Outcomes of Research or Clinical Trials Activity Levels Acute Flaccid Paralysis Ageing Anaerobic Threshold Anaesthesia Assistive Technology Brain Cardiorespiratory Cardiovascular Clinical Evaluation Cold Intolerance Complementary Therapies Continence Coping Styles and Strategies Cultural Context Diagnosis and Management Differential Diagnosis Drugs Dysphagia Dysphonia Epidemiology Exercise Falls Fatigue Fractures Gender Differences Immune Response Inflammation Late Effects of Polio Muscle Strength Muscular Atrophy Orthoses Pain Polio Immunisation Post-Polio Motor Unit Psychology Quality of Life Renal Complications Respiratory Complications and Management Restless Legs Syndrome Sleep Analaysis Surgery Vitality Vocational Implications

Title order Author order Journal order Date order
Category: Epidemiology, Late Effects of Polio

Title: Epidemic poliomyelitis, post-poliomyelitis sequelae and the eradication program
Author: Margaret Peel
Affiliation: University of Melbourne - Department of Microbiology and Immunology Melbourne, Australia
Position: Principal Microbiologist
Description: Retired
Journal: Microbiology Australia
Citation: 41(4):196 DOI: 10.1071/MA20053
Publication Year and Month: 2020 11

Abstract: Epidemics of paralytic poliomyelitis (polio) first emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the United States and the Scandinavian countries. They continued through the first half of the 20th century becoming global. A major epidemic occurred in Australia in 1951 but significant outbreaks were reported from the late 1930s to 1954. The poliovirus is an enterovirus that is usually transmitted by the faecal–oral route but only one in about 150 infections results in paralysis when the central nervous system is invaded. The Salk inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) became available in Australia in 1956 and the Sabin live attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) was introduced in 1966. After decades of stability, many survivors of the earlier epidemics experience late-onset sequelae including post-polio syndrome. The World Health Organization launched the global polio eradication initiative (GPEI) in 1988 based on the easily administered OPV. The GPEI has resulted in a dramatic decrease in cases of wild polio so that only Pakistan and Afghanistan report such cases in 2020. However, a major challenge to eradication is the reversion of OPV to neurovirulent mutants resulting in circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV). A novel, genetically stabilised OPV has been developed recently to stop the emergence and spread of cVDPV and OPV is being replaced by IPV in immunisation programs worldwide. Eradication of poliomyelitis is near to achievement and the expectation is that poliomyelitis will join smallpox as dreaded epidemic diseases of the past that will be consigned to history.

Conclusions: Eradication of poliomyelitis is near to achievement and the expectation is that poliomyelitis will join smallpox as dreaded epidemic diseases of the past that will be consigned to history.

Outcome of Research: Effective

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


There is currently 1 paper in this category.

Category: Epidemiology, Late Effects of Polio

Title: Epidemic poliomyelitis, post-poliomyelitis sequelae and the eradication program
Author: Margaret Peel
Affiliation: University of Melbourne - Department of Microbiology and Immunology Melbourne, Australia
Position: Principal Microbiologist
Description: Retired
Journal: Microbiology Australia
Citation: 41(4):196 DOI: 10.1071/MA20053
Publication Year and Month: 2020 11

Abstract: Epidemics of paralytic poliomyelitis (polio) first emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the United States and the Scandinavian countries. They continued through the first half of the 20th century becoming global. A major epidemic occurred in Australia in 1951 but significant outbreaks were reported from the late 1930s to 1954. The poliovirus is an enterovirus that is usually transmitted by the faecal–oral route but only one in about 150 infections results in paralysis when the central nervous system is invaded. The Salk inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) became available in Australia in 1956 and the Sabin live attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) was introduced in 1966. After decades of stability, many survivors of the earlier epidemics experience late-onset sequelae including post-polio syndrome. The World Health Organization launched the global polio eradication initiative (GPEI) in 1988 based on the easily administered OPV. The GPEI has resulted in a dramatic decrease in cases of wild polio so that only Pakistan and Afghanistan report such cases in 2020. However, a major challenge to eradication is the reversion of OPV to neurovirulent mutants resulting in circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV). A novel, genetically stabilised OPV has been developed recently to stop the emergence and spread of cVDPV and OPV is being replaced by IPV in immunisation programs worldwide. Eradication of poliomyelitis is near to achievement and the expectation is that poliomyelitis will join smallpox as dreaded epidemic diseases of the past that will be consigned to history.

Conclusions: Eradication of poliomyelitis is near to achievement and the expectation is that poliomyelitis will join smallpox as dreaded epidemic diseases of the past that will be consigned to history.

Outcome of Research: Effective

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


There is currently 1 paper in this category.

Category: Epidemiology, Late Effects of Polio

Title: Epidemic poliomyelitis, post-poliomyelitis sequelae and the eradication program
Author: Margaret Peel
Affiliation: University of Melbourne - Department of Microbiology and Immunology Melbourne, Australia
Position: Principal Microbiologist
Description: Retired
Journal: Microbiology Australia
Citation: 41(4):196 DOI: 10.1071/MA20053
Publication Year and Month: 2020 11

Abstract: Epidemics of paralytic poliomyelitis (polio) first emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the United States and the Scandinavian countries. They continued through the first half of the 20th century becoming global. A major epidemic occurred in Australia in 1951 but significant outbreaks were reported from the late 1930s to 1954. The poliovirus is an enterovirus that is usually transmitted by the faecal–oral route but only one in about 150 infections results in paralysis when the central nervous system is invaded. The Salk inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) became available in Australia in 1956 and the Sabin live attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) was introduced in 1966. After decades of stability, many survivors of the earlier epidemics experience late-onset sequelae including post-polio syndrome. The World Health Organization launched the global polio eradication initiative (GPEI) in 1988 based on the easily administered OPV. The GPEI has resulted in a dramatic decrease in cases of wild polio so that only Pakistan and Afghanistan report such cases in 2020. However, a major challenge to eradication is the reversion of OPV to neurovirulent mutants resulting in circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV). A novel, genetically stabilised OPV has been developed recently to stop the emergence and spread of cVDPV and OPV is being replaced by IPV in immunisation programs worldwide. Eradication of poliomyelitis is near to achievement and the expectation is that poliomyelitis will join smallpox as dreaded epidemic diseases of the past that will be consigned to history.

Conclusions: Eradication of poliomyelitis is near to achievement and the expectation is that poliomyelitis will join smallpox as dreaded epidemic diseases of the past that will be consigned to history.

Outcome of Research: Effective

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


There is currently 1 paper in this category.

Category: Epidemiology, Late Effects of Polio

Title: Epidemic poliomyelitis, post-poliomyelitis sequelae and the eradication program
Author: Margaret Peel
Affiliation: University of Melbourne - Department of Microbiology and Immunology Melbourne, Australia
Position: Principal Microbiologist
Description: Retired
Journal: Microbiology Australia
Citation: 41(4):196 DOI: 10.1071/MA20053
Publication Year and Month: 2020 11

Abstract: Epidemics of paralytic poliomyelitis (polio) first emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the United States and the Scandinavian countries. They continued through the first half of the 20th century becoming global. A major epidemic occurred in Australia in 1951 but significant outbreaks were reported from the late 1930s to 1954. The poliovirus is an enterovirus that is usually transmitted by the faecal–oral route but only one in about 150 infections results in paralysis when the central nervous system is invaded. The Salk inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) became available in Australia in 1956 and the Sabin live attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) was introduced in 1966. After decades of stability, many survivors of the earlier epidemics experience late-onset sequelae including post-polio syndrome. The World Health Organization launched the global polio eradication initiative (GPEI) in 1988 based on the easily administered OPV. The GPEI has resulted in a dramatic decrease in cases of wild polio so that only Pakistan and Afghanistan report such cases in 2020. However, a major challenge to eradication is the reversion of OPV to neurovirulent mutants resulting in circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV). A novel, genetically stabilised OPV has been developed recently to stop the emergence and spread of cVDPV and OPV is being replaced by IPV in immunisation programs worldwide. Eradication of poliomyelitis is near to achievement and the expectation is that poliomyelitis will join smallpox as dreaded epidemic diseases of the past that will be consigned to history.

Conclusions: Eradication of poliomyelitis is near to achievement and the expectation is that poliomyelitis will join smallpox as dreaded epidemic diseases of the past that will be consigned to history.

Outcome of Research: Effective

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


There is currently 1 paper in this category.

Outcomes of Research or Clinical Trials Activity Levels Acute Flaccid Paralysis Ageing Anaerobic Threshold Anaesthesia Assistive Technology Brain Cardiorespiratory Cardiovascular Clinical Evaluation Cold Intolerance Complementary Therapies Continence Coping Styles and Strategies Cultural Context Diagnosis and Management Differential Diagnosis Drugs Dysphagia Dysphonia Epidemiology Exercise Falls Fatigue Fractures Gender Differences Immune Response Inflammation Late Effects of Polio Muscle Strength Muscular Atrophy Orthoses Pain Polio Immunisation Post-Polio Motor Unit Psychology Quality of Life Renal Complications Respiratory Complications and Management Restless Legs Syndrome Sleep Analaysis Surgery Vitality Vocational Implications