Outcomes of Research or Clinical Trials Activity Levels Acute Flaccid Paralysis Ageing Anaerobic Threshold Anaesthesia Assistive Technology Brain Cardiorespiratory Cardiovascular Clinical Evaluation Cold Intolerance Complementary Therapies Continence Coping Styles and Strategies Cultural Context Diagnosis and Management Differential Diagnosis Drugs Dysphagia Dysphonia Epidemiology Exercise Falls Fatigue Fractures Gender Differences Immune Response Inflammation Late Effects of Polio Muscle Strength Muscular Atrophy Orthoses Pain Polio Immunisation Post-Polio Motor Unit Psychology Quality of Life Renal Complications Respiratory Complications and Management Restless Legs Syndrome Sleep Analaysis Surgery Vitality Vocational Implications

Title order Author order Journal order Date order
Category: Ageing

Title: Aging and sequelae of poliomyelitis
Author: Laffont I, Julia M, Tiffreau V, Yelnik A, Herisson C, Pelissier J
Affiliation: centre hospitalier régional universitaire de Montpellier, hôpital Lapeyronie, France –
[email protected]
Journal: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2010 Feb;53(1):24-33 – Epub 2009 Nov 10
Publication Year and Month: 2010 02

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: We estimate that there are about 50,000 persons who survived poliomyelitis in their childhood in France (mean age estimated between 50 and 65 years). After a few decades of stability, 30 to 65% of individuals who had been infected and recovered from polio begin to experience new signs and symptoms.

METHOD: Review of the literature on Pubmed with the following keywords "Poliomyelitis" and "Post-Polio Syndrome (PPS)".

RESULTS: These new signs and symptoms are characterized by muscular atrophy (decreased muscle mass), muscle weakness and fatigue, muscle and/or joint pain. All these symptoms lead to significant changes in mobility with falls and inability to carry on with daily life activities. There are several intricate causes. The normal aging process and weight gain are regularly blamed. Respiratory disorders and sleep disorders must be looked for: respiratory insufficiency, sleep-related breathing disorders such as sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome. Orthopedics complications are quite common: soft-tissue pathologies of the upper limbs, degenerative pathologies of the large joints or spinal cord, fall-related fractures. Finally, the onset of an authentic PPS is possible.

Conclusions: The therapeutic care of this late functional deterioration requires regular monitoring check-ups in order to implement preventive measures and appropriate treatment. This therapeutic care must be multidisciplinary as physical rehabilitation, orthotics and technical aids are all essential.

Outcome of Research:

Availability of Paper:

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available):


Category: Ageing

Title: Changes in Post-Polio Survivors Over Five Years: Symptoms and Reactions to Treatments.
Author: Mary T. Westbrook, PhD.
Affiliation: Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney.
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Proceedings of the 12th World Congress, International Federation of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sydney, March 1995.
Publication Year and Month: 1995 03

Abstract: A group of 176 people with post-polio syndrome, identified using Ramlow et al's (1992) criteria, took part in a 5 year follow-up survey. Most reported increased muscle weakness (91%), fatigue (91%), muscle pain (80%), joint pain (64%) and changes in walking (60%). Increases in other symptoms occurred in less than half the group. Cramps, sensitivity to cold, muscle atrophy and muscle twitching were the symptoms most likely to have stabilised. The average respondent reported greater difficulty in carrying out 4 of the 8 activities of daily living investigated. Respondents were significantly less anxious and depressed about their condition at follow-up. Degree of post-polio changes reported at the time of the first survey was a better predictor of decline during the five years than were initial polio histories or psycho-social variables. Health practitioners most likely to have been consulted were general practitioners and physiotherapists. Specialists in rehabilitation medicine were rated as providing more beneficial treatment than other medical practitioners. Treatments reported to provide good symptom relief included massage and water activities but not exercise. Life style modifications associated with pacing, reduced activity and rest were particularly effective. Overall 68% of respondents considered there was much they could do to control post-polio symptoms.

Conclusions: The results confirm and elaborate the findings of previous lengthier longitudinal studies of post-polio syndrome (Dalakas et al., 1986; Grimby et al., 1994; Mulder et al., 1972) The syndrome typically appears to he progressive with the symptoms increasingly interfering with activities of living. However over time most people in the sample studied coped by trying a range of remedies, particularly treatments prescribed by health practitioners and life style modifications. Many of these helped to alleviate symptoms and although respondents were physically less well at the time of follow-up, the group was significantly less anxious and depressed. However, respondents who had declined most over the five year period described their present lives less positively than did survivors whose symptoms had progressed more slowly.

Polio survivors who exhibited most symptoms of post-polio in the initial survey were those reporting greater progression over the next five years. The reason why may become more apparent when the etiology of post-polio syndrome, which is still not fully understood (Jubelt & Druker, 1993), is elucidated.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any): Paul Cavendish (Clinical Health Educator): From a treatment perspective, the role of orthotists and Podiatrists may be increasingly important as Polio survivors age. A significant factor for improvement in lifestyle appears to come from lifestyle modification / strategies to minimise fatigue throughout daily tasks and activities.

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Ageing

Title: Review of secondary health conditions in postpolio syndrome: prevalence and effects of aging
Author: McNalley TE, Yorkston KM, Jensen MP, Truitt AR, Schomer KG, Baylor C, Molton IR
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2015 Feb;94(2):139-45. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0000000000000166
Publication Year and Month: 2015 02

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study sought to better understand the prevalence and the severity of secondary health conditions in individuals with postpolio syndrome (PPS) as well as the association between these conditions and aging.

DESIGN: A scoping literature review was conducted searching electronic databases for studies published from 1986 to 2011. The scoping review provided information regarding the prevalence and associations of secondary health conditions in PPS with age or other duration-related variables.

RESULTS: The findings indicate that (1) individuals with PPS experience a number of serious secondary health conditions; (2) the most common conditions or symptoms are fatigue, pain, respiratory and sleep complaints, and increased risk for falls; (3) reports of the associations between the frequency or the severity of conditions and age-related factors are variable, perhaps because of methodological inconsistencies between studies; and (4) there is a marked lack of longitudinal research examining the natural course of health conditions in people aging with PPS

Conclusions: Longitudinal research is needed to understand the course of health conditions and the impact of multiple secondary conditions in people aging with PPS. Efforts are also needed to develop and test the efficacy of interventions to prevent these secondary health conditions or reduce their negative impact

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): View Abstract here


Category: Ageing

Title: Symptom profiles in individuals aging with post-polio syndrome
Author: Amtmann D, Bamer AM, Verrall A, Salem R, Borson S
Affiliation: Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
Journal: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Citation: J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 Oct;61(10):1813-5. doi: 10.1111/jgs.12465
Publication Year and Month: 2013 10

Abstract: This paper does not have an abstract.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here for preview


There are currently 4 papers in this category.

Category: Ageing

Title: Symptom profiles in individuals aging with post-polio syndrome
Author: Amtmann D, Bamer AM, Verrall A, Salem R, Borson S
Affiliation: Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
Journal: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Citation: J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 Oct;61(10):1813-5. doi: 10.1111/jgs.12465
Publication Year and Month: 2013 10

Abstract: This paper does not have an abstract.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here for preview


Category: Ageing

Title: Aging and sequelae of poliomyelitis
Author: Laffont I, Julia M, Tiffreau V, Yelnik A, Herisson C, Pelissier J
Affiliation: centre hospitalier régional universitaire de Montpellier, hôpital Lapeyronie, France –
[email protected]
Journal: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2010 Feb;53(1):24-33 – Epub 2009 Nov 10
Publication Year and Month: 2010 02

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: We estimate that there are about 50,000 persons who survived poliomyelitis in their childhood in France (mean age estimated between 50 and 65 years). After a few decades of stability, 30 to 65% of individuals who had been infected and recovered from polio begin to experience new signs and symptoms.

METHOD: Review of the literature on Pubmed with the following keywords "Poliomyelitis" and "Post-Polio Syndrome (PPS)".

RESULTS: These new signs and symptoms are characterized by muscular atrophy (decreased muscle mass), muscle weakness and fatigue, muscle and/or joint pain. All these symptoms lead to significant changes in mobility with falls and inability to carry on with daily life activities. There are several intricate causes. The normal aging process and weight gain are regularly blamed. Respiratory disorders and sleep disorders must be looked for: respiratory insufficiency, sleep-related breathing disorders such as sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome. Orthopedics complications are quite common: soft-tissue pathologies of the upper limbs, degenerative pathologies of the large joints or spinal cord, fall-related fractures. Finally, the onset of an authentic PPS is possible.

Conclusions: The therapeutic care of this late functional deterioration requires regular monitoring check-ups in order to implement preventive measures and appropriate treatment. This therapeutic care must be multidisciplinary as physical rehabilitation, orthotics and technical aids are all essential.

Outcome of Research:

Availability of Paper:

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available):


Category: Ageing

Title: Changes in Post-Polio Survivors Over Five Years: Symptoms and Reactions to Treatments.
Author: Mary T. Westbrook, PhD.
Affiliation: Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney.
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Proceedings of the 12th World Congress, International Federation of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sydney, March 1995.
Publication Year and Month: 1995 03

Abstract: A group of 176 people with post-polio syndrome, identified using Ramlow et al's (1992) criteria, took part in a 5 year follow-up survey. Most reported increased muscle weakness (91%), fatigue (91%), muscle pain (80%), joint pain (64%) and changes in walking (60%). Increases in other symptoms occurred in less than half the group. Cramps, sensitivity to cold, muscle atrophy and muscle twitching were the symptoms most likely to have stabilised. The average respondent reported greater difficulty in carrying out 4 of the 8 activities of daily living investigated. Respondents were significantly less anxious and depressed about their condition at follow-up. Degree of post-polio changes reported at the time of the first survey was a better predictor of decline during the five years than were initial polio histories or psycho-social variables. Health practitioners most likely to have been consulted were general practitioners and physiotherapists. Specialists in rehabilitation medicine were rated as providing more beneficial treatment than other medical practitioners. Treatments reported to provide good symptom relief included massage and water activities but not exercise. Life style modifications associated with pacing, reduced activity and rest were particularly effective. Overall 68% of respondents considered there was much they could do to control post-polio symptoms.

Conclusions: The results confirm and elaborate the findings of previous lengthier longitudinal studies of post-polio syndrome (Dalakas et al., 1986; Grimby et al., 1994; Mulder et al., 1972) The syndrome typically appears to he progressive with the symptoms increasingly interfering with activities of living. However over time most people in the sample studied coped by trying a range of remedies, particularly treatments prescribed by health practitioners and life style modifications. Many of these helped to alleviate symptoms and although respondents were physically less well at the time of follow-up, the group was significantly less anxious and depressed. However, respondents who had declined most over the five year period described their present lives less positively than did survivors whose symptoms had progressed more slowly.

Polio survivors who exhibited most symptoms of post-polio in the initial survey were those reporting greater progression over the next five years. The reason why may become more apparent when the etiology of post-polio syndrome, which is still not fully understood (Jubelt & Druker, 1993), is elucidated.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any): Paul Cavendish (Clinical Health Educator): From a treatment perspective, the role of orthotists and Podiatrists may be increasingly important as Polio survivors age. A significant factor for improvement in lifestyle appears to come from lifestyle modification / strategies to minimise fatigue throughout daily tasks and activities.

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Ageing

Title: Review of secondary health conditions in postpolio syndrome: prevalence and effects of aging
Author: McNalley TE, Yorkston KM, Jensen MP, Truitt AR, Schomer KG, Baylor C, Molton IR
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2015 Feb;94(2):139-45. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0000000000000166
Publication Year and Month: 2015 02

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study sought to better understand the prevalence and the severity of secondary health conditions in individuals with postpolio syndrome (PPS) as well as the association between these conditions and aging.

DESIGN: A scoping literature review was conducted searching electronic databases for studies published from 1986 to 2011. The scoping review provided information regarding the prevalence and associations of secondary health conditions in PPS with age or other duration-related variables.

RESULTS: The findings indicate that (1) individuals with PPS experience a number of serious secondary health conditions; (2) the most common conditions or symptoms are fatigue, pain, respiratory and sleep complaints, and increased risk for falls; (3) reports of the associations between the frequency or the severity of conditions and age-related factors are variable, perhaps because of methodological inconsistencies between studies; and (4) there is a marked lack of longitudinal research examining the natural course of health conditions in people aging with PPS

Conclusions: Longitudinal research is needed to understand the course of health conditions and the impact of multiple secondary conditions in people aging with PPS. Efforts are also needed to develop and test the efficacy of interventions to prevent these secondary health conditions or reduce their negative impact

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): View Abstract here


There are currently 4 papers in this category.

Category: Ageing

Title: Review of secondary health conditions in postpolio syndrome: prevalence and effects of aging
Author: McNalley TE, Yorkston KM, Jensen MP, Truitt AR, Schomer KG, Baylor C, Molton IR
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2015 Feb;94(2):139-45. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0000000000000166
Publication Year and Month: 2015 02

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study sought to better understand the prevalence and the severity of secondary health conditions in individuals with postpolio syndrome (PPS) as well as the association between these conditions and aging.

DESIGN: A scoping literature review was conducted searching electronic databases for studies published from 1986 to 2011. The scoping review provided information regarding the prevalence and associations of secondary health conditions in PPS with age or other duration-related variables.

RESULTS: The findings indicate that (1) individuals with PPS experience a number of serious secondary health conditions; (2) the most common conditions or symptoms are fatigue, pain, respiratory and sleep complaints, and increased risk for falls; (3) reports of the associations between the frequency or the severity of conditions and age-related factors are variable, perhaps because of methodological inconsistencies between studies; and (4) there is a marked lack of longitudinal research examining the natural course of health conditions in people aging with PPS

Conclusions: Longitudinal research is needed to understand the course of health conditions and the impact of multiple secondary conditions in people aging with PPS. Efforts are also needed to develop and test the efficacy of interventions to prevent these secondary health conditions or reduce their negative impact

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): View Abstract here


Category: Ageing

Title: Aging and sequelae of poliomyelitis
Author: Laffont I, Julia M, Tiffreau V, Yelnik A, Herisson C, Pelissier J
Affiliation: centre hospitalier régional universitaire de Montpellier, hôpital Lapeyronie, France –
[email protected]
Journal: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2010 Feb;53(1):24-33 – Epub 2009 Nov 10
Publication Year and Month: 2010 02

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: We estimate that there are about 50,000 persons who survived poliomyelitis in their childhood in France (mean age estimated between 50 and 65 years). After a few decades of stability, 30 to 65% of individuals who had been infected and recovered from polio begin to experience new signs and symptoms.

METHOD: Review of the literature on Pubmed with the following keywords "Poliomyelitis" and "Post-Polio Syndrome (PPS)".

RESULTS: These new signs and symptoms are characterized by muscular atrophy (decreased muscle mass), muscle weakness and fatigue, muscle and/or joint pain. All these symptoms lead to significant changes in mobility with falls and inability to carry on with daily life activities. There are several intricate causes. The normal aging process and weight gain are regularly blamed. Respiratory disorders and sleep disorders must be looked for: respiratory insufficiency, sleep-related breathing disorders such as sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome. Orthopedics complications are quite common: soft-tissue pathologies of the upper limbs, degenerative pathologies of the large joints or spinal cord, fall-related fractures. Finally, the onset of an authentic PPS is possible.

Conclusions: The therapeutic care of this late functional deterioration requires regular monitoring check-ups in order to implement preventive measures and appropriate treatment. This therapeutic care must be multidisciplinary as physical rehabilitation, orthotics and technical aids are all essential.

Outcome of Research:

Availability of Paper:

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available):


Category: Ageing

Title: Changes in Post-Polio Survivors Over Five Years: Symptoms and Reactions to Treatments.
Author: Mary T. Westbrook, PhD.
Affiliation: Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney.
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Proceedings of the 12th World Congress, International Federation of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sydney, March 1995.
Publication Year and Month: 1995 03

Abstract: A group of 176 people with post-polio syndrome, identified using Ramlow et al's (1992) criteria, took part in a 5 year follow-up survey. Most reported increased muscle weakness (91%), fatigue (91%), muscle pain (80%), joint pain (64%) and changes in walking (60%). Increases in other symptoms occurred in less than half the group. Cramps, sensitivity to cold, muscle atrophy and muscle twitching were the symptoms most likely to have stabilised. The average respondent reported greater difficulty in carrying out 4 of the 8 activities of daily living investigated. Respondents were significantly less anxious and depressed about their condition at follow-up. Degree of post-polio changes reported at the time of the first survey was a better predictor of decline during the five years than were initial polio histories or psycho-social variables. Health practitioners most likely to have been consulted were general practitioners and physiotherapists. Specialists in rehabilitation medicine were rated as providing more beneficial treatment than other medical practitioners. Treatments reported to provide good symptom relief included massage and water activities but not exercise. Life style modifications associated with pacing, reduced activity and rest were particularly effective. Overall 68% of respondents considered there was much they could do to control post-polio symptoms.

Conclusions: The results confirm and elaborate the findings of previous lengthier longitudinal studies of post-polio syndrome (Dalakas et al., 1986; Grimby et al., 1994; Mulder et al., 1972) The syndrome typically appears to he progressive with the symptoms increasingly interfering with activities of living. However over time most people in the sample studied coped by trying a range of remedies, particularly treatments prescribed by health practitioners and life style modifications. Many of these helped to alleviate symptoms and although respondents were physically less well at the time of follow-up, the group was significantly less anxious and depressed. However, respondents who had declined most over the five year period described their present lives less positively than did survivors whose symptoms had progressed more slowly.

Polio survivors who exhibited most symptoms of post-polio in the initial survey were those reporting greater progression over the next five years. The reason why may become more apparent when the etiology of post-polio syndrome, which is still not fully understood (Jubelt & Druker, 1993), is elucidated.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any): Paul Cavendish (Clinical Health Educator): From a treatment perspective, the role of orthotists and Podiatrists may be increasingly important as Polio survivors age. A significant factor for improvement in lifestyle appears to come from lifestyle modification / strategies to minimise fatigue throughout daily tasks and activities.

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Ageing

Title: Symptom profiles in individuals aging with post-polio syndrome
Author: Amtmann D, Bamer AM, Verrall A, Salem R, Borson S
Affiliation: Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
Journal: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Citation: J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 Oct;61(10):1813-5. doi: 10.1111/jgs.12465
Publication Year and Month: 2013 10

Abstract: This paper does not have an abstract.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here for preview


There is currently 4 paper in this category.

Category: Ageing

Title: Review of secondary health conditions in postpolio syndrome: prevalence and effects of aging
Author: McNalley TE, Yorkston KM, Jensen MP, Truitt AR, Schomer KG, Baylor C, Molton IR
Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle
Journal: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Citation: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2015 Feb;94(2):139-45. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0000000000000166
Publication Year and Month: 2015 02

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study sought to better understand the prevalence and the severity of secondary health conditions in individuals with postpolio syndrome (PPS) as well as the association between these conditions and aging.

DESIGN: A scoping literature review was conducted searching electronic databases for studies published from 1986 to 2011. The scoping review provided information regarding the prevalence and associations of secondary health conditions in PPS with age or other duration-related variables.

RESULTS: The findings indicate that (1) individuals with PPS experience a number of serious secondary health conditions; (2) the most common conditions or symptoms are fatigue, pain, respiratory and sleep complaints, and increased risk for falls; (3) reports of the associations between the frequency or the severity of conditions and age-related factors are variable, perhaps because of methodological inconsistencies between studies; and (4) there is a marked lack of longitudinal research examining the natural course of health conditions in people aging with PPS

Conclusions: Longitudinal research is needed to understand the course of health conditions and the impact of multiple secondary conditions in people aging with PPS. Efforts are also needed to develop and test the efficacy of interventions to prevent these secondary health conditions or reduce their negative impact

Outcome of Research: Not applicable.

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): View Abstract here


Category: Ageing

Title: Symptom profiles in individuals aging with post-polio syndrome
Author: Amtmann D, Bamer AM, Verrall A, Salem R, Borson S
Affiliation: Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
Journal: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Citation: J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 Oct;61(10):1813-5. doi: 10.1111/jgs.12465
Publication Year and Month: 2013 10

Abstract: This paper does not have an abstract.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: Paid subscription required to view or download full text.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here for preview


Category: Ageing

Title: Aging and sequelae of poliomyelitis
Author: Laffont I, Julia M, Tiffreau V, Yelnik A, Herisson C, Pelissier J
Affiliation: centre hospitalier régional universitaire de Montpellier, hôpital Lapeyronie, France –
[email protected]
Journal: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Citation: Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2010 Feb;53(1):24-33 – Epub 2009 Nov 10
Publication Year and Month: 2010 02

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: We estimate that there are about 50,000 persons who survived poliomyelitis in their childhood in France (mean age estimated between 50 and 65 years). After a few decades of stability, 30 to 65% of individuals who had been infected and recovered from polio begin to experience new signs and symptoms.

METHOD: Review of the literature on Pubmed with the following keywords "Poliomyelitis" and "Post-Polio Syndrome (PPS)".

RESULTS: These new signs and symptoms are characterized by muscular atrophy (decreased muscle mass), muscle weakness and fatigue, muscle and/or joint pain. All these symptoms lead to significant changes in mobility with falls and inability to carry on with daily life activities. There are several intricate causes. The normal aging process and weight gain are regularly blamed. Respiratory disorders and sleep disorders must be looked for: respiratory insufficiency, sleep-related breathing disorders such as sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome. Orthopedics complications are quite common: soft-tissue pathologies of the upper limbs, degenerative pathologies of the large joints or spinal cord, fall-related fractures. Finally, the onset of an authentic PPS is possible.

Conclusions: The therapeutic care of this late functional deterioration requires regular monitoring check-ups in order to implement preventive measures and appropriate treatment. This therapeutic care must be multidisciplinary as physical rehabilitation, orthotics and technical aids are all essential.

Outcome of Research:

Availability of Paper:

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available):


Category: Ageing

Title: Changes in Post-Polio Survivors Over Five Years: Symptoms and Reactions to Treatments.
Author: Mary T. Westbrook, PhD.
Affiliation: Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney.
Journal: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Citation: Proceedings of the 12th World Congress, International Federation of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sydney, March 1995.
Publication Year and Month: 1995 03

Abstract: A group of 176 people with post-polio syndrome, identified using Ramlow et al's (1992) criteria, took part in a 5 year follow-up survey. Most reported increased muscle weakness (91%), fatigue (91%), muscle pain (80%), joint pain (64%) and changes in walking (60%). Increases in other symptoms occurred in less than half the group. Cramps, sensitivity to cold, muscle atrophy and muscle twitching were the symptoms most likely to have stabilised. The average respondent reported greater difficulty in carrying out 4 of the 8 activities of daily living investigated. Respondents were significantly less anxious and depressed about their condition at follow-up. Degree of post-polio changes reported at the time of the first survey was a better predictor of decline during the five years than were initial polio histories or psycho-social variables. Health practitioners most likely to have been consulted were general practitioners and physiotherapists. Specialists in rehabilitation medicine were rated as providing more beneficial treatment than other medical practitioners. Treatments reported to provide good symptom relief included massage and water activities but not exercise. Life style modifications associated with pacing, reduced activity and rest were particularly effective. Overall 68% of respondents considered there was much they could do to control post-polio symptoms.

Conclusions: The results confirm and elaborate the findings of previous lengthier longitudinal studies of post-polio syndrome (Dalakas et al., 1986; Grimby et al., 1994; Mulder et al., 1972) The syndrome typically appears to he progressive with the symptoms increasingly interfering with activities of living. However over time most people in the sample studied coped by trying a range of remedies, particularly treatments prescribed by health practitioners and life style modifications. Many of these helped to alleviate symptoms and although respondents were physically less well at the time of follow-up, the group was significantly less anxious and depressed. However, respondents who had declined most over the five year period described their present lives less positively than did survivors whose symptoms had progressed more slowly.

Polio survivors who exhibited most symptoms of post-polio in the initial survey were those reporting greater progression over the next five years. The reason why may become more apparent when the etiology of post-polio syndrome, which is still not fully understood (Jubelt & Druker, 1993), is elucidated.

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any): Paul Cavendish (Clinical Health Educator): From a treatment perspective, the role of orthotists and Podiatrists may be increasingly important as Polio survivors age. A significant factor for improvement in lifestyle appears to come from lifestyle modification / strategies to minimise fatigue throughout daily tasks and activities.

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


There are currently 4 papers in this category.

Outcomes of Research or Clinical Trials Activity Levels Acute Flaccid Paralysis Ageing Anaerobic Threshold Anaesthesia Assistive Technology Brain Cardiorespiratory Cardiovascular Clinical Evaluation Cold Intolerance Complementary Therapies Continence Coping Styles and Strategies Cultural Context Diagnosis and Management Differential Diagnosis Drugs Dysphagia Dysphonia Epidemiology Exercise Falls Fatigue Fractures Gender Differences Immune Response Inflammation Late Effects of Polio Muscle Strength Muscular Atrophy Orthoses Pain Polio Immunisation Post-Polio Motor Unit Psychology Quality of Life Renal Complications Respiratory Complications and Management Restless Legs Syndrome Sleep Analaysis Surgery Vitality Vocational Implications