillyaw MJ, Badger GJ, Goodwin GD, Bradley WG, Fries TJ, Shukla A
Affiliation: Department of Physical Therapy, University of Vermont, Burlington
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1253-6
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Measures of torque were used to evaluate changes in muscle strength and endurance in 17 patients with post-polio syndrome who did prescribed resistance exercise for up to 2 years. Exercise compliance averaged 75%, with 16 subjects increasing the weight lifted in training. Maximum torque was significantly increased in the exercised muscle compared to the control muscle; no difference was seen in muscle endurance. Individuals with post-polio syndrome can increase muscle strength by doing non-fatiguing resistance exercise, but they should undergo quantitative testing of muscle strength a minimum of every 3 months to guard against overwork weakness.

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Category: Exercise

Title: The Postpolio Syndrome: An Overuse Phenomenon


Author: Perry, J., Barnes, G., & Gronley, J. K.
Affiliation:
Journal: Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research
Citation: Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research Volume 233:145-162; August 1988
Publication Year and Month: 1988 08

Abstract: Persons with good recovery of function following their initial poliomyelitis are now, more than 30 years later, experiencing new weakness, fatigue, and muscle pain. The likelihood of muscle overuse being the cause of this late functional loss was investigated by dynamic electromyography (EMG) and foot-switch stride analysis in 34 symptomatic patients. Manual testing grouped the muscles, with strong (S) encompassing Grades Good (G) and Normal (N) while weak (W) included Fair plus (F+) to zero (0). After testing quadriceps and calf strength, the patients fell into one of four classes: strong quadriceps and calf (SQ/SC) strong quadriceps and weak calf (SQ/WC) weak quadriceps and strong calf (WQ/SC) or combined weak quadriceps and calf (WQ/WC). Quantified EMG; (normalized by the manual muscle test EMG) defined the mean duration and intensity of the quadriceps soleus, lower gluteus maximus, and long head of the biceps femoris during walking. Overuse was defined as values greater than the laboratory normal (mean·+ 1 SD). Each muscle exhibited instances of overuse, normalcy, and sparing. The biceps femoris was the only muscle with dominant overuse (82%). Quadriceps overuse was next in frequency (53%). Soleus activity infrequently exceeded normal function (34%), but this still represented more than twice the intensity and duration of the other muscles. Gluteus maximus action was also seldom excessive (34%). The patients averaged two muscles with excessive use during walking. Gait velocity of the SQ/SC strong group was highest (71% of normal) while the three categories that included weak muscles had walking speeds in the range of 50% of normal. The finding of muscle overuse during a single free-speed walking test that does not attain normal velocity supports the concept of muscle overuse being the cause of the patient's dysfunction.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any): Paul Cavendish
(Clinical Health Educator):
This article discusses manual muscle testing and gait dynamics with EMG, demonstrating excessive muscle use during gait, demonstrating increased fatigue for this sample of people with a history of polio.

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Category: Exercise

Title: The use of strengthening exercises in post-polio sequelae - methods and results
Author: Feldman RM
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1985 Jul; 8(7):889-90
Publication Year and Month: 1985 07

Abstract: Some individuals who had poliomyelitis 20 to 30 years ago are now reporting a recurrence of symptoms of weakness in the same muscle groups that were weakened during the initial onset of the disease. Electrophysiological findings on EMG and repetitive stimulation studies identify changes peculiar to this disease. Non-fatiguing progressive resistive exercises have been used to strengthen muscle groups demonstrating this secondary weakness after the muscles have been identified by electrophysiological studies. Favorable results are reported after non-fatiguing exercises which, combined with Occupational Therapy and appropriate orthotic management, have resulted in improvement in function of ambulation and activities of daily living. The causes of muscle atrophy and pain seen in these individuals are also discussed.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Exercise

Title: Whole Body Vibration Methods with Survivors of Polio
Author: Carolyn P. Da Silva
Affiliation: School of Physical Therapy, Texas Woman's University
Outpatient Medical Clinic, TIRR Memorial Hermann Rehabilitation and Research
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Journal of Visualized Experiments, (140), e58449, doi:10.3791/58449 (2018)
Publication Year and Month: 2018

Abstract: The purpose of the original study was to examine the use of whole body vibration (WBV) on polio survivors with and without post-polio syndrome as a form of weight bearing exercise. The goal of this article is to highlight the strengths, limitations, and applications of the method used.
Fifteen participants completed two intervention blocks with a wash-out period in between the blocks. Each block consisted of twice a week (four weeks) WBV interventions, progressing from 10 to 20 min per session. Low intensity (peak to peak displacement 4.53 mm, frequency 24 Hz,
g force 2.21) and higher intensity (peak to peak displacement 8.82 mm, frequency 35 Hz, g force 2.76) WBV blocks were used. Pain severity significantly improved in both groups following higher intensity vibration. Walking speed significantly improved in the group who participated
in higher intensity intervention first. No study-related adverse events occurred. Even though this population can be at risk of developing overuse-related muscle weakness, fatigue, or pain from excessive physical activity or exercise, the vibration intensity levels utilized did not
cause significant muscle weakness, pain, fatigue, or sleep disturbances. Therefore, WBV appears to provide a safe method of weight bearing exercise for this population. Limitations included the lack of measurement of reflexes, muscular activity, or circulation, the difficulty in participant
recruitment, and insufficient strength of some participants to stand in recommended position. Strengths included a standard, safe protocol with intentional monitoring of symptoms and the heterogeneity of the participants in their physical abilities. An application of the methods is the home use of WBV to reduce the barriers associated with going to a facility for weight bearing exercise for longer term interventions, and benefits for conditions such as osteoporosis, particularly for aging adults with mobility difficulties due to paralysis or weakness. Presented method may serve as a starting point in future studies.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper:

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


There are currently 26 papers in this category.

Category: Exercise

Title: Strength, endurance and work capacity after muscle strengthening exercise in postpolio subjects.
Author: Agre, J., Rodriguez, A., Franke, T.
Affiliation: Agre - Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, USA.
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997;78(7):681-6.
Publication Year and Month: 1997 07

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To determine whether a 12-week home quadriceps muscle strengthening exercise program would increase muscle strength, isometric endurance, and tension time index (TTI) in postpolio syndrome subjects without adversely affecting the surviving motor units or the muscle.

DESIGN:
A longitudinal study to investigate the effect of a 12-week exercise program on neuromuscular function and electromyographic variables.

SETTING:
Neuromuscular laboratory of a university hospital.

SUBJECTS:
Seven subjects were recruited from a cohort of 12 subjects who had participated in a previous exercise study. All subjects had greater than antigravity strength of the quadriceps. Upon completion of a postpolio questionnaire, all acknowledged common postpolio syndrome symptoms such as new fatigue, pain, and weakness; 6 of the 7 acknowledged new strength decline.

INTERVENTION:
On Mondays and Thursdays subjects performed three sets of four maximal isometric contractions of the quadriceps held for 5 seconds each. On Tuesdays and Fridays subjects performed three sets of 12 dynamic knee extension exercises with ankle weights.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Neuromuscular variables of the quadriceps muscles were measured at the beginning and completion of the exercise program and included: isokinetic peak torque (ISOKPT, at 60 degrees/sec angular velocity) and total work performed of four contractions (ISOKTW), isometric peak torque (MVC), endurance (EDUR, time subject could hold isometric contraction at 40% of the initial MVC), isometric tension time index (TTI, product of endurance time and torque at 40% of MVC), and initial and final ankle weight (WGT, kg) lifted. Electromyographic variables included: fiber density (FD), jitter (MCD), and blocking (BLK) from single fiber assessment and median macro amplitude (MACRO). Serum creatine kinase (CK) was also measured initially and at 4-week intervals throughout the study.

RESULTS:
The following variables significantly (p < .05) increased: WGT by 47%, ISOKPT, 15%, ISOKTW, 15%; MVC, 36%; EDUR, 21%; TTI, 18%. The following variables did not significantly (p > .05) change: FD, MCD, BLK, MACRO, and CK.

CONCLUSIONS:
This home exercise program significantly increased strength, endurance, and TTI without apparently adversely affecting the motor units or the muscle, as the EMG and CK variables did not change.

Conclusions: A home exercise at low-moderate exercise with rest periods can improve or maintain leg strength and endurance in some post-polio subjects.

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any): These results are positive for exercise and have been included in more recent literature reviews. More research is required on the appropriate recommendation for strength programs for people who are experiencing lower limb weakness. Further guidance on exercise prescription is required.

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Exercise

Title: Low-intensity, alternate-day exercise improves muscle performance without apparent adverse affect in postpolio patients.
Author: Agre, J., Rodriguez, A., Franke, T., Swiggum, E., Harmon, R., Curt, J.
Affiliation: Agre- Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison Medical School, 53791, USA.
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1996;75(1):50-8.
Publication Year and Month: 1996 01

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a low-intensity, alternate-day, 12 wk quadriceps muscle-strengthening exercise program on muscle strength and muscle and motor unit integrity in 12 postpolio patients. Patients performed six to ten repetitions of a 5-s duration knee extension exercise with ankle weights. After completing six repetitions, patients rated the perceived exertion (RPE) in the exercised muscle. The patient continued repetitions until RPE was >/= 17 or ten repetitions were performed. The weight was increased the next exercise day whenever the RPE was < 17 after ten repetitions. Before and after the training program, median macroamplitude as well as jitter and blocking were determined electromyographically (EMG), serum creatine kinase (CK) was measured, and quadriceps muscle strength was assessed. The ankle weight lifted after 2 wk of training and at the end of the program were also recorded. Although the ankle weight lifted at the end of the program significantly (P < 0.05) increased from a mean +/- SD of 7.1 +/- 2.7 to 11.2 +/- 4.7 kg, the dynametrically determined muscle strength measures did not significantly (P > 0.05) increase. The EMG and the serum CK variables also did not significantly (P >0.05) change as a result of the exercise program. We conclude that performance was improved, as demonstrated by an increase in the amount of weight the patients lifted in the exercise program. No evidence was found to show that this program adversely affected the motor units or the muscle as the EMG and CK did not change.

Conclusions: Patients increased leg strength without changes in motor unit innervation or fatigue levels.

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any): This is a good result on the efficacy of exercise. Caution should be applied to using these results across all people with a history of polio. Reasonable leg strength existed for all people involved in this study. Further investigations are required on they type, frequency and intensity of exercise as well as confirming results over a longer period of time.

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Exercise

Title: Endurance Training Effect on Individuals With Postpoliomyelitis
Author: Brian Ernstoff, MD, Hakon Wetterqvist, MD, PhD, Henry Kvist, MD, PhD, Gunnar Grimby, MD, PhD
Affiliation:
Journal:
Citation: Ernstoff B, Wetterqvist H, Kvist H, Grimby G. Endurance training effect on individuals with postpoliomyelitis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1996;77:843-8.
Publication Year and Month: 1996

Abstract: Objective: To determine the effects of an endurance training program on the exercise capacity and muscle structure and function in individuals with postpolio syndrome.

Design: Preexercise and postexercise testing was performed with muscle strength evaluations using isokinetic testing as well as hand-held Myometer. Muscle fatigue was determined by use of isokinetic testing, and endurance was determined by exercise testing. Enzymatic evaluation was performed with muscle biopsies taken at the same site; preexercise and postexercise muscle cross-sectional area was measured by computed tomography. Disability and psychosocial evaluation was performed by a Functional Status Questionnaire.

Setting: A university.

Subjects: Seventeen postpolio subjects ranging in age from 39 to 49 years volunteered for a 6-month combined endurance and strength training program. They had a history of acute poliomyelitis at least 25 years earlier and were able to walk with or without aid.

Intervention: Twelve of the subjects (mean age 42 years) completed the program, attending an average of 29 sessions, which were offered for 60 minutes twice a week.

Main Outcome Measures: Strength, endurance, enzymatic activity, and cross-sectional area were measured 3 months before the beginning of training, just before training, and at the completion of the exercise program.

Conclusions: Results: Knee extension was reduced to an average of 60% of control values and did not change with training. Strength measured with a hand-held Myometer increased significantly for elbow flexion, wrist extension, and hip abduction. Exercise test on a bicycle-ergometer showed significant reduction (6 beats/min) in heart rate at 70W and increase (12 beats/min) in maximal heart rate with training. The training program could be performed without major complications and resulted in an increase in muscle strength in some muscle groups and in work performance with respect to heart rate at submaximal work load.

Outcome of Research:

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

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Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Exercise

Title: Whole Body Vibration Methods with Survivors of Polio
Author: Carolyn P. Da Silva
Affiliation: School of Physical Therapy, Texas Woman's University
Outpatient Medical Clinic, TIRR Memorial Hermann Rehabilitation and Research
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Journal of Visualized Experiments, (140), e58449, doi:10.3791/58449 (2018)
Publication Year and Month: 2018

Abstract: The purpose of the original study was to examine the use of whole body vibration (WBV) on polio survivors with and without post-polio syndrome as a form of weight bearing exercise. The goal of this article is to highlight the strengths, limitations, and applications of the method used.
Fifteen participants completed two intervention blocks with a wash-out period in between the blocks. Each block consisted of twice a week (four weeks) WBV interventions, progressing from 10 to 20 min per session. Low intensity (peak to peak displacement 4.53 mm, frequency 24 Hz,
g force 2.21) and higher intensity (peak to peak displacement 8.82 mm, frequency 35 Hz, g force 2.76) WBV blocks were used. Pain severity significantly improved in both groups following higher intensity vibration. Walking speed significantly improved in the group who participated
in higher intensity intervention first. No study-related adverse events occurred. Even though this population can be at risk of developing overuse-related muscle weakness, fatigue, or pain from excessive physical activity or exercise, the vibration intensity levels utilized did not
cause significant muscle weakness, pain, fatigue, or sleep disturbances. Therefore, WBV appears to provide a safe method of weight bearing exercise for this population. Limitations included the lack of measurement of reflexes, muscular activity, or circulation, the difficulty in participant
recruitment, and insufficient strength of some participants to stand in recommended position. Strengths included a standard, safe protocol with intentional monitoring of symptoms and the heterogeneity of the participants in their physical abilities. An application of the methods is the home use of WBV to reduce the barriers associated with going to a facility for weight bearing exercise for longer term interventions, and benefits for conditions such as osteoporosis, particularly for aging adults with mobility difficulties due to paralysis or weakness. Presented method may serve as a starting point in future studies.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper:

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Exercise

Title: Effect of modified aerobic training on movement energetics in polio survivors
Author: Dean E, Ross J
Affiliation: School of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1243-6
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Given that individuals with disabilities may be unable to achieve maximal oxygen uptake in an exercise test and that maximal exercise testing may cause increased fatigue, pain, and muscle weakness, we examined the role of submaximal exercise testing and training based on objective as well as subjective parameters in polio survivors. Experimental (N = 7) and control subjects (N = 13) were tested before and after a 6-week period. The experimental subjects participated in a 6-week exercise training program for 30 to 40 minutes, three times a week. The program consisted of treadmill walking at 55% to 70% of age-predicted maximum heart rates; however, exercise intensity was modified to minimize discomfort/pain and fatigue. Neither objective nor subjective exercise responses were significantly different in the control group over the 6 weeks. No change was observed in cardiorespiratory conditioning in the experimental group. However, movement economy, which is related to the energy cost of walking, was significantly improved; and walking duration was significantly increased at the end of training. Modified aerobic training may have a role in enhancing endurance and reducing fatigue during activities of daily living in polio survivors.

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Category: Exercise

Title: The use of strengthening exercises in post-polio sequelae - methods and results
Author: Feldman RM
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1985 Jul; 8(7):889-90
Publication Year and Month: 1985 07

Abstract: Some individuals who had poliomyelitis 20 to 30 years ago are now reporting a recurrence of symptoms of weakness in the same muscle groups that were weakened during the initial onset of the disease. Electrophysiological findings on EMG and repetitive stimulation studies identify changes peculiar to this disease. Non-fatiguing progressive resistive exercises have been used to strengthen muscle groups demonstrating this secondary weakness after the muscles have been identified by electrophysiological studies. Favorable results are reported after non-fatiguing exercises which, combined with Occupational Therapy and appropriate orthotic management, have resulted in improvement in function of ambulation and activities of daily living. The causes of muscle atrophy and pain seen in these individuals are also discussed.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Exercise

Title: The effects of long-term non-fatiguing resistance exercise in subjects with post-polio syndrome
Author: Fillyaw MJ, Badger GJ, Goodwin GD, Bradley WG, Fries TJ, Shukla A
Affiliation: Department of Physical Therapy, University of Vermont, Burlington
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1253-6
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Measures of torque were used to evaluate changes in muscle strength and endurance in 17 patients with post-polio syndrome who did prescribed resistance exercise for up to 2 years. Exercise compliance averaged 75%, with 16 subjects increasing the weight lifted in training. Maximum torque was significantly increased in the exercised muscle compared to the control muscle; no difference was seen in muscle endurance. Individuals with post-polio syndrome can increase muscle strength by doing non-fatiguing resistance exercise, but they should undergo quantitative testing of muscle strength a minimum of every 3 months to guard against overwork weakness.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Effort-limited treadmill walk test: reliability and validity in subjects with postpolio syndrome.
Author: Finch LE, Venturini A, Mayo NE, Trojan DA.
Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, McGill University Health Center, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: 2004 Aug;83(8):613-23.
Publication Year and Month: 2004 08

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To determine the reliability and construct validity of an effort-limited treadmill walk test to measure functional ability in subjects with postpolio syndrome in an outpatient postpolio clinic.

DESIGN:
Functioning and distance walked on a treadmill to a Borg "hard" effort level were measured three times, a week apart, by two blinded raters in 15 subjects with postpolio syndrome, aged 37-67 yrs, with new weakness, fatigue, and pain but with no other cause of symptomatology or condition-limiting walking. One rater tested them twice. Fatigue activity level, mobility, and health-related quality of life (Medical Outcome Study Short Form Health Survey [SF-36]) defined functioning. Generalizability correlation coefficients determined intrarater, test-retest and interrater reliability. The correlations relating the distance walked and functioning determined construct validity.

RESULTS:
Reliability for generalizability correlation coefficients were: intrarater, 0.91; test-retest, 0.85; and interrater, 0.58. Interrater reliability improved to 0.91 with adherence to a standardized protocol. Validity was established with correlations between the distance walked and SF-36 physical component score (0.66), physical role (0.60), bodily pain (0.60), and vitality (0.55).

Conclusions: The treadmill walk test provides a reproducible and valid measure of ability in persons with postpolio syndrome with a single rater, but a standardized protocol is essential for reliability.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Exercise

Title: Cardiorespiratory responses to aerobic training by patients with postpoliomyelitis sequelae
Author: Jones DR, Speier J, Canine K, Owen R, Stull GA
Affiliation: Sister Kenny Institute, Minneapolis, Minn (Mr Jones and Drs Speier, Canine, and Owen)
School of Health Related Professions, State University of New York at Buffalo (Dr Stull)
Journal: The Journal of the American Medical Association
Citation: JAMA. 1989 Jun 9;261(22):3255-58
Publication Year and Month: 1989 06

Abstract: We examined the cardiorespiratory responses of 16 patients with postpoliomyelitis sequelae to a 16-week aerobic exercise program. The patients exercised at 70% of maximal heart rate. Dependent variables were resting and maximal heart rates, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, maximum oxygen consumption, maximum carbon dioxide consumption, respiratory quotient, and maximum expired volume per unit time. The exercise group was superior to the control group in watts, exercise time, maximum expired volume per unit time, and maximum oxygen consumption. No untoward events or loss of leg strength occurred as a result of the exercise regimen. We conclude that the aerobic training program employed in this study is a safe, short-term procedure and that patients with postpolio sequelae respond to training in a manner similar to healthy adults.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Cardiorespiratory responses to upper extremity aerobic training by postpolio subjects
Author: Kriz, J.L., Jones, D.R., Speier, J.L., Canine, J.K., Owen, R.R., Serfass, R.C.
Affiliation: Sister Kenny Institute
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Kriz, J.L., Jones, D.R., Speier, J.L., Canine, J.K., Owen, R.R., Serfass, R.C. (1992) Cardiorespiratory responses to upper extremity aerobic training by postpolio subjects. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 73(1): 49-54
Publication Year and Month: 1992 01

Abstract: The cardiorespiratory responses of ten postpolio subjects participating in a 16-week upper extremity aerobic exercise program were compared to ten non-exercised controls. The subjects trained three times a week for 20 minutes per session. Exercise intensity was prescribed at 70% to 75% of heart rate reserve plus resting heart rate. Dependent variables were resting heart rate, maximal heart rate, resting and immediate-post-exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressures, maximal oxygen consumption, maximal carbon dioxide production, minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, power, and exercise time. After training, the exercise group was superior to the control group in oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, minute ventilation, power, and exercise time. There was no reported loss of muscle strength. It was concluded that postpolio subjects can safely achieve an increase in aerobic capacity with a properly modified upper extremity exercise program. This improvement is comparable to that demonstrated by able-bodied adults.

Conclusions: Postpolio subjects can safely achieve an increase in aerobic capacity with a properly modified upper extremity exercise program. This improvement is comparable to that demonstrated by able-bodied adults.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Exercise

Title: The development of an instrument to assess post-exertional malaise in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome
Author: Leonard A Jason, Carly S Holtzman, Madison Sunnquist, Joseph Cotler
Affiliation: Department of Psychology, DePaul University, Chicago, IL 60614, USA. Email: [email protected]
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Journal of Health Psychology, Article first published online: October 24, 2018
Publication Year and Month: 2018 10

Abstract: Post-exertional malaise, or a variation of this term, is a key symptom of myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome, as this symptom is mentioned in almost all myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome case definitions. Until now there has not been a comprehensive questionnaire to assess post-exertional malaise. To rectify this situation, in this article we describe the development of a new questionnaire, called the DePaul Post-Exertional Malaise Questionnaire, which was based on input from hundreds of patients. Preliminary validation was provided by the findings of significant and predictable relationships between different domains of this post-exertional malaise questionnaire and physical functioning.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Comparison of two 6-minute walk tests to assess walking capacity in polio survivors
Author: Merel-Anne Brehm, PhD, Suzan Verduijn, MSc, Jurgen Bon, MD, Nicoline Bredt, MSc and Frans Nollet, MD, PhD
Affiliation: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: Merel-Anne Brehm, PhD, Suzan Verduijn, MSc, Jurgen Bon, MD, Nicoline Bredt, MSc and Frans Nollet, MD, PhD. Comparison of two 6-minute walk tests to assess walking capacity in polio survivors. J Rehabil Med 2017; 49: 00–00
Publication Year and Month: 2017 09

Abstract: Objective: To compare walking dynamics and test-retest reliability for 2 frequently applied walk tests in polio survivors: the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) to walk as far as possible; and the 6-minute walking energy cost test (WECT) at comfortable speed.

Design: Observational study.

Participants: Thirty-three polio survivors, able to walk ≥ 150 m.

Methods: On the same day participants performed a 6MWT and a WECT, which were repeated 1–3 weeks later. For each test, distance walked, heart rate and reduction in speed were assessed.

Results: The mean distance walked and mean heart rate were significantly higher in the 6MWT (441 m (standard deviation) (SD 79.7); 118 bpm (SD 19.2)) compared with the WECT (366 m (SD 67.3); 103 bpm (SD 14.3)); p < 0.001. Furthermore, during the 6MWT, patients continuously slowed down (–6%), while during the WECT speed dropped only slightly during the first 2 min, by –1.8% in total. Test-retest reliability of both tests was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) ≥ 0.95; lower bound 95% confidence interval (95% CI) ≥ 0.87). The smallest detectable change for the walked distance was 42 m (9.7% change from the mean) and 50 m (13.7%) on the 6MWT and WECT, respectively.

Conclusion: Both the 6MWT and the WECT are reliable to assess walking capacity in polio survivors, with slightly superior sensitivity to detect change for the 6MWT. Differences in walking dynamics confirm that the tests cannot be used interchangeably. The 6MWT is recommended for measuring maximal walking capacity and the WECT for measuring submaximal walking capacity.

Conclusions: In conclusion, this study of polio survivors with a minimum self-reported walking distance of 150 m shows that both the 6MWT and the WECT are reliable and can be used to evaluate changes in walking capacity, with the 6MWT showing slightly superior sensitivity to detect change. The study also shows a significantly higher heart rate (57%HRR on average) at the expense of a reduction in walking speed at this heart rate during the 6MWT compared with the WECT. These findings indicate distinct patterns of walking dynamics between the 6MWT and WECT, where the 6MWT is more likely a measure of maximal walking capacity (i.e. what a person can do) and the WECT of submaximal walking capacity (i.e. what a person does do). The difference in walking dynamics confirms that these tests cannot be used interchangeably, and that the choice to use either test should be tailored to the construct to be measured. Responsiveness to change in this patient population should be further investigated for both tests.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Exercise

Title: Assessment of subjective and motor fatigue in Polio survivors, attending a Postpolio clinic, comparison with healthy controls and an exploration of clinical correlates.
Author: Murray D, Hardiman O, Meldrum D.
Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, Beaumont Hospital , Beaumont, Dublin , Ireland .
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 2014 May;30(4):229-35.
Publication Year and Month: 2014 05

Abstract: PURPOSE:
Polio survivors experience declining mobility, pain and fatigue. The extent of motor fatigue and its impact on mobility and quality of life, in addition to other commonly reported impairments requires evaluation.

METHODS:
An observational, case-control, cross-sectional design was used to assess 30 Polio survivors and 30 age- and sex-matched controls. Muscle strength and motor fatigue were assessed using fixed dynamometry. Fatigue, pain and quality of life were assessed using the Piper Fatigue Scale, the Fatigue Severity Scale, visual analogue scales and the RAND Short Form-36, respectively. An 8-min walking test, including physiological cost index (PCI), evaluated mobility.

RESULTS:
A significant difference in motor fatigue was identified only in hand grip (p = 0.03). Polio survivors were significantly weaker (p < 0.001) and more fatigued (p < 0.001) than controls. Motor fatigue was not related to subjective fatigue, mobility or quality of life. Muscle strength predicted mobility. Pain and fatigue were associated with lower mental quality of life, while PCI was associated with physical quality of life.

Conclusions: Motor fatigue has been identified in Polio survivors but was only significantly different in hand grip, using this approach. Pain, fatigue and elevated energy cost of walking negatively influenced quality of life. Motor fatigue was unrelated to subjective fatigue, mobility or quality of life.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Exercise

Title: Submaximal exercise capacity and maximal power output in polio subjects
Author: Nollet F, Beelen A, Sargeant AJ, de Visser M, Lankhorst GJ, de Jong BA
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001 Dec;82(12):1678-85
Publication Year and Month: 2001 12

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To compare the submaximal exercise capacity of polio subjects with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) and without (non-PPS) with that of healthy control subjects, to investigate the relationship of this capacity with maximal short-term power and quadriceps strength, and to evaluate movement economy.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey.

SETTING: University hospital.

PARTICIPANTS: Forty-three polio subjects (25 PPS, 18 non-PPS) and 12 control subjects.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Power output, oxygen uptake, and heart rate were measured in an incremental submaximal cycle ergometry test. Maximal short-term power was measured in 5-second all-out efforts. Knee extensor strength was measured on a chair dynamometer.

RESULTS: The mean submaximal power +/- standard deviation at 80% of heart rate reserve of 83.8 +/- 29.9 watts in the polio subjects was significantly less than the mean submaximal power of 142.1 +/- 30.4 watts in the control group. However, expressed as a percentage of the maximal short-term power, submaximal power did not differ between the groups. Strength and maximal short-term power correlated significantly (p < .005) with submaximal power (r = .64 and .76, respectively). The oxygen uptake was higher than theoretically expected for the given submaximal power output in polio subjects, and appeared to increase with increasing asymmetry in strength and power between legs. No differences were found between PPS and non-PPS subjects.

Conclusions: The submaximal work capacity of polio subjects was severely reduced, mainly in association with the reduced muscle capacity. And, because of a reduced movement economy, their energy cost was elevated. Although muscle loads in activities such as walking and climbing stairs differ from cycling, they also may require elevated relative levels of effort, predisposing subjects to premature fatigue in sustained activity.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Exercise

Title: Short-term effects of aerobic exercise on functional capacity, fatigue, and quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome.
Author: Oncu J, Durmaz B, Karapolat H.
Affiliation: Ege University Medical Faculty Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Izmir, Turkey.
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Clin Rehabil. 2009 Feb;23(2):155-63
Publication Year and Month: 2009 02

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To investigate and compare the impact of hospital and home exercise programmes on aerobic capacity, fatigue, and quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome.

DESIGN:
A prospective, randomized controlled trial.

SETTING:
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University Hospital.

SUBJECTS:
Thirty-two patients were divided into two groups for either hospital- or home-based aerobic exercise programme.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Patients were assessed before and after the rehabilitation programme, with respect to functional capacity (pVo2), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale, Fatigue Impact Scale) and quality of life (Nottingham Heath Profile).

RESULTS:
After the exercise programme, improvement was observed in the hospital exercise group compared to a pre-exercise period in all Nottingham Heath Profile scores (except sleep scores), pVo2, Fatigue Severity Scale and Fatigue Impact Scale (cognitive, physical, psychosocial, total) (P<0.05). In contrast, in the home exercise group a decrease was observed in pVo2 scores after the rehabilitation programme, compared to a pre-rehabilitation period (P<0.05). In addition, a significant improvement was observed in the home exercise group after the rehabilitation programme in all parameters excluding Fatigue Impact Scale-physical, Fatigue Impact Scale-psychosocial, and Nottingham Heath Profile-sleep (P<0.05). When the two exercise groups were compared, improvement was observed in the hospital exercise group compared to the home exercise group in pVo2 and Fatigue Severity Scale-total, Fatigue Impact Scale-physical, Fatigue Impact Scale-psychosocial, Fatigue Impact Scale-total, and Nottingham Heath Profile-energy scores (P<0.05).

Conclusions: CONCLUSION:
Fatigue and quality of life were both improved in the home and hospital exercise groups. An increase was also found in the functional capacity in the hospital exercise group. A regular exercise programme is beneficial to patients with post-polio syndrome.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Exercise

Title: Previous Acute Polio and Post-Polio Syndrome: Recognizing the Pathophysiology for the Establishment of Rehabilitation Programs
Author: Orsini M (1), de Souza JA (2), Araújo Leite MA (2), Teixeira S (3), de Sá Ferreira A (4), Bastos VH (3), de Freitas MR (2), Oliveira AB (5)
Affiliation: (1) Rehabilitation Sciences, Augusto Motta University Center, UNISUAN, Bonsucesso, Brazil; Neurology Service, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói, Brazil; (2) Neurology Service, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói, Brazil; (3) Physical Therapy Department, Federal University of Piauí, Brazil; (4) Rehabilitation Sciences, Augusto Motta University Center, UNISUAN, Bonsucesso, Brazil; (5) Neurology Service, Paulista School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil
Journal: Neurology International
Citation: Neurol Int. 2015 Mar 9;7(1):5452. doi: 10.4081/ni.2015.5452. eCollection 2015
Publication Year and Month: 2015 03

Abstract: NO ABSTRACT AVAILABLE - THIS IS AN EXTRACT:
Previous acute poliomyelitis (PAP) can be defined as an endemic human disease caused by an enterovirus of worldwide distribution, which compromises the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord. Poliovirus has infected and victimized thousands of people all over the world. Only after the development of the inactivated virus vaccine by Jonas Salk, in 1955, and then with the attenuated virus vaccine, by Albert Bruce Sabin, in 1961, we saw a reduction in the number of poliomyelitis cases in the world.

The patients present clinical status characterized by muscle atrophy and paresis, especially in the lower limbs, under asymmetrical and disproportional form. There is a second form, bulbar, which compromises the motor neurons of the medulla, resulting in impairments in speech, swallowing and breathing. The purpose of this letter to the Editor is to alert readers about the risks of therapeutic exercise for this group of patients.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Exercise

Title: Postpolio syndrome and cardiopulmonary conditioning
Author: Owen RR
Affiliation: Sister Kenny Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55407
Journal: The Western Journal of Medicine
Citation: West J Med. 1991 May;154(5):557-8 (Rehabilitation Medicine - Adding Life to Years [Special Issue])
Publication Year and Month: 1991 05

Abstract: Postpolio syndrome is a group of related signs and symptoms occurring in people who had paralytic poliomyelitis years earlier. New weakness, fatigue, poor endurance, pain, reduced mobility, increased breathing difficulty, intolerance to cold, and sleep disturbance in various degrees and expressions make up the syndrome. The reported incidence is between 25% and 80%. The origins are multifactorial and can be associated with underexertion, overexertion, inactivity due to intercurrent illness or injury, hypo-oxygenation, sleep apnea, deconditioning, and the failure of sprouted, compensatory large motor units. The exercise question in postpolio syndrome is related to the experience of new weakness or loss of muscle function due to overuse, which is often associated with injudicious repeated challenges to weakened musculature. Carefully prescribed exercise can be used for increasing strength and endurance and improving cardiopulmonary conditioning.

Conclusions: Stretching and flexibility exercises are critical physical hygiene measures for the management of pain, instability, and deformity. These exercises should also precede cardiopulmonary conditioning and other vigorous physical pursuits. Muscle training and strengthening when carefully defined and judiciously implemented can safely build force and power. Resistive exercises should be prescribed for specific goals rather than for purposes of general muscle training. An adapted cardiopulmonary conditioning program has been created to provide improved cardiac status without the risk of overuse damage to nerve and muscle.

The management of postpolio syndrome requires applying traditional physical treatment principles with specific attention to the factors of the vulnerability of compensatory mechanisms to injury by overuse, underuse, underoxygenation, and an inefficient use of weakened musculature. Clinicians must provide information and a balanced prescription of exercise, rest, activity, support, and intelligent accommodation to additional disability.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Polio residuals clinic: conditioning exercise program
Author: Owen RR, Jones D
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1985 Jul; 8(7):882-3
Publication Year and Month: 1985 07

Abstract: The additional disability experienced by individuals who had poliomyelitis many years earlier has a variety of expressions and a variety of interacting origins. Undertraining and deconditioning are addressed in this article. Weakened musculature often fatigues before a conditioning level of activity is reached. An adapted exercise program for cardiac endurance will reduce symptoms of fatigue and pain. An intentional training program for muscles weakened further by disuse or underutilization will supplement the conditioning program. The clinical assessment and exercise prescription is described.

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Category: Exercise

Title: The Postpolio Syndrome: An Overuse Phenomenon


Author: Perry, J., Barnes, G., & Gronley, J. K.
Affiliation:
Journal: Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research
Citation: Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research Volume 233:145-162; August 1988
Publication Year and Month: 1988 08

Abstract: Persons with good recovery of function following their initial poliomyelitis are now, more than 30 years later, experiencing new weakness, fatigue, and muscle pain. The likelihood of muscle overuse being the cause of this late functional loss was investigated by dynamic electromyography (EMG) and foot-switch stride analysis in 34 symptomatic patients. Manual testing grouped the muscles, with strong (S) encompassing Grades Good (G) and Normal (N) while weak (W) included Fair plus (F+) to zero (0). After testing quadriceps and calf strength, the patients fell into one of four classes: strong quadriceps and calf (SQ/SC) strong quadriceps and weak calf (SQ/WC) weak quadriceps and strong calf (WQ/SC) or combined weak quadriceps and calf (WQ/WC). Quantified EMG; (normalized by the manual muscle test EMG) defined the mean duration and intensity of the quadriceps soleus, lower gluteus maximus, and long head of the biceps femoris during walking. Overuse was defined as values greater than the laboratory normal (mean·+ 1 SD). Each muscle exhibited instances of overuse, normalcy, and sparing. The biceps femoris was the only muscle with dominant overuse (82%). Quadriceps overuse was next in frequency (53%). Soleus activity infrequently exceeded normal function (34%), but this still represented more than twice the intensity and duration of the other muscles. Gluteus maximus action was also seldom excessive (34%). The patients averaged two muscles with excessive use during walking. Gait velocity of the SQ/SC strong group was highest (71% of normal) while the three categories that included weak muscles had walking speeds in the range of 50% of normal. The finding of muscle overuse during a single free-speed walking test that does not attain normal velocity supports the concept of muscle overuse being the cause of the patient's dysfunction.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Comments (if any): Paul Cavendish
(Clinical Health Educator):
This article discusses manual muscle testing and gait dynamics with EMG, demonstrating excessive muscle use during gait, demonstrating increased fatigue for this sample of people with a history of polio.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Effect of aquatic exercise training in persons with poliomyelitis disability
Author: Prins, J.H., Hartung, H.G., Merritt, D.J., Blancq, R.J., Goebert, D.A.
Affiliation:
Journal:
Citation: Prins, J.H., Hartung, H.G., Merritt, D.J., Blancq, R.J., Goebert, D.A. (1994) Effect of aquatic exercise training in persons with poliomyelitis disability. Sports Medicine, Training and Rehabilitation. 5(1):29-39
Publication Year and Month: 1994 01

Abstract: Aquatic exercise, including swimming, reduces the effect of body weight on limbs and joints. A combination of swimming and specific activities involving resistive devices was used in an attempt to improve strength in persons who had symptomatic weakness related to poliomyelitis. Dynamic muscular force application in selected limb movements and range of motion were measured before and after an 8‐week aquatic exercise intervention. Peak (PF) and average force (AF) were determined in the water using a differential pressure transducer attached to either the hand, foot, or a resistive device. Arm flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and horizontal adduction and abduction along with combined hip flexion and knee extension were tested for both PF and AF Subjects were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups; complete data were available on nine experimental and four control subjects. PF and AF changes were greater (p ≤ 0.05) for experimental compared with control for right arm flexion (PF, 96 versus 6%) and extension (PR 105 versus ‐15%; AF, 76 versus ‐30%), respectively. Changes were greater (p ≤0.05) in experimental than control for left arm extension (PF, 88% versus 19%) and horizontal abduction (PF, 127% versus ‐21%; AF, 122% versus ‐17%). Aquatic exercise training in subjects with poliomyelitis disability resulted in significant dynamic strength changes of the upper body while appearing not to exacerbate symptomatic fatigue or pain.

Conclusions: Aquatic exercise training in subjects with poliomyelitis disability resulted in significant dynamic strength changes of the upper body while appearing not to exacerbate symptomatic fatigue or pain.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Comments (if any): Baseline strength measurements and functional outcomes (land-based) would have assisted greatly to determine the benefits of the increased forces produced from this aquatic training.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Effects of resistance training in combination with coenzyme Q10 supplementation in patients with post-polio: a pilot study.
Author: Skough K, Krossén C, Heiwe S, Theorell H, Borg K.
Affiliation: Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Danderyds Hospital, Stockolm, Sweden.
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: 2008 Oct;40(9):773-5.
Publication Year and Month: 2008 10

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
Coenzyme Q10 supplementation leads to increased muscle metabolism in patients with post-polio syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training in combination with oral supplementation with coenzyme Q10 in patients with post-polio syndrome regarding muscle strength and endurance as well as functional capacity and health-related quality of life.

DESIGN:
Parallel randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:
A total of 14 patients (8 women and 6 men) with post-polio syndrome participated in a 12-week muscular resistance training, 3 days/week. The patients were randomized for oral supplementation with coenzyme Q10, 200 mg/day, or placebo. Measurements used were: sit-stand-sit test, timed up & go test, 6-minute walk test, muscle strength measurement by means of dynamic dynamometer and short-form (SF)-36 questionnaire.

RESULTS:
Muscle strength, muscle endurance and quality of life regarding mental health increased statistically significantly in all 14 patients. There was no significant difference between the coenzyme Q10 and placebo groups regarding muscle strength, muscle endurance and quality of life.

Conclusions: There was no effect of coenzyme Q10 supplementation during resistance training on post-polio syndrome symptoms. Thus, supplementation with coenzyme Q10 has no beneficial effect on muscle function in patients with post-polio syndrome.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Exercise

Title: Post-polio fatigue: a 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigation
Author: Thompson RT, Barton PM, Marsh GD, Cameron MG, Gravelle DG, Hsieh JT, Hayes KC, Driedger AA
Affiliation: Department of Nuclear Medicine, St. Joseph's Health Center, London, Ontario, Canada
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1263-7
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Changes in high energy phosphates (HEP) and intramuscular pH during exercise were measured in 17 patients with post-polio fatigue and in 28 healthy controls using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Subjects performed a dynamic hand grip exercise at low and high intensity. Mean changes in the HEP and pH showed no significant differences between the groups, although the post-polio group's response was highly variable. Six patients showed evidence of a lower lactate accumulation during the high intensity exercise when compared with controls. These data suggest that the whole body fatigue experienced by polio survivors is not related to any systemic metabolic abnormality.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Determining the anaerobic threshold in postpolio syndrome: comparison with current guidelines for training intensity prescription
Author: Voorn EL (1), Gerrits KH (2), Koopman FS (3), Nollet F (3), Beelen A (3)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: [email protected]; (2) MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; (3) Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 May;95(5):935-40. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2014.01.015
Publication Year and Month: 2014 05

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the anaerobic threshold (AT) can be identified in individuals with postpolio syndrome (PPS) using submaximal incremental exercise testing, and to compare current guidelines for intensity prescription in PPS with the AT.

DESIGN: Cohort study.

SETTING: Research laboratory.

PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with PPS (N=82).

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Power output, gas exchange variables, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured in an incremental submaximal cycle ergometry test. Two independent observers identified the AT. Comparison of current guidelines for training intensity prescription in PPS (40%-60% heart rate reserve [HRR] or RPE of 12) with the AT was based on correlations between recommended heart rate and the heart rate at the AT. In addition, we determined the proportion of individuals that would have been recommended to train at an intensity corresponding to their AT.

RESULTS: The AT was identified in 63 (77%) of the participants. Pearson correlation coefficients between the recommended heart rate and the heart rate at the AT were lower in cases of 40% HRR (r=.56) and 60% HRR (r=.50) than in cases of prescription based on the RPE (r=.86). Based on the RPE, 55% of the individuals would have been recommended to train at an intensity corresponding to their AT. This proportion was higher compared with 40% HRR (41%) or 60% HRR (18%) as criterion.

Conclusions: The AT can be identified in most individuals with PPS offering an individualized target for aerobic training. If the AT cannot be identified (eg, because gas analysis equipment is not available), intensity prescription can best be based on the RPE.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Exercise

Title: Gait characteristics and influence of fatigue during the 6-minute walk test in patients with post-polio syndrome
Author: Vreede KS, Henriksson J, Borg K, Henriksson M
Affiliation: Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, SE-182 88 Stockholm, Sweden - [email protected]
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2013 Sep;45(9):924-8. doi: 10.2340/16501977-1209.
Publication Year and Month: 2013 09

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate gait in patients with post-polio syndrome, using the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) combined with three-dimensional kinematic analysis.

DESIGN: Descriptive study.

SUBJECTS: Eighteen patients and 11 healthy controls.

METHODS: Kinematic data were obtained during a 6MWT by a Vicon motion capture system. Distance, heart rate, leg tiredness, dyspnoea and exertion were also recorded.

RESULTS: Patients with post-polio syndrome showed larger increases in leg tiredness (p < 0.001) and dyspnoea (p < 0.05) as a result of the 6MWT than did controls. Walking speed decreased by 14.1% in patients vs 4.7% in controls (p < 0.05). Fourteen out of 18 patients displayed plantar-flexed ankle at initial contact (1/11 controls). At foot-off, the patients had a flexed hip (extended in controls) and a more flexed knee. Walking speed in patients correlated with hip angle at footoff, at the start (r = –0.60, p < 0.001) and the end of the 6MWT (r = –0.74, p < 0.001), being higher the more the hip was extended.

CONCLUSION: The 6MWT is fatiguing for patients with post polio syndrome, and this was reflected in the kinematic data. Walking speed was negatively correlated with the increased hip flexion, but not with the ankle plantar-flexion at foot-off in the patients with post-polio syndrome. The three-dimensional results underscore the importance of hip function in this patient group.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Daily Well-Being Benefits of Physical Activity in Older Adults: Does Time or Type Matter?
Author: Whitehead BR, Blaxton JM
Affiliation: 1 Behavioral Sciences Department, University of Michigan-Dearborn.
2 Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame, Indiana.
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Gerontologist. 2017 Nov 10;57(6):1062-1071
Publication Year and Month: 2017 11

Abstract: PURPOSE OF THE STUDY:
There is little debate that maintaining some level of physical activity in later life conveys positive benefits both physically and psychologically. What is less understood is the extent to which the type of activity or the length of time spent doing it matters when it comes to these benefits on the daily level. Here, we investigated (a) whether the presence of daily purposeful exercise (Exercise) or non-exercise physical activity (Activity) is sufficient for experiencing day-level benefits, or if time spent matters, and (b) whether there are differential well-being benefits of Exercise and Activity on the daily level.

DESIGN AND METHODS:
Older adults (N = 127; aged 60-95, Mage = 79.4) filled out surveys for 14 days, reporting daily Exercise and Activity behaviors as well as Positive and Negative Affect (PA/NA), Perceived Stress (PS), Perceived Health (PH), and Sleep Quality (SQ).

RESULTS:
Multilevel regression models showed that for purposeful exercise, more time spent was beneficial for PA, NA, and PH, but for PS, only the presence of exercise was important (time did not matter). For non-exercise activity, time did not have as great an influence as presence-doing any form of activity was beneficial for both PA and SQ. Exercise and Activity had largely independent (additive) effects.

Conclusions: Results reveal that both purposeful exercise and non-exercise activity convey independent daily well-being benefits, and that for some aspects of daily well-being, duration does matter. Findings can be applied in the development of physical activity education or engagement programs for older adults.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Exercise

Title: Dynamic water exercise in individuals with late poliomyelitis
Author: Willén C, Sunnerhagen KS, Grimby G
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden - [email protected]
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001 Jan;82(1):66-72
Publication Year and Month: 2001 01

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the specific effects of general dynamic water exercise in individuals with late effects of poliomyelitis.

DESIGN: Before-after tests.

SETTING: A university hospital department.

PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-eight individuals with late effects of polio, 15 assigned to the training group (TG) and 13 to the control group (CG).

INTERVENTION: The TG completed a 40-minute general fitness training session in warm water twice weekly. Assessment instruments included the bicycle ergometer test, isokinetic muscle strength, a 30-meter walk indoors, Berg balance scale, a pain drawing, a visual analog scale, the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, and the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Peak load, peak work load, peak oxygen uptake, peak heart rate (HR), muscle function in knee extensors and flexors, and pain dimension of the NHP.

RESULTS: The average training period was 5 months; compliance was 75% (range, 55-98). No negative effects were seen. The exercise did not influence the peak work load, peak oxygen uptake, or muscle function in knee extensors compared with the controls. However, a decreased HR at the same individual work load was seen, as well as a significantly lower distress in the dimension pain of the NHP. Qualitative aspects such as increased well-being, pain relief, and increased physical fitness were reported.

Conclusions: A program of nonswimming dynamic exercises in heated water has a positive impact on individuals with late effects of polio, with a decreased HR at exercise, less pain, and a subjective positive experience. The program was well tolerated (no adverse effects were reported) and can be recommended for this group of individuals.

Outcome of Research: Effective.

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There are currently 26 papers in this category.

Category: Exercise

Title: Endurance Training Effect on Individuals With Postpoliomyelitis
Author: Brian Ernstoff, MD, Hakon Wetterqvist, MD, PhD, Henry Kvist, MD, PhD, Gunnar Grimby, MD, PhD
Affiliation:
Journal:
Citation: Ernstoff B, Wetterqvist H, Kvist H, Grimby G. Endurance training effect on individuals with postpoliomyelitis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1996;77:843-8.
Publication Year and Month: 1996

Abstract: Objective: To determine the effects of an endurance training program on the exercise capacity and muscle structure and function in individuals with postpolio syndrome.

Design: Preexercise and postexercise testing was performed with muscle strength evaluations using isokinetic testing as well as hand-held Myometer. Muscle fatigue was determined by use of isokinetic testing, and endurance was determined by exercise testing. Enzymatic evaluation was performed with muscle biopsies taken at the same site; preexercise and postexercise muscle cross-sectional area was measured by computed tomography. Disability and psychosocial evaluation was performed by a Functional Status Questionnaire.

Setting: A university.

Subjects: Seventeen postpolio subjects ranging in age from 39 to 49 years volunteered for a 6-month combined endurance and strength training program. They had a history of acute poliomyelitis at least 25 years earlier and were able to walk with or without aid.

Intervention: Twelve of the subjects (mean age 42 years) completed the program, attending an average of 29 sessions, which were offered for 60 minutes twice a week.

Main Outcome Measures: Strength, endurance, enzymatic activity, and cross-sectional area were measured 3 months before the beginning of training, just before training, and at the completion of the exercise program.

Conclusions: Results: Knee extension was reduced to an average of 60% of control values and did not change with training. Strength measured with a hand-held Myometer increased significantly for elbow flexion, wrist extension, and hip abduction. Exercise test on a bicycle-ergometer showed significant reduction (6 beats/min) in heart rate at 70W and increase (12 beats/min) in maximal heart rate with training. The training program could be performed without major complications and resulted in an increase in muscle strength in some muscle groups and in work performance with respect to heart rate at submaximal work load.

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Exercise

Title: Effect of aquatic exercise training in persons with poliomyelitis disability
Author: Prins, J.H., Hartung, H.G., Merritt, D.J., Blancq, R.J., Goebert, D.A.
Affiliation:
Journal:
Citation: Prins, J.H., Hartung, H.G., Merritt, D.J., Blancq, R.J., Goebert, D.A. (1994) Effect of aquatic exercise training in persons with poliomyelitis disability. Sports Medicine, Training and Rehabilitation. 5(1):29-39
Publication Year and Month: 1994 01

Abstract: Aquatic exercise, including swimming, reduces the effect of body weight on limbs and joints. A combination of swimming and specific activities involving resistive devices was used in an attempt to improve strength in persons who had symptomatic weakness related to poliomyelitis. Dynamic muscular force application in selected limb movements and range of motion were measured before and after an 8‐week aquatic exercise intervention. Peak (PF) and average force (AF) were determined in the water using a differential pressure transducer attached to either the hand, foot, or a resistive device. Arm flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and horizontal adduction and abduction along with combined hip flexion and knee extension were tested for both PF and AF Subjects were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups; complete data were available on nine experimental and four control subjects. PF and AF changes were greater (p ≤ 0.05) for experimental compared with control for right arm flexion (PF, 96 versus 6%) and extension (PR 105 versus ‐15%; AF, 76 versus ‐30%), respectively. Changes were greater (p ≤0.05) in experimental than control for left arm extension (PF, 88% versus 19%) and horizontal abduction (PF, 127% versus ‐21%; AF, 122% versus ‐17%). Aquatic exercise training in subjects with poliomyelitis disability resulted in significant dynamic strength changes of the upper body while appearing not to exacerbate symptomatic fatigue or pain.

Conclusions: Aquatic exercise training in subjects with poliomyelitis disability resulted in significant dynamic strength changes of the upper body while appearing not to exacerbate symptomatic fatigue or pain.

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper:

Comments (if any): Baseline strength measurements and functional outcomes (land-based) would have assisted greatly to determine the benefits of the increased forces produced from this aquatic training.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Low-intensity, alternate-day exercise improves muscle performance without apparent adverse affect in postpolio patients.
Author: Agre, J., Rodriguez, A., Franke, T., Swiggum, E., Harmon, R., Curt, J.
Affiliation: Agre- Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison Medical School, 53791, USA.
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1996;75(1):50-8.
Publication Year and Month: 1996 01

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a low-intensity, alternate-day, 12 wk quadriceps muscle-strengthening exercise program on muscle strength and muscle and motor unit integrity in 12 postpolio patients. Patients performed six to ten repetitions of a 5-s duration knee extension exercise with ankle weights. After completing six repetitions, patients rated the perceived exertion (RPE) in the exercised muscle. The patient continued repetitions until RPE was >/= 17 or ten repetitions were performed. The weight was increased the next exercise day whenever the RPE was < 17 after ten repetitions. Before and after the training program, median macroamplitude as well as jitter and blocking were determined electromyographically (EMG), serum creatine kinase (CK) was measured, and quadriceps muscle strength was assessed. The ankle weight lifted after 2 wk of training and at the end of the program were also recorded. Although the ankle weight lifted at the end of the program significantly (P < 0.05) increased from a mean +/- SD of 7.1 +/- 2.7 to 11.2 +/- 4.7 kg, the dynametrically determined muscle strength measures did not significantly (P > 0.05) increase. The EMG and the serum CK variables also did not significantly (P >0.05) change as a result of the exercise program. We conclude that performance was improved, as demonstrated by an increase in the amount of weight the patients lifted in the exercise program. No evidence was found to show that this program adversely affected the motor units or the muscle as the EMG and CK did not change.

Conclusions: Patients increased leg strength without changes in motor unit innervation or fatigue levels.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Comments (if any): This is a good result on the efficacy of exercise. Caution should be applied to using these results across all people with a history of polio. Reasonable leg strength existed for all people involved in this study. Further investigations are required on they type, frequency and intensity of exercise as well as confirming results over a longer period of time.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Effort-limited treadmill walk test: reliability and validity in subjects with postpolio syndrome.
Author: Finch LE, Venturini A, Mayo NE, Trojan DA.
Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, McGill University Health Center, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: 2004 Aug;83(8):613-23.
Publication Year and Month: 2004 08

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To determine the reliability and construct validity of an effort-limited treadmill walk test to measure functional ability in subjects with postpolio syndrome in an outpatient postpolio clinic.

DESIGN:
Functioning and distance walked on a treadmill to a Borg "hard" effort level were measured three times, a week apart, by two blinded raters in 15 subjects with postpolio syndrome, aged 37-67 yrs, with new weakness, fatigue, and pain but with no other cause of symptomatology or condition-limiting walking. One rater tested them twice. Fatigue activity level, mobility, and health-related quality of life (Medical Outcome Study Short Form Health Survey [SF-36]) defined functioning. Generalizability correlation coefficients determined intrarater, test-retest and interrater reliability. The correlations relating the distance walked and functioning determined construct validity.

RESULTS:
Reliability for generalizability correlation coefficients were: intrarater, 0.91; test-retest, 0.85; and interrater, 0.58. Interrater reliability improved to 0.91 with adherence to a standardized protocol. Validity was established with correlations between the distance walked and SF-36 physical component score (0.66), physical role (0.60), bodily pain (0.60), and vitality (0.55).

Conclusions: The treadmill walk test provides a reproducible and valid measure of ability in persons with postpolio syndrome with a single rater, but a standardized protocol is essential for reliability.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Exercise

Title: Dynamic water exercise in individuals with late poliomyelitis
Author: Willén C, Sunnerhagen KS, Grimby G
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden - [email protected]
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001 Jan;82(1):66-72
Publication Year and Month: 2001 01

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the specific effects of general dynamic water exercise in individuals with late effects of poliomyelitis.

DESIGN: Before-after tests.

SETTING: A university hospital department.

PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-eight individuals with late effects of polio, 15 assigned to the training group (TG) and 13 to the control group (CG).

INTERVENTION: The TG completed a 40-minute general fitness training session in warm water twice weekly. Assessment instruments included the bicycle ergometer test, isokinetic muscle strength, a 30-meter walk indoors, Berg balance scale, a pain drawing, a visual analog scale, the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, and the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Peak load, peak work load, peak oxygen uptake, peak heart rate (HR), muscle function in knee extensors and flexors, and pain dimension of the NHP.

RESULTS: The average training period was 5 months; compliance was 75% (range, 55-98). No negative effects were seen. The exercise did not influence the peak work load, peak oxygen uptake, or muscle function in knee extensors compared with the controls. However, a decreased HR at the same individual work load was seen, as well as a significantly lower distress in the dimension pain of the NHP. Qualitative aspects such as increased well-being, pain relief, and increased physical fitness were reported.

Conclusions: A program of nonswimming dynamic exercises in heated water has a positive impact on individuals with late effects of polio, with a decreased HR at exercise, less pain, and a subjective positive experience. The program was well tolerated (no adverse effects were reported) and can be recommended for this group of individuals.

Outcome of Research: Effective.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Determining the anaerobic threshold in postpolio syndrome: comparison with current guidelines for training intensity prescription
Author: Voorn EL (1), Gerrits KH (2), Koopman FS (3), Nollet F (3), Beelen A (3)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: [email protected]; (2) MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; (3) Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 May;95(5):935-40. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2014.01.015
Publication Year and Month: 2014 05

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the anaerobic threshold (AT) can be identified in individuals with postpolio syndrome (PPS) using submaximal incremental exercise testing, and to compare current guidelines for intensity prescription in PPS with the AT.

DESIGN: Cohort study.

SETTING: Research laboratory.

PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with PPS (N=82).

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Power output, gas exchange variables, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured in an incremental submaximal cycle ergometry test. Two independent observers identified the AT. Comparison of current guidelines for training intensity prescription in PPS (40%-60% heart rate reserve [HRR] or RPE of 12) with the AT was based on correlations between recommended heart rate and the heart rate at the AT. In addition, we determined the proportion of individuals that would have been recommended to train at an intensity corresponding to their AT.

RESULTS: The AT was identified in 63 (77%) of the participants. Pearson correlation coefficients between the recommended heart rate and the heart rate at the AT were lower in cases of 40% HRR (r=.56) and 60% HRR (r=.50) than in cases of prescription based on the RPE (r=.86). Based on the RPE, 55% of the individuals would have been recommended to train at an intensity corresponding to their AT. This proportion was higher compared with 40% HRR (41%) or 60% HRR (18%) as criterion.

Conclusions: The AT can be identified in most individuals with PPS offering an individualized target for aerobic training. If the AT cannot be identified (eg, because gas analysis equipment is not available), intensity prescription can best be based on the RPE.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Exercise

Title: Submaximal exercise capacity and maximal power output in polio subjects
Author: Nollet F, Beelen A, Sargeant AJ, de Visser M, Lankhorst GJ, de Jong BA
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001 Dec;82(12):1678-85
Publication Year and Month: 2001 12

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To compare the submaximal exercise capacity of polio subjects with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) and without (non-PPS) with that of healthy control subjects, to investigate the relationship of this capacity with maximal short-term power and quadriceps strength, and to evaluate movement economy.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey.

SETTING: University hospital.

PARTICIPANTS: Forty-three polio subjects (25 PPS, 18 non-PPS) and 12 control subjects.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Power output, oxygen uptake, and heart rate were measured in an incremental submaximal cycle ergometry test. Maximal short-term power was measured in 5-second all-out efforts. Knee extensor strength was measured on a chair dynamometer.

RESULTS: The mean submaximal power +/- standard deviation at 80% of heart rate reserve of 83.8 +/- 29.9 watts in the polio subjects was significantly less than the mean submaximal power of 142.1 +/- 30.4 watts in the control group. However, expressed as a percentage of the maximal short-term power, submaximal power did not differ between the groups. Strength and maximal short-term power correlated significantly (p < .005) with submaximal power (r = .64 and .76, respectively). The oxygen uptake was higher than theoretically expected for the given submaximal power output in polio subjects, and appeared to increase with increasing asymmetry in strength and power between legs. No differences were found between PPS and non-PPS subjects.

Conclusions: The submaximal work capacity of polio subjects was severely reduced, mainly in association with the reduced muscle capacity. And, because of a reduced movement economy, their energy cost was elevated. Although muscle loads in activities such as walking and climbing stairs differ from cycling, they also may require elevated relative levels of effort, predisposing subjects to premature fatigue in sustained activity.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Exercise

Title: Cardiorespiratory responses to upper extremity aerobic training by postpolio subjects
Author: Kriz, J.L., Jones, D.R., Speier, J.L., Canine, J.K., Owen, R.R., Serfass, R.C.
Affiliation: Sister Kenny Institute
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Kriz, J.L., Jones, D.R., Speier, J.L., Canine, J.K., Owen, R.R., Serfass, R.C. (1992) Cardiorespiratory responses to upper extremity aerobic training by postpolio subjects. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 73(1): 49-54
Publication Year and Month: 1992 01

Abstract: The cardiorespiratory responses of ten postpolio subjects participating in a 16-week upper extremity aerobic exercise program were compared to ten non-exercised controls. The subjects trained three times a week for 20 minutes per session. Exercise intensity was prescribed at 70% to 75% of heart rate reserve plus resting heart rate. Dependent variables were resting heart rate, maximal heart rate, resting and immediate-post-exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressures, maximal oxygen consumption, maximal carbon dioxide production, minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, power, and exercise time. After training, the exercise group was superior to the control group in oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, minute ventilation, power, and exercise time. There was no reported loss of muscle strength. It was concluded that postpolio subjects can safely achieve an increase in aerobic capacity with a properly modified upper extremity exercise program. This improvement is comparable to that demonstrated by able-bodied adults.

Conclusions: Postpolio subjects can safely achieve an increase in aerobic capacity with a properly modified upper extremity exercise program. This improvement is comparable to that demonstrated by able-bodied adults.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Exercise

Title: Strength, endurance and work capacity after muscle strengthening exercise in postpolio subjects.
Author: Agre, J., Rodriguez, A., Franke, T.
Affiliation: Agre - Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, USA.
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997;78(7):681-6.
Publication Year and Month: 1997 07

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To determine whether a 12-week home quadriceps muscle strengthening exercise program would increase muscle strength, isometric endurance, and tension time index (TTI) in postpolio syndrome subjects without adversely affecting the surviving motor units or the muscle.

DESIGN:
A longitudinal study to investigate the effect of a 12-week exercise program on neuromuscular function and electromyographic variables.

SETTING:
Neuromuscular laboratory of a university hospital.

SUBJECTS:
Seven subjects were recruited from a cohort of 12 subjects who had participated in a previous exercise study. All subjects had greater than antigravity strength of the quadriceps. Upon completion of a postpolio questionnaire, all acknowledged common postpolio syndrome symptoms such as new fatigue, pain, and weakness; 6 of the 7 acknowledged new strength decline.

INTERVENTION:
On Mondays and Thursdays subjects performed three sets of four maximal isometric contractions of the quadriceps held for 5 seconds each. On Tuesdays and Fridays subjects performed three sets of 12 dynamic knee extension exercises with ankle weights.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Neuromuscular variables of the quadriceps muscles were measured at the beginning and completion of the exercise program and included: isokinetic peak torque (ISOKPT, at 60 degrees/sec angular velocity) and total work performed of four contractions (ISOKTW), isometric peak torque (MVC), endurance (EDUR, time subject could hold isometric contraction at 40% of the initial MVC), isometric tension time index (TTI, product of endurance time and torque at 40% of MVC), and initial and final ankle weight (WGT, kg) lifted. Electromyographic variables included: fiber density (FD), jitter (MCD), and blocking (BLK) from single fiber assessment and median macro amplitude (MACRO). Serum creatine kinase (CK) was also measured initially and at 4-week intervals throughout the study.

RESULTS:
The following variables significantly (p < .05) increased: WGT by 47%, ISOKPT, 15%, ISOKTW, 15%; MVC, 36%; EDUR, 21%; TTI, 18%. The following variables did not significantly (p > .05) change: FD, MCD, BLK, MACRO, and CK.

CONCLUSIONS:
This home exercise program significantly increased strength, endurance, and TTI without apparently adversely affecting the motor units or the muscle, as the EMG and CK variables did not change.

Conclusions: A home exercise at low-moderate exercise with rest periods can improve or maintain leg strength and endurance in some post-polio subjects.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Comments (if any): These results are positive for exercise and have been included in more recent literature reviews. More research is required on the appropriate recommendation for strength programs for people who are experiencing lower limb weakness. Further guidance on exercise prescription is required.

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Category: Exercise

Title: The Postpolio Syndrome: An Overuse Phenomenon


Author: Perry, J., Barnes, G., & Gronley, J. K.
Affiliation:
Journal: Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research
Citation: Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research Volume 233:145-162; August 1988
Publication Year and Month: 1988 08

Abstract: Persons with good recovery of function following their initial poliomyelitis are now, more than 30 years later, experiencing new weakness, fatigue, and muscle pain. The likelihood of muscle overuse being the cause of this late functional loss was investigated by dynamic electromyography (EMG) and foot-switch stride analysis in 34 symptomatic patients. Manual testing grouped the muscles, with strong (S) encompassing Grades Good (G) and Normal (N) while weak (W) included Fair plus (F+) to zero (0). After testing quadriceps and calf strength, the patients fell into one of four classes: strong quadriceps and calf (SQ/SC) strong quadriceps and weak calf (SQ/WC) weak quadriceps and strong calf (WQ/SC) or combined weak quadriceps and calf (WQ/WC). Quantified EMG; (normalized by the manual muscle test EMG) defined the mean duration and intensity of the quadriceps soleus, lower gluteus maximus, and long head of the biceps femoris during walking. Overuse was defined as values greater than the laboratory normal (mean·+ 1 SD). Each muscle exhibited instances of overuse, normalcy, and sparing. The biceps femoris was the only muscle with dominant overuse (82%). Quadriceps overuse was next in frequency (53%). Soleus activity infrequently exceeded normal function (34%), but this still represented more than twice the intensity and duration of the other muscles. Gluteus maximus action was also seldom excessive (34%). The patients averaged two muscles with excessive use during walking. Gait velocity of the SQ/SC strong group was highest (71% of normal) while the three categories that included weak muscles had walking speeds in the range of 50% of normal. The finding of muscle overuse during a single free-speed walking test that does not attain normal velocity supports the concept of muscle overuse being the cause of the patient's dysfunction.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any): Paul Cavendish
(Clinical Health Educator):
This article discusses manual muscle testing and gait dynamics with EMG, demonstrating excessive muscle use during gait, demonstrating increased fatigue for this sample of people with a history of polio.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Gait characteristics and influence of fatigue during the 6-minute walk test in patients with post-polio syndrome
Author: Vreede KS, Henriksson J, Borg K, Henriksson M
Affiliation: Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, SE-182 88 Stockholm, Sweden - [email protected]
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2013 Sep;45(9):924-8. doi: 10.2340/16501977-1209.
Publication Year and Month: 2013 09

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate gait in patients with post-polio syndrome, using the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) combined with three-dimensional kinematic analysis.

DESIGN: Descriptive study.

SUBJECTS: Eighteen patients and 11 healthy controls.

METHODS: Kinematic data were obtained during a 6MWT by a Vicon motion capture system. Distance, heart rate, leg tiredness, dyspnoea and exertion were also recorded.

RESULTS: Patients with post-polio syndrome showed larger increases in leg tiredness (p < 0.001) and dyspnoea (p < 0.05) as a result of the 6MWT than did controls. Walking speed decreased by 14.1% in patients vs 4.7% in controls (p < 0.05). Fourteen out of 18 patients displayed plantar-flexed ankle at initial contact (1/11 controls). At foot-off, the patients had a flexed hip (extended in controls) and a more flexed knee. Walking speed in patients correlated with hip angle at footoff, at the start (r = –0.60, p < 0.001) and the end of the 6MWT (r = –0.74, p < 0.001), being higher the more the hip was extended.

CONCLUSION: The 6MWT is fatiguing for patients with post polio syndrome, and this was reflected in the kinematic data. Walking speed was negatively correlated with the increased hip flexion, but not with the ankle plantar-flexion at foot-off in the patients with post-polio syndrome. The three-dimensional results underscore the importance of hip function in this patient group.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Comparison of two 6-minute walk tests to assess walking capacity in polio survivors
Author: Merel-Anne Brehm, PhD, Suzan Verduijn, MSc, Jurgen Bon, MD, Nicoline Bredt, MSc and Frans Nollet, MD, PhD
Affiliation: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: Merel-Anne Brehm, PhD, Suzan Verduijn, MSc, Jurgen Bon, MD, Nicoline Bredt, MSc and Frans Nollet, MD, PhD. Comparison of two 6-minute walk tests to assess walking capacity in polio survivors. J Rehabil Med 2017; 49: 00–00
Publication Year and Month: 2017 09

Abstract: Objective: To compare walking dynamics and test-retest reliability for 2 frequently applied walk tests in polio survivors: the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) to walk as far as possible; and the 6-minute walking energy cost test (WECT) at comfortable speed.

Design: Observational study.

Participants: Thirty-three polio survivors, able to walk ≥ 150 m.

Methods: On the same day participants performed a 6MWT and a WECT, which were repeated 1–3 weeks later. For each test, distance walked, heart rate and reduction in speed were assessed.

Results: The mean distance walked and mean heart rate were significantly higher in the 6MWT (441 m (standard deviation) (SD 79.7); 118 bpm (SD 19.2)) compared with the WECT (366 m (SD 67.3); 103 bpm (SD 14.3)); p < 0.001. Furthermore, during the 6MWT, patients continuously slowed down (–6%), while during the WECT speed dropped only slightly during the first 2 min, by –1.8% in total. Test-retest reliability of both tests was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) ≥ 0.95; lower bound 95% confidence interval (95% CI) ≥ 0.87). The smallest detectable change for the walked distance was 42 m (9.7% change from the mean) and 50 m (13.7%) on the 6MWT and WECT, respectively.

Conclusion: Both the 6MWT and the WECT are reliable to assess walking capacity in polio survivors, with slightly superior sensitivity to detect change for the 6MWT. Differences in walking dynamics confirm that the tests cannot be used interchangeably. The 6MWT is recommended for measuring maximal walking capacity and the WECT for measuring submaximal walking capacity.

Conclusions: In conclusion, this study of polio survivors with a minimum self-reported walking distance of 150 m shows that both the 6MWT and the WECT are reliable and can be used to evaluate changes in walking capacity, with the 6MWT showing slightly superior sensitivity to detect change. The study also shows a significantly higher heart rate (57%HRR on average) at the expense of a reduction in walking speed at this heart rate during the 6MWT compared with the WECT. These findings indicate distinct patterns of walking dynamics between the 6MWT and WECT, where the 6MWT is more likely a measure of maximal walking capacity (i.e. what a person can do) and the WECT of submaximal walking capacity (i.e. what a person does do). The difference in walking dynamics confirms that these tests cannot be used interchangeably, and that the choice to use either test should be tailored to the construct to be measured. Responsiveness to change in this patient population should be further investigated for both tests.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Exercise

Title: Effects of resistance training in combination with coenzyme Q10 supplementation in patients with post-polio: a pilot study.
Author: Skough K, Krossén C, Heiwe S, Theorell H, Borg K.
Affiliation: Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Danderyds Hospital, Stockolm, Sweden.
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: 2008 Oct;40(9):773-5.
Publication Year and Month: 2008 10

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
Coenzyme Q10 supplementation leads to increased muscle metabolism in patients with post-polio syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training in combination with oral supplementation with coenzyme Q10 in patients with post-polio syndrome regarding muscle strength and endurance as well as functional capacity and health-related quality of life.

DESIGN:
Parallel randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:
A total of 14 patients (8 women and 6 men) with post-polio syndrome participated in a 12-week muscular resistance training, 3 days/week. The patients were randomized for oral supplementation with coenzyme Q10, 200 mg/day, or placebo. Measurements used were: sit-stand-sit test, timed up & go test, 6-minute walk test, muscle strength measurement by means of dynamic dynamometer and short-form (SF)-36 questionnaire.

RESULTS:
Muscle strength, muscle endurance and quality of life regarding mental health increased statistically significantly in all 14 patients. There was no significant difference between the coenzyme Q10 and placebo groups regarding muscle strength, muscle endurance and quality of life.

Conclusions: There was no effect of coenzyme Q10 supplementation during resistance training on post-polio syndrome symptoms. Thus, supplementation with coenzyme Q10 has no beneficial effect on muscle function in patients with post-polio syndrome.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Exercise

Title: Previous Acute Polio and Post-Polio Syndrome: Recognizing the Pathophysiology for the Establishment of Rehabilitation Programs
Author: Orsini M (1), de Souza JA (2), Araújo Leite MA (2), Teixeira S (3), de Sá Ferreira A (4), Bastos VH (3), de Freitas MR (2), Oliveira AB (5)
Affiliation: (1) Rehabilitation Sciences, Augusto Motta University Center, UNISUAN, Bonsucesso, Brazil; Neurology Service, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói, Brazil; (2) Neurology Service, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói, Brazil; (3) Physical Therapy Department, Federal University of Piauí, Brazil; (4) Rehabilitation Sciences, Augusto Motta University Center, UNISUAN, Bonsucesso, Brazil; (5) Neurology Service, Paulista School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil
Journal: Neurology International
Citation: Neurol Int. 2015 Mar 9;7(1):5452. doi: 10.4081/ni.2015.5452. eCollection 2015
Publication Year and Month: 2015 03

Abstract: NO ABSTRACT AVAILABLE - THIS IS AN EXTRACT:
Previous acute poliomyelitis (PAP) can be defined as an endemic human disease caused by an enterovirus of worldwide distribution, which compromises the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord. Poliovirus has infected and victimized thousands of people all over the world. Only after the development of the inactivated virus vaccine by Jonas Salk, in 1955, and then with the attenuated virus vaccine, by Albert Bruce Sabin, in 1961, we saw a reduction in the number of poliomyelitis cases in the world.

The patients present clinical status characterized by muscle atrophy and paresis, especially in the lower limbs, under asymmetrical and disproportional form. There is a second form, bulbar, which compromises the motor neurons of the medulla, resulting in impairments in speech, swallowing and breathing. The purpose of this letter to the Editor is to alert readers about the risks of therapeutic exercise for this group of patients.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Exercise

Title: Daily Well-Being Benefits of Physical Activity in Older Adults: Does Time or Type Matter?
Author: Whitehead BR, Blaxton JM
Affiliation: 1 Behavioral Sciences Department, University of Michigan-Dearborn.
2 Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame, Indiana.
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Gerontologist. 2017 Nov 10;57(6):1062-1071
Publication Year and Month: 2017 11

Abstract: PURPOSE OF THE STUDY:
There is little debate that maintaining some level of physical activity in later life conveys positive benefits both physically and psychologically. What is less understood is the extent to which the type of activity or the length of time spent doing it matters when it comes to these benefits on the daily level. Here, we investigated (a) whether the presence of daily purposeful exercise (Exercise) or non-exercise physical activity (Activity) is sufficient for experiencing day-level benefits, or if time spent matters, and (b) whether there are differential well-being benefits of Exercise and Activity on the daily level.

DESIGN AND METHODS:
Older adults (N = 127; aged 60-95, Mage = 79.4) filled out surveys for 14 days, reporting daily Exercise and Activity behaviors as well as Positive and Negative Affect (PA/NA), Perceived Stress (PS), Perceived Health (PH), and Sleep Quality (SQ).

RESULTS:
Multilevel regression models showed that for purposeful exercise, more time spent was beneficial for PA, NA, and PH, but for PS, only the presence of exercise was important (time did not matter). For non-exercise activity, time did not have as great an influence as presence-doing any form of activity was beneficial for both PA and SQ. Exercise and Activity had largely independent (additive) effects.

Conclusions: Results reveal that both purposeful exercise and non-exercise activity convey independent daily well-being benefits, and that for some aspects of daily well-being, duration does matter. Findings can be applied in the development of physical activity education or engagement programs for older adults.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Exercise

Title: Short-term effects of aerobic exercise on functional capacity, fatigue, and quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome.
Author: Oncu J, Durmaz B, Karapolat H.
Affiliation: Ege University Medical Faculty Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Izmir, Turkey.
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Clin Rehabil. 2009 Feb;23(2):155-63
Publication Year and Month: 2009 02

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To investigate and compare the impact of hospital and home exercise programmes on aerobic capacity, fatigue, and quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome.

DESIGN:
A prospective, randomized controlled trial.

SETTING:
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University Hospital.

SUBJECTS:
Thirty-two patients were divided into two groups for either hospital- or home-based aerobic exercise programme.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Patients were assessed before and after the rehabilitation programme, with respect to functional capacity (pVo2), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale, Fatigue Impact Scale) and quality of life (Nottingham Heath Profile).

RESULTS:
After the exercise programme, improvement was observed in the hospital exercise group compared to a pre-exercise period in all Nottingham Heath Profile scores (except sleep scores), pVo2, Fatigue Severity Scale and Fatigue Impact Scale (cognitive, physical, psychosocial, total) (P<0.05). In contrast, in the home exercise group a decrease was observed in pVo2 scores after the rehabilitation programme, compared to a pre-rehabilitation period (P<0.05). In addition, a significant improvement was observed in the home exercise group after the rehabilitation programme in all parameters excluding Fatigue Impact Scale-physical, Fatigue Impact Scale-psychosocial, and Nottingham Heath Profile-sleep (P<0.05). When the two exercise groups were compared, improvement was observed in the hospital exercise group compared to the home exercise group in pVo2 and Fatigue Severity Scale-total, Fatigue Impact Scale-physical, Fatigue Impact Scale-psychosocial, Fatigue Impact Scale-total, and Nottingham Heath Profile-energy scores (P<0.05).

Conclusions: CONCLUSION:
Fatigue and quality of life were both improved in the home and hospital exercise groups. An increase was also found in the functional capacity in the hospital exercise group. A regular exercise programme is beneficial to patients with post-polio syndrome.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Exercise

Title: The development of an instrument to assess post-exertional malaise in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome
Author: Leonard A Jason, Carly S Holtzman, Madison Sunnquist, Joseph Cotler
Affiliation: Department of Psychology, DePaul University, Chicago, IL 60614, USA. Email: [email protected]
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Journal of Health Psychology, Article first published online: October 24, 2018
Publication Year and Month: 2018 10

Abstract: Post-exertional malaise, or a variation of this term, is a key symptom of myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome, as this symptom is mentioned in almost all myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome case definitions. Until now there has not been a comprehensive questionnaire to assess post-exertional malaise. To rectify this situation, in this article we describe the development of a new questionnaire, called the DePaul Post-Exertional Malaise Questionnaire, which was based on input from hundreds of patients. Preliminary validation was provided by the findings of significant and predictable relationships between different domains of this post-exertional malaise questionnaire and physical functioning.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Exercise

Title: Whole Body Vibration Methods with Survivors of Polio
Author: Carolyn P. Da Silva
Affiliation: School of Physical Therapy, Texas Woman's University
Outpatient Medical Clinic, TIRR Memorial Hermann Rehabilitation and Research
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Journal of Visualized Experiments, (140), e58449, doi:10.3791/58449 (2018)
Publication Year and Month: 2018

Abstract: The purpose of the original study was to examine the use of whole body vibration (WBV) on polio survivors with and without post-polio syndrome as a form of weight bearing exercise. The goal of this article is to highlight the strengths, limitations, and applications of the method used.
Fifteen participants completed two intervention blocks with a wash-out period in between the blocks. Each block consisted of twice a week (four weeks) WBV interventions, progressing from 10 to 20 min per session. Low intensity (peak to peak displacement 4.53 mm, frequency 24 Hz,
g force 2.21) and higher intensity (peak to peak displacement 8.82 mm, frequency 35 Hz, g force 2.76) WBV blocks were used. Pain severity significantly improved in both groups following higher intensity vibration. Walking speed significantly improved in the group who participated
in higher intensity intervention first. No study-related adverse events occurred. Even though this population can be at risk of developing overuse-related muscle weakness, fatigue, or pain from excessive physical activity or exercise, the vibration intensity levels utilized did not
cause significant muscle weakness, pain, fatigue, or sleep disturbances. Therefore, WBV appears to provide a safe method of weight bearing exercise for this population. Limitations included the lack of measurement of reflexes, muscular activity, or circulation, the difficulty in participant
recruitment, and insufficient strength of some participants to stand in recommended position. Strengths included a standard, safe protocol with intentional monitoring of symptoms and the heterogeneity of the participants in their physical abilities. An application of the methods is the home use of WBV to reduce the barriers associated with going to a facility for weight bearing exercise for longer term interventions, and benefits for conditions such as osteoporosis, particularly for aging adults with mobility difficulties due to paralysis or weakness. Presented method may serve as a starting point in future studies.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Exercise

Title: Assessment of subjective and motor fatigue in Polio survivors, attending a Postpolio clinic, comparison with healthy controls and an exploration of clinical correlates.
Author: Murray D, Hardiman O, Meldrum D.
Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, Beaumont Hospital , Beaumont, Dublin , Ireland .
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 2014 May;30(4):229-35.
Publication Year and Month: 2014 05

Abstract: PURPOSE:
Polio survivors experience declining mobility, pain and fatigue. The extent of motor fatigue and its impact on mobility and quality of life, in addition to other commonly reported impairments requires evaluation.

METHODS:
An observational, case-control, cross-sectional design was used to assess 30 Polio survivors and 30 age- and sex-matched controls. Muscle strength and motor fatigue were assessed using fixed dynamometry. Fatigue, pain and quality of life were assessed using the Piper Fatigue Scale, the Fatigue Severity Scale, visual analogue scales and the RAND Short Form-36, respectively. An 8-min walking test, including physiological cost index (PCI), evaluated mobility.

RESULTS:
A significant difference in motor fatigue was identified only in hand grip (p = 0.03). Polio survivors were significantly weaker (p < 0.001) and more fatigued (p < 0.001) than controls. Motor fatigue was not related to subjective fatigue, mobility or quality of life. Muscle strength predicted mobility. Pain and fatigue were associated with lower mental quality of life, while PCI was associated with physical quality of life.

Conclusions: Motor fatigue has been identified in Polio survivors but was only significantly different in hand grip, using this approach. Pain, fatigue and elevated energy cost of walking negatively influenced quality of life. Motor fatigue was unrelated to subjective fatigue, mobility or quality of life.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Exercise

Title: Polio residuals clinic: conditioning exercise program
Author: Owen RR, Jones D
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1985 Jul; 8(7):882-3
Publication Year and Month: 1985 07

Abstract: The additional disability experienced by individuals who had poliomyelitis many years earlier has a variety of expressions and a variety of interacting origins. Undertraining and deconditioning are addressed in this article. Weakened musculature often fatigues before a conditioning level of activity is reached. An adapted exercise program for cardiac endurance will reduce symptoms of fatigue and pain. An intentional training program for muscles weakened further by disuse or underutilization will supplement the conditioning program. The clinical assessment and exercise prescription is described.

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Category: Exercise

Title: The use of strengthening exercises in post-polio sequelae - methods and results
Author: Feldman RM
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1985 Jul; 8(7):889-90
Publication Year and Month: 1985 07

Abstract: Some individuals who had poliomyelitis 20 to 30 years ago are now reporting a recurrence of symptoms of weakness in the same muscle groups that were weakened during the initial onset of the disease. Electrophysiological findings on EMG and repetitive stimulation studies identify changes peculiar to this disease. Non-fatiguing progressive resistive exercises have been used to strengthen muscle groups demonstrating this secondary weakness after the muscles have been identified by electrophysiological studies. Favorable results are reported after non-fatiguing exercises which, combined with Occupational Therapy and appropriate orthotic management, have resulted in improvement in function of ambulation and activities of daily living. The causes of muscle atrophy and pain seen in these individuals are also discussed.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Effect of modified aerobic training on movement energetics in polio survivors
Author: Dean E, Ross J
Affiliation: School of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1243-6
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Given that individuals with disabilities may be unable to achieve maximal oxygen uptake in an exercise test and that maximal exercise testing may cause increased fatigue, pain, and muscle weakness, we examined the role of submaximal exercise testing and training based on objective as well as subjective parameters in polio survivors. Experimental (N = 7) and control subjects (N = 13) were tested before and after a 6-week period. The experimental subjects participated in a 6-week exercise training program for 30 to 40 minutes, three times a week. The program consisted of treadmill walking at 55% to 70% of age-predicted maximum heart rates; however, exercise intensity was modified to minimize discomfort/pain and fatigue. Neither objective nor subjective exercise responses were significantly different in the control group over the 6 weeks. No change was observed in cardiorespiratory conditioning in the experimental group. However, movement economy, which is related to the energy cost of walking, was significantly improved; and walking duration was significantly increased at the end of training. Modified aerobic training may have a role in enhancing endurance and reducing fatigue during activities of daily living in polio survivors.

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Category: Exercise

Title: The effects of long-term non-fatiguing resistance exercise in subjects with post-polio syndrome
Author: Fillyaw MJ, Badger GJ, Goodwin GD, Bradley WG, Fries TJ, Shukla A
Affiliation: Department of Physical Therapy, University of Vermont, Burlington
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1253-6
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Measures of torque were used to evaluate changes in muscle strength and endurance in 17 patients with post-polio syndrome who did prescribed resistance exercise for up to 2 years. Exercise compliance averaged 75%, with 16 subjects increasing the weight lifted in training. Maximum torque was significantly increased in the exercised muscle compared to the control muscle; no difference was seen in muscle endurance. Individuals with post-polio syndrome can increase muscle strength by doing non-fatiguing resistance exercise, but they should undergo quantitative testing of muscle strength a minimum of every 3 months to guard against overwork weakness.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Post-polio fatigue: a 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigation
Author: Thompson RT, Barton PM, Marsh GD, Cameron MG, Gravelle DG, Hsieh JT, Hayes KC, Driedger AA
Affiliation: Department of Nuclear Medicine, St. Joseph's Health Center, London, Ontario, Canada
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1263-7
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Changes in high energy phosphates (HEP) and intramuscular pH during exercise were measured in 17 patients with post-polio fatigue and in 28 healthy controls using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Subjects performed a dynamic hand grip exercise at low and high intensity. Mean changes in the HEP and pH showed no significant differences between the groups, although the post-polio group's response was highly variable. Six patients showed evidence of a lower lactate accumulation during the high intensity exercise when compared with controls. These data suggest that the whole body fatigue experienced by polio survivors is not related to any systemic metabolic abnormality.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Cardiorespiratory responses to aerobic training by patients with postpoliomyelitis sequelae
Author: Jones DR, Speier J, Canine K, Owen R, Stull GA
Affiliation: Sister Kenny Institute, Minneapolis, Minn (Mr Jones and Drs Speier, Canine, and Owen)
School of Health Related Professions, State University of New York at Buffalo (Dr Stull)
Journal: The Journal of the American Medical Association
Citation: JAMA. 1989 Jun 9;261(22):3255-58
Publication Year and Month: 1989 06

Abstract: We examined the cardiorespiratory responses of 16 patients with postpoliomyelitis sequelae to a 16-week aerobic exercise program. The patients exercised at 70% of maximal heart rate. Dependent variables were resting and maximal heart rates, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, maximum oxygen consumption, maximum carbon dioxide consumption, respiratory quotient, and maximum expired volume per unit time. The exercise group was superior to the control group in watts, exercise time, maximum expired volume per unit time, and maximum oxygen consumption. No untoward events or loss of leg strength occurred as a result of the exercise regimen. We conclude that the aerobic training program employed in this study is a safe, short-term procedure and that patients with postpolio sequelae respond to training in a manner similar to healthy adults.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Exercise

Title: Postpolio syndrome and cardiopulmonary conditioning
Author: Owen RR
Affiliation: Sister Kenny Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55407
Journal: The Western Journal of Medicine
Citation: West J Med. 1991 May;154(5):557-8 (Rehabilitation Medicine - Adding Life to Years [Special Issue])
Publication Year and Month: 1991 05

Abstract: Postpolio syndrome is a group of related signs and symptoms occurring in people who had paralytic poliomyelitis years earlier. New weakness, fatigue, poor endurance, pain, reduced mobility, increased breathing difficulty, intolerance to cold, and sleep disturbance in various degrees and expressions make up the syndrome. The reported incidence is between 25% and 80%. The origins are multifactorial and can be associated with underexertion, overexertion, inactivity due to intercurrent illness or injury, hypo-oxygenation, sleep apnea, deconditioning, and the failure of sprouted, compensatory large motor units. The exercise question in postpolio syndrome is related to the experience of new weakness or loss of muscle function due to overuse, which is often associated with injudicious repeated challenges to weakened musculature. Carefully prescribed exercise can be used for increasing strength and endurance and improving cardiopulmonary conditioning.

Conclusions: Stretching and flexibility exercises are critical physical hygiene measures for the management of pain, instability, and deformity. These exercises should also precede cardiopulmonary conditioning and other vigorous physical pursuits. Muscle training and strengthening when carefully defined and judiciously implemented can safely build force and power. Resistive exercises should be prescribed for specific goals rather than for purposes of general muscle training. An adapted cardiopulmonary conditioning program has been created to provide improved cardiac status without the risk of overuse damage to nerve and muscle.

The management of postpolio syndrome requires applying traditional physical treatment principles with specific attention to the factors of the vulnerability of compensatory mechanisms to injury by overuse, underuse, underoxygenation, and an inefficient use of weakened musculature. Clinicians must provide information and a balanced prescription of exercise, rest, activity, support, and intelligent accommodation to additional disability.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher

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There are currently 26 papers in this category.

Category: Exercise

Title: The development of an instrument to assess post-exertional malaise in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome
Author: Leonard A Jason, Carly S Holtzman, Madison Sunnquist, Joseph Cotler
Affiliation: Department of Psychology, DePaul University, Chicago, IL 60614, USA. Email: [email protected]
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Journal of Health Psychology, Article first published online: October 24, 2018
Publication Year and Month: 2018 10

Abstract: Post-exertional malaise, or a variation of this term, is a key symptom of myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome, as this symptom is mentioned in almost all myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome case definitions. Until now there has not been a comprehensive questionnaire to assess post-exertional malaise. To rectify this situation, in this article we describe the development of a new questionnaire, called the DePaul Post-Exertional Malaise Questionnaire, which was based on input from hundreds of patients. Preliminary validation was provided by the findings of significant and predictable relationships between different domains of this post-exertional malaise questionnaire and physical functioning.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper:

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here for preview


Category: Exercise

Title: Whole Body Vibration Methods with Survivors of Polio
Author: Carolyn P. Da Silva
Affiliation: School of Physical Therapy, Texas Woman's University
Outpatient Medical Clinic, TIRR Memorial Hermann Rehabilitation and Research
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Journal of Visualized Experiments, (140), e58449, doi:10.3791/58449 (2018)
Publication Year and Month: 2018

Abstract: The purpose of the original study was to examine the use of whole body vibration (WBV) on polio survivors with and without post-polio syndrome as a form of weight bearing exercise. The goal of this article is to highlight the strengths, limitations, and applications of the method used.
Fifteen participants completed two intervention blocks with a wash-out period in between the blocks. Each block consisted of twice a week (four weeks) WBV interventions, progressing from 10 to 20 min per session. Low intensity (peak to peak displacement 4.53 mm, frequency 24 Hz,
g force 2.21) and higher intensity (peak to peak displacement 8.82 mm, frequency 35 Hz, g force 2.76) WBV blocks were used. Pain severity significantly improved in both groups following higher intensity vibration. Walking speed significantly improved in the group who participated
in higher intensity intervention first. No study-related adverse events occurred. Even though this population can be at risk of developing overuse-related muscle weakness, fatigue, or pain from excessive physical activity or exercise, the vibration intensity levels utilized did not
cause significant muscle weakness, pain, fatigue, or sleep disturbances. Therefore, WBV appears to provide a safe method of weight bearing exercise for this population. Limitations included the lack of measurement of reflexes, muscular activity, or circulation, the difficulty in participant
recruitment, and insufficient strength of some participants to stand in recommended position. Strengths included a standard, safe protocol with intentional monitoring of symptoms and the heterogeneity of the participants in their physical abilities. An application of the methods is the home use of WBV to reduce the barriers associated with going to a facility for weight bearing exercise for longer term interventions, and benefits for conditions such as osteoporosis, particularly for aging adults with mobility difficulties due to paralysis or weakness. Presented method may serve as a starting point in future studies.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper:

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Exercise

Title: Daily Well-Being Benefits of Physical Activity in Older Adults: Does Time or Type Matter?
Author: Whitehead BR, Blaxton JM
Affiliation: 1 Behavioral Sciences Department, University of Michigan-Dearborn.
2 Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame, Indiana.
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Gerontologist. 2017 Nov 10;57(6):1062-1071
Publication Year and Month: 2017 11

Abstract: PURPOSE OF THE STUDY:
There is little debate that maintaining some level of physical activity in later life conveys positive benefits both physically and psychologically. What is less understood is the extent to which the type of activity or the length of time spent doing it matters when it comes to these benefits on the daily level. Here, we investigated (a) whether the presence of daily purposeful exercise (Exercise) or non-exercise physical activity (Activity) is sufficient for experiencing day-level benefits, or if time spent matters, and (b) whether there are differential well-being benefits of Exercise and Activity on the daily level.

DESIGN AND METHODS:
Older adults (N = 127; aged 60-95, Mage = 79.4) filled out surveys for 14 days, reporting daily Exercise and Activity behaviors as well as Positive and Negative Affect (PA/NA), Perceived Stress (PS), Perceived Health (PH), and Sleep Quality (SQ).

RESULTS:
Multilevel regression models showed that for purposeful exercise, more time spent was beneficial for PA, NA, and PH, but for PS, only the presence of exercise was important (time did not matter). For non-exercise activity, time did not have as great an influence as presence-doing any form of activity was beneficial for both PA and SQ. Exercise and Activity had largely independent (additive) effects.

Conclusions: Results reveal that both purposeful exercise and non-exercise activity convey independent daily well-being benefits, and that for some aspects of daily well-being, duration does matter. Findings can be applied in the development of physical activity education or engagement programs for older adults.

Outcome of Research: Effective

Availability of Paper:

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Exercise

Title: Comparison of two 6-minute walk tests to assess walking capacity in polio survivors
Author: Merel-Anne Brehm, PhD, Suzan Verduijn, MSc, Jurgen Bon, MD, Nicoline Bredt, MSc and Frans Nollet, MD, PhD
Affiliation: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: Merel-Anne Brehm, PhD, Suzan Verduijn, MSc, Jurgen Bon, MD, Nicoline Bredt, MSc and Frans Nollet, MD, PhD. Comparison of two 6-minute walk tests to assess walking capacity in polio survivors. J Rehabil Med 2017; 49: 00–00
Publication Year and Month: 2017 09

Abstract: Objective: To compare walking dynamics and test-retest reliability for 2 frequently applied walk tests in polio survivors: the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) to walk as far as possible; and the 6-minute walking energy cost test (WECT) at comfortable speed.

Design: Observational study.

Participants: Thirty-three polio survivors, able to walk ≥ 150 m.

Methods: On the same day participants performed a 6MWT and a WECT, which were repeated 1–3 weeks later. For each test, distance walked, heart rate and reduction in speed were assessed.

Results: The mean distance walked and mean heart rate were significantly higher in the 6MWT (441 m (standard deviation) (SD 79.7); 118 bpm (SD 19.2)) compared with the WECT (366 m (SD 67.3); 103 bpm (SD 14.3)); p < 0.001. Furthermore, during the 6MWT, patients continuously slowed down (–6%), while during the WECT speed dropped only slightly during the first 2 min, by –1.8% in total. Test-retest reliability of both tests was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) ≥ 0.95; lower bound 95% confidence interval (95% CI) ≥ 0.87). The smallest detectable change for the walked distance was 42 m (9.7% change from the mean) and 50 m (13.7%) on the 6MWT and WECT, respectively.

Conclusion: Both the 6MWT and the WECT are reliable to assess walking capacity in polio survivors, with slightly superior sensitivity to detect change for the 6MWT. Differences in walking dynamics confirm that the tests cannot be used interchangeably. The 6MWT is recommended for measuring maximal walking capacity and the WECT for measuring submaximal walking capacity.

Conclusions: In conclusion, this study of polio survivors with a minimum self-reported walking distance of 150 m shows that both the 6MWT and the WECT are reliable and can be used to evaluate changes in walking capacity, with the 6MWT showing slightly superior sensitivity to detect change. The study also shows a significantly higher heart rate (57%HRR on average) at the expense of a reduction in walking speed at this heart rate during the 6MWT compared with the WECT. These findings indicate distinct patterns of walking dynamics between the 6MWT and WECT, where the 6MWT is more likely a measure of maximal walking capacity (i.e. what a person can do) and the WECT of submaximal walking capacity (i.e. what a person does do). The difference in walking dynamics confirms that these tests cannot be used interchangeably, and that the choice to use either test should be tailored to the construct to be measured. Responsiveness to change in this patient population should be further investigated for both tests.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Exercise

Title: Previous Acute Polio and Post-Polio Syndrome: Recognizing the Pathophysiology for the Establishment of Rehabilitation Programs
Author: Orsini M (1), de Souza JA (2), Araújo Leite MA (2), Teixeira S (3), de Sá Ferreira A (4), Bastos VH (3), de Freitas MR (2), Oliveira AB (5)
Affiliation: (1) Rehabilitation Sciences, Augusto Motta University Center, UNISUAN, Bonsucesso, Brazil; Neurology Service, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói, Brazil; (2) Neurology Service, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói, Brazil; (3) Physical Therapy Department, Federal University of Piauí, Brazil; (4) Rehabilitation Sciences, Augusto Motta University Center, UNISUAN, Bonsucesso, Brazil; (5) Neurology Service, Paulista School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil
Journal: Neurology International
Citation: Neurol Int. 2015 Mar 9;7(1):5452. doi: 10.4081/ni.2015.5452. eCollection 2015
Publication Year and Month: 2015 03

Abstract: NO ABSTRACT AVAILABLE - THIS IS AN EXTRACT:
Previous acute poliomyelitis (PAP) can be defined as an endemic human disease caused by an enterovirus of worldwide distribution, which compromises the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord. Poliovirus has infected and victimized thousands of people all over the world. Only after the development of the inactivated virus vaccine by Jonas Salk, in 1955, and then with the attenuated virus vaccine, by Albert Bruce Sabin, in 1961, we saw a reduction in the number of poliomyelitis cases in the world.

The patients present clinical status characterized by muscle atrophy and paresis, especially in the lower limbs, under asymmetrical and disproportional form. There is a second form, bulbar, which compromises the motor neurons of the medulla, resulting in impairments in speech, swallowing and breathing. The purpose of this letter to the Editor is to alert readers about the risks of therapeutic exercise for this group of patients.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Exercise

Title: Determining the anaerobic threshold in postpolio syndrome: comparison with current guidelines for training intensity prescription
Author: Voorn EL (1), Gerrits KH (2), Koopman FS (3), Nollet F (3), Beelen A (3)
Affiliation: (1) Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: [email protected]; (2) MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; (3) Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 May;95(5):935-40. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2014.01.015
Publication Year and Month: 2014 05

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the anaerobic threshold (AT) can be identified in individuals with postpolio syndrome (PPS) using submaximal incremental exercise testing, and to compare current guidelines for intensity prescription in PPS with the AT.

DESIGN: Cohort study.

SETTING: Research laboratory.

PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with PPS (N=82).

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Power output, gas exchange variables, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured in an incremental submaximal cycle ergometry test. Two independent observers identified the AT. Comparison of current guidelines for training intensity prescription in PPS (40%-60% heart rate reserve [HRR] or RPE of 12) with the AT was based on correlations between recommended heart rate and the heart rate at the AT. In addition, we determined the proportion of individuals that would have been recommended to train at an intensity corresponding to their AT.

RESULTS: The AT was identified in 63 (77%) of the participants. Pearson correlation coefficients between the recommended heart rate and the heart rate at the AT were lower in cases of 40% HRR (r=.56) and 60% HRR (r=.50) than in cases of prescription based on the RPE (r=.86). Based on the RPE, 55% of the individuals would have been recommended to train at an intensity corresponding to their AT. This proportion was higher compared with 40% HRR (41%) or 60% HRR (18%) as criterion.

Conclusions: The AT can be identified in most individuals with PPS offering an individualized target for aerobic training. If the AT cannot be identified (eg, because gas analysis equipment is not available), intensity prescription can best be based on the RPE.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Exercise

Title: Assessment of subjective and motor fatigue in Polio survivors, attending a Postpolio clinic, comparison with healthy controls and an exploration of clinical correlates.
Author: Murray D, Hardiman O, Meldrum D.
Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, Beaumont Hospital , Beaumont, Dublin , Ireland .
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 2014 May;30(4):229-35.
Publication Year and Month: 2014 05

Abstract: PURPOSE:
Polio survivors experience declining mobility, pain and fatigue. The extent of motor fatigue and its impact on mobility and quality of life, in addition to other commonly reported impairments requires evaluation.

METHODS:
An observational, case-control, cross-sectional design was used to assess 30 Polio survivors and 30 age- and sex-matched controls. Muscle strength and motor fatigue were assessed using fixed dynamometry. Fatigue, pain and quality of life were assessed using the Piper Fatigue Scale, the Fatigue Severity Scale, visual analogue scales and the RAND Short Form-36, respectively. An 8-min walking test, including physiological cost index (PCI), evaluated mobility.

RESULTS:
A significant difference in motor fatigue was identified only in hand grip (p = 0.03). Polio survivors were significantly weaker (p < 0.001) and more fatigued (p < 0.001) than controls. Motor fatigue was not related to subjective fatigue, mobility or quality of life. Muscle strength predicted mobility. Pain and fatigue were associated with lower mental quality of life, while PCI was associated with physical quality of life.

Conclusions: Motor fatigue has been identified in Polio survivors but was only significantly different in hand grip, using this approach. Pain, fatigue and elevated energy cost of walking negatively influenced quality of life. Motor fatigue was unrelated to subjective fatigue, mobility or quality of life.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Exercise

Title: Gait characteristics and influence of fatigue during the 6-minute walk test in patients with post-polio syndrome
Author: Vreede KS, Henriksson J, Borg K, Henriksson M
Affiliation: Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, SE-182 88 Stockholm, Sweden - [email protected]
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: J Rehabil Med. 2013 Sep;45(9):924-8. doi: 10.2340/16501977-1209.
Publication Year and Month: 2013 09

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate gait in patients with post-polio syndrome, using the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) combined with three-dimensional kinematic analysis.

DESIGN: Descriptive study.

SUBJECTS: Eighteen patients and 11 healthy controls.

METHODS: Kinematic data were obtained during a 6MWT by a Vicon motion capture system. Distance, heart rate, leg tiredness, dyspnoea and exertion were also recorded.

RESULTS: Patients with post-polio syndrome showed larger increases in leg tiredness (p < 0.001) and dyspnoea (p < 0.05) as a result of the 6MWT than did controls. Walking speed decreased by 14.1% in patients vs 4.7% in controls (p < 0.05). Fourteen out of 18 patients displayed plantar-flexed ankle at initial contact (1/11 controls). At foot-off, the patients had a flexed hip (extended in controls) and a more flexed knee. Walking speed in patients correlated with hip angle at footoff, at the start (r = –0.60, p < 0.001) and the end of the 6MWT (r = –0.74, p < 0.001), being higher the more the hip was extended.

CONCLUSION: The 6MWT is fatiguing for patients with post polio syndrome, and this was reflected in the kinematic data. Walking speed was negatively correlated with the increased hip flexion, but not with the ankle plantar-flexion at foot-off in the patients with post-polio syndrome. The three-dimensional results underscore the importance of hip function in this patient group.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Short-term effects of aerobic exercise on functional capacity, fatigue, and quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome.
Author: Oncu J, Durmaz B, Karapolat H.
Affiliation: Ege University Medical Faculty Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Izmir, Turkey.
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Clin Rehabil. 2009 Feb;23(2):155-63
Publication Year and Month: 2009 02

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To investigate and compare the impact of hospital and home exercise programmes on aerobic capacity, fatigue, and quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome.

DESIGN:
A prospective, randomized controlled trial.

SETTING:
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University Hospital.

SUBJECTS:
Thirty-two patients were divided into two groups for either hospital- or home-based aerobic exercise programme.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Patients were assessed before and after the rehabilitation programme, with respect to functional capacity (pVo2), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale, Fatigue Impact Scale) and quality of life (Nottingham Heath Profile).

RESULTS:
After the exercise programme, improvement was observed in the hospital exercise group compared to a pre-exercise period in all Nottingham Heath Profile scores (except sleep scores), pVo2, Fatigue Severity Scale and Fatigue Impact Scale (cognitive, physical, psychosocial, total) (P<0.05). In contrast, in the home exercise group a decrease was observed in pVo2 scores after the rehabilitation programme, compared to a pre-rehabilitation period (P<0.05). In addition, a significant improvement was observed in the home exercise group after the rehabilitation programme in all parameters excluding Fatigue Impact Scale-physical, Fatigue Impact Scale-psychosocial, and Nottingham Heath Profile-sleep (P<0.05). When the two exercise groups were compared, improvement was observed in the hospital exercise group compared to the home exercise group in pVo2 and Fatigue Severity Scale-total, Fatigue Impact Scale-physical, Fatigue Impact Scale-psychosocial, Fatigue Impact Scale-total, and Nottingham Heath Profile-energy scores (P<0.05).

Conclusions: CONCLUSION:
Fatigue and quality of life were both improved in the home and hospital exercise groups. An increase was also found in the functional capacity in the hospital exercise group. A regular exercise programme is beneficial to patients with post-polio syndrome.

Outcome of Research: Effective

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Category: Exercise

Title: Effects of resistance training in combination with coenzyme Q10 supplementation in patients with post-polio: a pilot study.
Author: Skough K, Krossén C, Heiwe S, Theorell H, Borg K.
Affiliation: Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Danderyds Hospital, Stockolm, Sweden.
Journal: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: 2008 Oct;40(9):773-5.
Publication Year and Month: 2008 10

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
Coenzyme Q10 supplementation leads to increased muscle metabolism in patients with post-polio syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training in combination with oral supplementation with coenzyme Q10 in patients with post-polio syndrome regarding muscle strength and endurance as well as functional capacity and health-related quality of life.

DESIGN:
Parallel randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:
A total of 14 patients (8 women and 6 men) with post-polio syndrome participated in a 12-week muscular resistance training, 3 days/week. The patients were randomized for oral supplementation with coenzyme Q10, 200 mg/day, or placebo. Measurements used were: sit-stand-sit test, timed up & go test, 6-minute walk test, muscle strength measurement by means of dynamic dynamometer and short-form (SF)-36 questionnaire.

RESULTS:
Muscle strength, muscle endurance and quality of life regarding mental health increased statistically significantly in all 14 patients. There was no significant difference between the coenzyme Q10 and placebo groups regarding muscle strength, muscle endurance and quality of life.

Conclusions: There was no effect of coenzyme Q10 supplementation during resistance training on post-polio syndrome symptoms. Thus, supplementation with coenzyme Q10 has no beneficial effect on muscle function in patients with post-polio syndrome.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Exercise

Title: Effort-limited treadmill walk test: reliability and validity in subjects with postpolio syndrome.
Author: Finch LE, Venturini A, Mayo NE, Trojan DA.
Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, McGill University Health Center, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: 2004 Aug;83(8):613-23.
Publication Year and Month: 2004 08

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To determine the reliability and construct validity of an effort-limited treadmill walk test to measure functional ability in subjects with postpolio syndrome in an outpatient postpolio clinic.

DESIGN:
Functioning and distance walked on a treadmill to a Borg "hard" effort level were measured three times, a week apart, by two blinded raters in 15 subjects with postpolio syndrome, aged 37-67 yrs, with new weakness, fatigue, and pain but with no other cause of symptomatology or condition-limiting walking. One rater tested them twice. Fatigue activity level, mobility, and health-related quality of life (Medical Outcome Study Short Form Health Survey [SF-36]) defined functioning. Generalizability correlation coefficients determined intrarater, test-retest and interrater reliability. The correlations relating the distance walked and functioning determined construct validity.

RESULTS:
Reliability for generalizability correlation coefficients were: intrarater, 0.91; test-retest, 0.85; and interrater, 0.58. Interrater reliability improved to 0.91 with adherence to a standardized protocol. Validity was established with correlations between the distance walked and SF-36 physical component score (0.66), physical role (0.60), bodily pain (0.60), and vitality (0.55).

Conclusions: The treadmill walk test provides a reproducible and valid measure of ability in persons with postpolio syndrome with a single rater, but a standardized protocol is essential for reliability.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Exercise

Title: Submaximal exercise capacity and maximal power output in polio subjects
Author: Nollet F, Beelen A, Sargeant AJ, de Visser M, Lankhorst GJ, de Jong BA
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001 Dec;82(12):1678-85
Publication Year and Month: 2001 12

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To compare the submaximal exercise capacity of polio subjects with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) and without (non-PPS) with that of healthy control subjects, to investigate the relationship of this capacity with maximal short-term power and quadriceps strength, and to evaluate movement economy.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey.

SETTING: University hospital.

PARTICIPANTS: Forty-three polio subjects (25 PPS, 18 non-PPS) and 12 control subjects.

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Power output, oxygen uptake, and heart rate were measured in an incremental submaximal cycle ergometry test. Maximal short-term power was measured in 5-second all-out efforts. Knee extensor strength was measured on a chair dynamometer.

RESULTS: The mean submaximal power +/- standard deviation at 80% of heart rate reserve of 83.8 +/- 29.9 watts in the polio subjects was significantly less than the mean submaximal power of 142.1 +/- 30.4 watts in the control group. However, expressed as a percentage of the maximal short-term power, submaximal power did not differ between the groups. Strength and maximal short-term power correlated significantly (p < .005) with submaximal power (r = .64 and .76, respectively). The oxygen uptake was higher than theoretically expected for the given submaximal power output in polio subjects, and appeared to increase with increasing asymmetry in strength and power between legs. No differences were found between PPS and non-PPS subjects.

Conclusions: The submaximal work capacity of polio subjects was severely reduced, mainly in association with the reduced muscle capacity. And, because of a reduced movement economy, their energy cost was elevated. Although muscle loads in activities such as walking and climbing stairs differ from cycling, they also may require elevated relative levels of effort, predisposing subjects to premature fatigue in sustained activity.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

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Category: Exercise

Title: Dynamic water exercise in individuals with late poliomyelitis
Author: Willén C, Sunnerhagen KS, Grimby G
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden - [email protected]
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001 Jan;82(1):66-72
Publication Year and Month: 2001 01

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the specific effects of general dynamic water exercise in individuals with late effects of poliomyelitis.

DESIGN: Before-after tests.

SETTING: A university hospital department.

PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-eight individuals with late effects of polio, 15 assigned to the training group (TG) and 13 to the control group (CG).

INTERVENTION: The TG completed a 40-minute general fitness training session in warm water twice weekly. Assessment instruments included the bicycle ergometer test, isokinetic muscle strength, a 30-meter walk indoors, Berg balance scale, a pain drawing, a visual analog scale, the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, and the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Peak load, peak work load, peak oxygen uptake, peak heart rate (HR), muscle function in knee extensors and flexors, and pain dimension of the NHP.

RESULTS: The average training period was 5 months; compliance was 75% (range, 55-98). No negative effects were seen. The exercise did not influence the peak work load, peak oxygen uptake, or muscle function in knee extensors compared with the controls. However, a decreased HR at the same individual work load was seen, as well as a significantly lower distress in the dimension pain of the NHP. Qualitative aspects such as increased well-being, pain relief, and increased physical fitness were reported.

Conclusions: A program of nonswimming dynamic exercises in heated water has a positive impact on individuals with late effects of polio, with a decreased HR at exercise, less pain, and a subjective positive experience. The program was well tolerated (no adverse effects were reported) and can be recommended for this group of individuals.

Outcome of Research: Effective.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Strength, endurance and work capacity after muscle strengthening exercise in postpolio subjects.
Author: Agre, J., Rodriguez, A., Franke, T.
Affiliation: Agre - Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, USA.
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997;78(7):681-6.
Publication Year and Month: 1997 07

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To determine whether a 12-week home quadriceps muscle strengthening exercise program would increase muscle strength, isometric endurance, and tension time index (TTI) in postpolio syndrome subjects without adversely affecting the surviving motor units or the muscle.

DESIGN:
A longitudinal study to investigate the effect of a 12-week exercise program on neuromuscular function and electromyographic variables.

SETTING:
Neuromuscular laboratory of a university hospital.

SUBJECTS:
Seven subjects were recruited from a cohort of 12 subjects who had participated in a previous exercise study. All subjects had greater than antigravity strength of the quadriceps. Upon completion of a postpolio questionnaire, all acknowledged common postpolio syndrome symptoms such as new fatigue, pain, and weakness; 6 of the 7 acknowledged new strength decline.

INTERVENTION:
On Mondays and Thursdays subjects performed three sets of four maximal isometric contractions of the quadriceps held for 5 seconds each. On Tuesdays and Fridays subjects performed three sets of 12 dynamic knee extension exercises with ankle weights.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Neuromuscular variables of the quadriceps muscles were measured at the beginning and completion of the exercise program and included: isokinetic peak torque (ISOKPT, at 60 degrees/sec angular velocity) and total work performed of four contractions (ISOKTW), isometric peak torque (MVC), endurance (EDUR, time subject could hold isometric contraction at 40% of the initial MVC), isometric tension time index (TTI, product of endurance time and torque at 40% of MVC), and initial and final ankle weight (WGT, kg) lifted. Electromyographic variables included: fiber density (FD), jitter (MCD), and blocking (BLK) from single fiber assessment and median macro amplitude (MACRO). Serum creatine kinase (CK) was also measured initially and at 4-week intervals throughout the study.

RESULTS:
The following variables significantly (p < .05) increased: WGT by 47%, ISOKPT, 15%, ISOKTW, 15%; MVC, 36%; EDUR, 21%; TTI, 18%. The following variables did not significantly (p > .05) change: FD, MCD, BLK, MACRO, and CK.

CONCLUSIONS:
This home exercise program significantly increased strength, endurance, and TTI without apparently adversely affecting the motor units or the muscle, as the EMG and CK variables did not change.

Conclusions: A home exercise at low-moderate exercise with rest periods can improve or maintain leg strength and endurance in some post-polio subjects.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Comments (if any): These results are positive for exercise and have been included in more recent literature reviews. More research is required on the appropriate recommendation for strength programs for people who are experiencing lower limb weakness. Further guidance on exercise prescription is required.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Low-intensity, alternate-day exercise improves muscle performance without apparent adverse affect in postpolio patients.
Author: Agre, J., Rodriguez, A., Franke, T., Swiggum, E., Harmon, R., Curt, J.
Affiliation: Agre- Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison Medical School, 53791, USA.
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1996;75(1):50-8.
Publication Year and Month: 1996 01

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a low-intensity, alternate-day, 12 wk quadriceps muscle-strengthening exercise program on muscle strength and muscle and motor unit integrity in 12 postpolio patients. Patients performed six to ten repetitions of a 5-s duration knee extension exercise with ankle weights. After completing six repetitions, patients rated the perceived exertion (RPE) in the exercised muscle. The patient continued repetitions until RPE was >/= 17 or ten repetitions were performed. The weight was increased the next exercise day whenever the RPE was < 17 after ten repetitions. Before and after the training program, median macroamplitude as well as jitter and blocking were determined electromyographically (EMG), serum creatine kinase (CK) was measured, and quadriceps muscle strength was assessed. The ankle weight lifted after 2 wk of training and at the end of the program were also recorded. Although the ankle weight lifted at the end of the program significantly (P < 0.05) increased from a mean +/- SD of 7.1 +/- 2.7 to 11.2 +/- 4.7 kg, the dynametrically determined muscle strength measures did not significantly (P > 0.05) increase. The EMG and the serum CK variables also did not significantly (P >0.05) change as a result of the exercise program. We conclude that performance was improved, as demonstrated by an increase in the amount of weight the patients lifted in the exercise program. No evidence was found to show that this program adversely affected the motor units or the muscle as the EMG and CK did not change.

Conclusions: Patients increased leg strength without changes in motor unit innervation or fatigue levels.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Comments (if any): This is a good result on the efficacy of exercise. Caution should be applied to using these results across all people with a history of polio. Reasonable leg strength existed for all people involved in this study. Further investigations are required on they type, frequency and intensity of exercise as well as confirming results over a longer period of time.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Endurance Training Effect on Individuals With Postpoliomyelitis
Author: Brian Ernstoff, MD, Hakon Wetterqvist, MD, PhD, Henry Kvist, MD, PhD, Gunnar Grimby, MD, PhD
Affiliation:
Journal:
Citation: Ernstoff B, Wetterqvist H, Kvist H, Grimby G. Endurance training effect on individuals with postpoliomyelitis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1996;77:843-8.
Publication Year and Month: 1996

Abstract: Objective: To determine the effects of an endurance training program on the exercise capacity and muscle structure and function in individuals with postpolio syndrome.

Design: Preexercise and postexercise testing was performed with muscle strength evaluations using isokinetic testing as well as hand-held Myometer. Muscle fatigue was determined by use of isokinetic testing, and endurance was determined by exercise testing. Enzymatic evaluation was performed with muscle biopsies taken at the same site; preexercise and postexercise muscle cross-sectional area was measured by computed tomography. Disability and psychosocial evaluation was performed by a Functional Status Questionnaire.

Setting: A university.

Subjects: Seventeen postpolio subjects ranging in age from 39 to 49 years volunteered for a 6-month combined endurance and strength training program. They had a history of acute poliomyelitis at least 25 years earlier and were able to walk with or without aid.

Intervention: Twelve of the subjects (mean age 42 years) completed the program, attending an average of 29 sessions, which were offered for 60 minutes twice a week.

Main Outcome Measures: Strength, endurance, enzymatic activity, and cross-sectional area were measured 3 months before the beginning of training, just before training, and at the completion of the exercise program.

Conclusions: Results: Knee extension was reduced to an average of 60% of control values and did not change with training. Strength measured with a hand-held Myometer increased significantly for elbow flexion, wrist extension, and hip abduction. Exercise test on a bicycle-ergometer showed significant reduction (6 beats/min) in heart rate at 70W and increase (12 beats/min) in maximal heart rate with training. The training program could be performed without major complications and resulted in an increase in muscle strength in some muscle groups and in work performance with respect to heart rate at submaximal work load.

Outcome of Research:

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Category: Exercise

Title: Effect of aquatic exercise training in persons with poliomyelitis disability
Author: Prins, J.H., Hartung, H.G., Merritt, D.J., Blancq, R.J., Goebert, D.A.
Affiliation:
Journal:
Citation: Prins, J.H., Hartung, H.G., Merritt, D.J., Blancq, R.J., Goebert, D.A. (1994) Effect of aquatic exercise training in persons with poliomyelitis disability. Sports Medicine, Training and Rehabilitation. 5(1):29-39
Publication Year and Month: 1994 01

Abstract: Aquatic exercise, including swimming, reduces the effect of body weight on limbs and joints. A combination of swimming and specific activities involving resistive devices was used in an attempt to improve strength in persons who had symptomatic weakness related to poliomyelitis. Dynamic muscular force application in selected limb movements and range of motion were measured before and after an 8‐week aquatic exercise intervention. Peak (PF) and average force (AF) were determined in the water using a differential pressure transducer attached to either the hand, foot, or a resistive device. Arm flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and horizontal adduction and abduction along with combined hip flexion and knee extension were tested for both PF and AF Subjects were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups; complete data were available on nine experimental and four control subjects. PF and AF changes were greater (p ≤ 0.05) for experimental compared with control for right arm flexion (PF, 96 versus 6%) and extension (PR 105 versus ‐15%; AF, 76 versus ‐30%), respectively. Changes were greater (p ≤0.05) in experimental than control for left arm extension (PF, 88% versus 19%) and horizontal abduction (PF, 127% versus ‐21%; AF, 122% versus ‐17%). Aquatic exercise training in subjects with poliomyelitis disability resulted in significant dynamic strength changes of the upper body while appearing not to exacerbate symptomatic fatigue or pain.

Conclusions: Aquatic exercise training in subjects with poliomyelitis disability resulted in significant dynamic strength changes of the upper body while appearing not to exacerbate symptomatic fatigue or pain.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Comments (if any): Baseline strength measurements and functional outcomes (land-based) would have assisted greatly to determine the benefits of the increased forces produced from this aquatic training.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Cardiorespiratory responses to upper extremity aerobic training by postpolio subjects
Author: Kriz, J.L., Jones, D.R., Speier, J.L., Canine, J.K., Owen, R.R., Serfass, R.C.
Affiliation: Sister Kenny Institute
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Kriz, J.L., Jones, D.R., Speier, J.L., Canine, J.K., Owen, R.R., Serfass, R.C. (1992) Cardiorespiratory responses to upper extremity aerobic training by postpolio subjects. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 73(1): 49-54
Publication Year and Month: 1992 01

Abstract: The cardiorespiratory responses of ten postpolio subjects participating in a 16-week upper extremity aerobic exercise program were compared to ten non-exercised controls. The subjects trained three times a week for 20 minutes per session. Exercise intensity was prescribed at 70% to 75% of heart rate reserve plus resting heart rate. Dependent variables were resting heart rate, maximal heart rate, resting and immediate-post-exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressures, maximal oxygen consumption, maximal carbon dioxide production, minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, power, and exercise time. After training, the exercise group was superior to the control group in oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, minute ventilation, power, and exercise time. There was no reported loss of muscle strength. It was concluded that postpolio subjects can safely achieve an increase in aerobic capacity with a properly modified upper extremity exercise program. This improvement is comparable to that demonstrated by able-bodied adults.

Conclusions: Postpolio subjects can safely achieve an increase in aerobic capacity with a properly modified upper extremity exercise program. This improvement is comparable to that demonstrated by able-bodied adults.

Outcome of Research: More research required

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Category: Exercise

Title: Effect of modified aerobic training on movement energetics in polio survivors
Author: Dean E, Ross J
Affiliation: School of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1243-6
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Given that individuals with disabilities may be unable to achieve maximal oxygen uptake in an exercise test and that maximal exercise testing may cause increased fatigue, pain, and muscle weakness, we examined the role of submaximal exercise testing and training based on objective as well as subjective parameters in polio survivors. Experimental (N = 7) and control subjects (N = 13) were tested before and after a 6-week period. The experimental subjects participated in a 6-week exercise training program for 30 to 40 minutes, three times a week. The program consisted of treadmill walking at 55% to 70% of age-predicted maximum heart rates; however, exercise intensity was modified to minimize discomfort/pain and fatigue. Neither objective nor subjective exercise responses were significantly different in the control group over the 6 weeks. No change was observed in cardiorespiratory conditioning in the experimental group. However, movement economy, which is related to the energy cost of walking, was significantly improved; and walking duration was significantly increased at the end of training. Modified aerobic training may have a role in enhancing endurance and reducing fatigue during activities of daily living in polio survivors.

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Category: Exercise

Title: The effects of long-term non-fatiguing resistance exercise in subjects with post-polio syndrome
Author: Fillyaw MJ, Badger GJ, Goodwin GD, Bradley WG, Fries TJ, Shukla A
Affiliation: Department of Physical Therapy, University of Vermont, Burlington
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1253-6
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Measures of torque were used to evaluate changes in muscle strength and endurance in 17 patients with post-polio syndrome who did prescribed resistance exercise for up to 2 years. Exercise compliance averaged 75%, with 16 subjects increasing the weight lifted in training. Maximum torque was significantly increased in the exercised muscle compared to the control muscle; no difference was seen in muscle endurance. Individuals with post-polio syndrome can increase muscle strength by doing non-fatiguing resistance exercise, but they should undergo quantitative testing of muscle strength a minimum of every 3 months to guard against overwork weakness.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Post-polio fatigue: a 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigation
Author: Thompson RT, Barton PM, Marsh GD, Cameron MG, Gravelle DG, Hsieh JT, Hayes KC, Driedger AA
Affiliation: Department of Nuclear Medicine, St. Joseph's Health Center, London, Ontario, Canada
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1991 Nov; 14(11):1263-7
Publication Year and Month: 1991 11

Abstract: Changes in high energy phosphates (HEP) and intramuscular pH during exercise were measured in 17 patients with post-polio fatigue and in 28 healthy controls using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Subjects performed a dynamic hand grip exercise at low and high intensity. Mean changes in the HEP and pH showed no significant differences between the groups, although the post-polio group's response was highly variable. Six patients showed evidence of a lower lactate accumulation during the high intensity exercise when compared with controls. These data suggest that the whole body fatigue experienced by polio survivors is not related to any systemic metabolic abnormality.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Postpolio syndrome and cardiopulmonary conditioning
Author: Owen RR
Affiliation: Sister Kenny Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55407
Journal: The Western Journal of Medicine
Citation: West J Med. 1991 May;154(5):557-8 (Rehabilitation Medicine - Adding Life to Years [Special Issue])
Publication Year and Month: 1991 05

Abstract: Postpolio syndrome is a group of related signs and symptoms occurring in people who had paralytic poliomyelitis years earlier. New weakness, fatigue, poor endurance, pain, reduced mobility, increased breathing difficulty, intolerance to cold, and sleep disturbance in various degrees and expressions make up the syndrome. The reported incidence is between 25% and 80%. The origins are multifactorial and can be associated with underexertion, overexertion, inactivity due to intercurrent illness or injury, hypo-oxygenation, sleep apnea, deconditioning, and the failure of sprouted, compensatory large motor units. The exercise question in postpolio syndrome is related to the experience of new weakness or loss of muscle function due to overuse, which is often associated with injudicious repeated challenges to weakened musculature. Carefully prescribed exercise can be used for increasing strength and endurance and improving cardiopulmonary conditioning.

Conclusions: Stretching and flexibility exercises are critical physical hygiene measures for the management of pain, instability, and deformity. These exercises should also precede cardiopulmonary conditioning and other vigorous physical pursuits. Muscle training and strengthening when carefully defined and judiciously implemented can safely build force and power. Resistive exercises should be prescribed for specific goals rather than for purposes of general muscle training. An adapted cardiopulmonary conditioning program has been created to provide improved cardiac status without the risk of overuse damage to nerve and muscle.

The management of postpolio syndrome requires applying traditional physical treatment principles with specific attention to the factors of the vulnerability of compensatory mechanisms to injury by overuse, underuse, underoxygenation, and an inefficient use of weakened musculature. Clinicians must provide information and a balanced prescription of exercise, rest, activity, support, and intelligent accommodation to additional disability.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Cardiorespiratory responses to aerobic training by patients with postpoliomyelitis sequelae
Author: Jones DR, Speier J, Canine K, Owen R, Stull GA
Affiliation: Sister Kenny Institute, Minneapolis, Minn (Mr Jones and Drs Speier, Canine, and Owen)
School of Health Related Professions, State University of New York at Buffalo (Dr Stull)
Journal: The Journal of the American Medical Association
Citation: JAMA. 1989 Jun 9;261(22):3255-58
Publication Year and Month: 1989 06

Abstract: We examined the cardiorespiratory responses of 16 patients with postpoliomyelitis sequelae to a 16-week aerobic exercise program. The patients exercised at 70% of maximal heart rate. Dependent variables were resting and maximal heart rates, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, maximum oxygen consumption, maximum carbon dioxide consumption, respiratory quotient, and maximum expired volume per unit time. The exercise group was superior to the control group in watts, exercise time, maximum expired volume per unit time, and maximum oxygen consumption. No untoward events or loss of leg strength occurred as a result of the exercise regimen. We conclude that the aerobic training program employed in this study is a safe, short-term procedure and that patients with postpolio sequelae respond to training in a manner similar to healthy adults.

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Category: Exercise

Title: The Postpolio Syndrome: An Overuse Phenomenon


Author: Perry, J., Barnes, G., & Gronley, J. K.
Affiliation:
Journal: Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research
Citation: Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research Volume 233:145-162; August 1988
Publication Year and Month: 1988 08

Abstract: Persons with good recovery of function following their initial poliomyelitis are now, more than 30 years later, experiencing new weakness, fatigue, and muscle pain. The likelihood of muscle overuse being the cause of this late functional loss was investigated by dynamic electromyography (EMG) and foot-switch stride analysis in 34 symptomatic patients. Manual testing grouped the muscles, with strong (S) encompassing Grades Good (G) and Normal (N) while weak (W) included Fair plus (F+) to zero (0). After testing quadriceps and calf strength, the patients fell into one of four classes: strong quadriceps and calf (SQ/SC) strong quadriceps and weak calf (SQ/WC) weak quadriceps and strong calf (WQ/SC) or combined weak quadriceps and calf (WQ/WC). Quantified EMG; (normalized by the manual muscle test EMG) defined the mean duration and intensity of the quadriceps soleus, lower gluteus maximus, and long head of the biceps femoris during walking. Overuse was defined as values greater than the laboratory normal (mean·+ 1 SD). Each muscle exhibited instances of overuse, normalcy, and sparing. The biceps femoris was the only muscle with dominant overuse (82%). Quadriceps overuse was next in frequency (53%). Soleus activity infrequently exceeded normal function (34%), but this still represented more than twice the intensity and duration of the other muscles. Gluteus maximus action was also seldom excessive (34%). The patients averaged two muscles with excessive use during walking. Gait velocity of the SQ/SC strong group was highest (71% of normal) while the three categories that included weak muscles had walking speeds in the range of 50% of normal. The finding of muscle overuse during a single free-speed walking test that does not attain normal velocity supports the concept of muscle overuse being the cause of the patient's dysfunction.

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Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any): Paul Cavendish
(Clinical Health Educator):
This article discusses manual muscle testing and gait dynamics with EMG, demonstrating excessive muscle use during gait, demonstrating increased fatigue for this sample of people with a history of polio.

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Category: Exercise

Title: Polio residuals clinic: conditioning exercise program
Author: Owen RR, Jones D
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1985 Jul; 8(7):882-3
Publication Year and Month: 1985 07

Abstract: The additional disability experienced by individuals who had poliomyelitis many years earlier has a variety of expressions and a variety of interacting origins. Undertraining and deconditioning are addressed in this article. Weakened musculature often fatigues before a conditioning level of activity is reached. An adapted exercise program for cardiac endurance will reduce symptoms of fatigue and pain. An intentional training program for muscles weakened further by disuse or underutilization will supplement the conditioning program. The clinical assessment and exercise prescription is described.

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Category: Exercise

Title: The use of strengthening exercises in post-polio sequelae - methods and results
Author: Feldman RM
Affiliation: Not stated
Journal: Orthopedics
Citation: Orthopedics. 1985 Jul; 8(7):889-90
Publication Year and Month: 1985 07

Abstract: Some individuals who had poliomyelitis 20 to 30 years ago are now reporting a recurrence of symptoms of weakness in the same muscle groups that were weakened during the initial onset of the disease. Electrophysiological findings on EMG and repetitive stimulation studies identify changes peculiar to this disease. Non-fatiguing progressive resistive exercises have been used to strengthen muscle groups demonstrating this secondary weakness after the muscles have been identified by electrophysiological studies. Favorable results are reported after non-fatiguing exercises which, combined with Occupational Therapy and appropriate orthotic management, have resulted in improvement in function of ambulation and activities of daily living. The causes of muscle atrophy and pain seen in these individuals are also discussed.

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There are currently 26 papers in this category.

Outcomes of Research or Clinical Trials Activity Levels Acute Flaccid Paralysis Ageing Anaerobic Threshold Anaesthesia Assistive Technology Brain Cardiorespiratory Cardiovascular Clinical Evaluation Cold Intolerance Complementary Therapies Continence Coping Styles and Strategies Cultural Context Diagnosis and Management Differential Diagnosis Drugs Dysphagia Dysphonia Epidemiology Exercise Falls Fatigue Fractures Gender Differences Immune Response Inflammation Late Effects of Polio Muscle Strength Muscular Atrophy Orthoses Pain Polio Immunisation Post-Polio Motor Unit Psychology Quality of Life Renal Complications Respiratory Complications and Management Restless Legs Syndrome Sleep Analaysis Surgery Vitality Vocational Implications