Outcomes of Research or Clinical Trials Activity Levels Acute Flaccid Paralysis Ageing Anaerobic Threshold Anaesthesia Assistive Technology Brain Cardiorespiratory Cardiovascular Clinical Evaluation Cold Intolerance Complementary Therapies Continence Coping Styles and Strategies Cultural Context Diagnosis and Management Differential Diagnosis Drugs Dysphagia Dysphonia Epidemiology Exercise Falls Fatigue Fractures Gender Differences Immune Response Inflammation Late Effects of Polio Muscle Strength Muscular Atrophy Orthoses Pain Polio Immunisation Post-Polio Motor Unit Psychology Quality of Life Renal Complications Respiratory Complications and Management Restless Legs Syndrome Sleep Analaysis Surgery Vitality Vocational Implications

Title order Author order Journal order Date order
Category: Epidemiology

Title: A systematic review of the worldwide
prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis
reported in 31 studies

Author: Kelly M Jones (1), Shivanthi Balalla (1), Alice Theadom (1), Gordon Jackman (2),
Valery L Feigin (1)
Affiliation: 1) National Institute for Stroke and Applied Neurosciences, School of Public Health & Psychosocial Studies, Faculty of Health and Environmental Studies, Auckland University of Technology, North Shore Campus, AA254, 90 Akoranga Dr, Northcote 0627, Private Bag 2006, Auckland, New Zealand

2) Polio New Zealand Inc., New Plymouth, New Zealand
Journal: BMJ Open
Citation: 2017;7:e015470.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015470
Publication Year and Month: 2017 04

Abstract: Background
Accurate prevalence figures estimating the number of survivors of poliomyelitis (disease causing acute flaccid paralysis) following poliovirus infection are not available. We aim to undertake a systematic review of all literature concerning the prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis.

Methods
Electronic databases were searched from 1900 up to May 2016 for peer-reviewed studies using a population-based approach witha defined denominator and some form of diagnostic or clinical verification of polio. Exclusion criteria were any prevalence data that were unable to be extracted or calculated and studies reporting on incidence only. The quality of each included study was assessed using an existing tool modified for use in prevalence studies. Average crude prevalence rates were used to calculate worldwide estimates.

Results
Thirty-one studies met criteria with 90% of studies conducted in low-income to lower middle-income countries. Significant variability in the prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis was revealed, in low- income to lower middle-income (15 per 100 000 in Nigeria to 1733 in India) and upper-middle to high-income countries (24 (Japan) to 380 per 100 000 (Brazil). The total combined prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis for those studies at low to moderate risk of bias ranged from 165 (high-income countries) to 425 (low-income to lower middle-income countries) per 100 000 person-years. Historical lameness surveys of children predominated, with wide variation in case definition and assessment criteria, and limited relevance to current prevalence given the lack of incidence of poliovirus infection in the ensuing years.

Conclusions
These results highlight the need for future epidemiological studies of poliomyelitis to examine nationally representative samples, including all ages and greater focus on high-income countries. Such efforts will improve capacity to provide reliable and more robust worldwide prevalence estimates.

Conclusions: In conclusion, this review reported prevalence of poliomyelitis survivors worldwide from all identified studies. The majority of research to date has been limited to the examination of children and adolescents in low-income to lower middle-income countries (predominantly India) who reside in geographical regions that are not representative of the national population (eg, in terms of age, sex, ethnic distributions) and face high rates of non-polio AFP. Further research of the prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis is required using a population-based approach, examining nationally representative samples of all ages, particularly in high-income countries including those declared to be polio free. Such efforts will reduce risks for sampling and measurement bias and improve capacity to provide reliable and more robust worldwide prevalence estimates.

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Epidemiology, Late Effects of Polio

Title: Epidemic poliomyelitis, post-poliomyelitis sequelae and the eradication program
Author: Margaret Peel
Affiliation: University of Melbourne - Department of Microbiology and Immunology Melbourne, Australia
Position: Principal Microbiologist
Description: Retired
Journal: Microbiology Australia
Citation: 41(4):196 DOI: 10.1071/MA20053
Publication Year and Month: 2020 11

Abstract: Epidemics of paralytic poliomyelitis (polio) first emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the United States and the Scandinavian countries. They continued through the first half of the 20th century becoming global. A major epidemic occurred in Australia in 1951 but significant outbreaks were reported from the late 1930s to 1954. The poliovirus is an enterovirus that is usually transmitted by the faecal–oral route but only one in about 150 infections results in paralysis when the central nervous system is invaded. The Salk inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) became available in Australia in 1956 and the Sabin live attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) was introduced in 1966. After decades of stability, many survivors of the earlier epidemics experience late-onset sequelae including post-polio syndrome. The World Health Organization launched the global polio eradication initiative (GPEI) in 1988 based on the easily administered OPV. The GPEI has resulted in a dramatic decrease in cases of wild polio so that only Pakistan and Afghanistan report such cases in 2020. However, a major challenge to eradication is the reversion of OPV to neurovirulent mutants resulting in circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV). A novel, genetically stabilised OPV has been developed recently to stop the emergence and spread of cVDPV and OPV is being replaced by IPV in immunisation programs worldwide. Eradication of poliomyelitis is near to achievement and the expectation is that poliomyelitis will join smallpox as dreaded epidemic diseases of the past that will be consigned to history.

Conclusions: Eradication of poliomyelitis is near to achievement and the expectation is that poliomyelitis will join smallpox as dreaded epidemic diseases of the past that will be consigned to history.

Outcome of Research: Effective

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


There is currently 2 paper in this category.

Category: Epidemiology

Title: A systematic review of the worldwide
prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis
reported in 31 studies
Author: Kelly M Jones (1), Shivanthi Balalla (1), Alice Theadom (1), Gordon Jackman (2),
Valery L Feigin (1)

Affiliation: 1) National Institute for Stroke and Applied Neurosciences, School of Public Health & Psychosocial Studies, Faculty of Health and Environmental Studies, Auckland University of Technology, North Shore Campus, AA254, 90 Akoranga Dr, Northcote 0627, Private Bag 2006, Auckland, New Zealand

2) Polio New Zealand Inc., New Plymouth, New Zealand
Journal: BMJ Open
Citation: 2017;7:e015470.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015470
Publication Year and Month: 2017 04

Abstract: Background
Accurate prevalence figures estimating the number of survivors of poliomyelitis (disease causing acute flaccid paralysis) following poliovirus infection are not available. We aim to undertake a systematic review of all literature concerning the prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis.

Methods
Electronic databases were searched from 1900 up to May 2016 for peer-reviewed studies using a population-based approach witha defined denominator and some form of diagnostic or clinical verification of polio. Exclusion criteria were any prevalence data that were unable to be extracted or calculated and studies reporting on incidence only. The quality of each included study was assessed using an existing tool modified for use in prevalence studies. Average crude prevalence rates were used to calculate worldwide estimates.

Results
Thirty-one studies met criteria with 90% of studies conducted in low-income to lower middle-income countries. Significant variability in the prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis was revealed, in low- income to lower middle-income (15 per 100 000 in Nigeria to 1733 in India) and upper-middle to high-income countries (24 (Japan) to 380 per 100 000 (Brazil). The total combined prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis for those studies at low to moderate risk of bias ranged from 165 (high-income countries) to 425 (low-income to lower middle-income countries) per 100 000 person-years. Historical lameness surveys of children predominated, with wide variation in case definition and assessment criteria, and limited relevance to current prevalence given the lack of incidence of poliovirus infection in the ensuing years.

Conclusions
These results highlight the need for future epidemiological studies of poliomyelitis to examine nationally representative samples, including all ages and greater focus on high-income countries. Such efforts will improve capacity to provide reliable and more robust worldwide prevalence estimates.

Conclusions: In conclusion, this review reported prevalence of poliomyelitis survivors worldwide from all identified studies. The majority of research to date has been limited to the examination of children and adolescents in low-income to lower middle-income countries (predominantly India) who reside in geographical regions that are not representative of the national population (eg, in terms of age, sex, ethnic distributions) and face high rates of non-polio AFP. Further research of the prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis is required using a population-based approach, examining nationally representative samples of all ages, particularly in high-income countries including those declared to be polio free. Such efforts will reduce risks for sampling and measurement bias and improve capacity to provide reliable and more robust worldwide prevalence estimates.

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Epidemiology, Late Effects of Polio

Title: Epidemic poliomyelitis, post-poliomyelitis sequelae and the eradication program
Author: Margaret Peel
Affiliation: University of Melbourne - Department of Microbiology and Immunology Melbourne, Australia
Position: Principal Microbiologist
Description: Retired
Journal: Microbiology Australia
Citation: 41(4):196 DOI: 10.1071/MA20053
Publication Year and Month: 2020 11

Abstract: Epidemics of paralytic poliomyelitis (polio) first emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the United States and the Scandinavian countries. They continued through the first half of the 20th century becoming global. A major epidemic occurred in Australia in 1951 but significant outbreaks were reported from the late 1930s to 1954. The poliovirus is an enterovirus that is usually transmitted by the faecal–oral route but only one in about 150 infections results in paralysis when the central nervous system is invaded. The Salk inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) became available in Australia in 1956 and the Sabin live attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) was introduced in 1966. After decades of stability, many survivors of the earlier epidemics experience late-onset sequelae including post-polio syndrome. The World Health Organization launched the global polio eradication initiative (GPEI) in 1988 based on the easily administered OPV. The GPEI has resulted in a dramatic decrease in cases of wild polio so that only Pakistan and Afghanistan report such cases in 2020. However, a major challenge to eradication is the reversion of OPV to neurovirulent mutants resulting in circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV). A novel, genetically stabilised OPV has been developed recently to stop the emergence and spread of cVDPV and OPV is being replaced by IPV in immunisation programs worldwide. Eradication of poliomyelitis is near to achievement and the expectation is that poliomyelitis will join smallpox as dreaded epidemic diseases of the past that will be consigned to history.

Conclusions: Eradication of poliomyelitis is near to achievement and the expectation is that poliomyelitis will join smallpox as dreaded epidemic diseases of the past that will be consigned to history.

Outcome of Research: Effective

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


There is currently 2 paper in this category.

Category: Epidemiology

Title: A systematic review of the worldwide
prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis
reported in 31 studies
Author: Kelly M Jones (1), Shivanthi Balalla (1), Alice Theadom (1), Gordon Jackman (2),
Valery L Feigin (1)
Affiliation: 1) National Institute for Stroke and Applied Neurosciences, School of Public Health & Psychosocial Studies, Faculty of Health and Environmental Studies, Auckland University of Technology, North Shore Campus, AA254, 90 Akoranga Dr, Northcote 0627, Private Bag 2006, Auckland, New Zealand

2) Polio New Zealand Inc., New Plymouth, New Zealand
Journal: BMJ Open
Citation: 2017;7:e015470.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015470
Publication Year and Month: 2017 04

Abstract: Background
Accurate prevalence figures estimating the number of survivors of poliomyelitis (disease causing acute flaccid paralysis) following poliovirus infection are not available. We aim to undertake a systematic review of all literature concerning the prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis.

Methods
Electronic databases were searched from 1900 up to May 2016 for peer-reviewed studies using a population-based approach witha defined denominator and some form of diagnostic or clinical verification of polio. Exclusion criteria were any prevalence data that were unable to be extracted or calculated and studies reporting on incidence only. The quality of each included study was assessed using an existing tool modified for use in prevalence studies. Average crude prevalence rates were used to calculate worldwide estimates.

Results
Thirty-one studies met criteria with 90% of studies conducted in low-income to lower middle-income countries. Significant variability in the prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis was revealed, in low- income to lower middle-income (15 per 100 000 in Nigeria to 1733 in India) and upper-middle to high-income countries (24 (Japan) to 380 per 100 000 (Brazil). The total combined prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis for those studies at low to moderate risk of bias ranged from 165 (high-income countries) to 425 (low-income to lower middle-income countries) per 100 000 person-years. Historical lameness surveys of children predominated, with wide variation in case definition and assessment criteria, and limited relevance to current prevalence given the lack of incidence of poliovirus infection in the ensuing years.

Conclusions
These results highlight the need for future epidemiological studies of poliomyelitis to examine nationally representative samples, including all ages and greater focus on high-income countries. Such efforts will improve capacity to provide reliable and more robust worldwide prevalence estimates.

Conclusions: In conclusion, this review reported prevalence of poliomyelitis survivors worldwide from all identified studies. The majority of research to date has been limited to the examination of children and adolescents in low-income to lower middle-income countries (predominantly India) who reside in geographical regions that are not representative of the national population (eg, in terms of age, sex, ethnic distributions) and face high rates of non-polio AFP. Further research of the prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis is required using a population-based approach, examining nationally representative samples of all ages, particularly in high-income countries including those declared to be polio free. Such efforts will reduce risks for sampling and measurement bias and improve capacity to provide reliable and more robust worldwide prevalence estimates.

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Epidemiology, Late Effects of Polio

Title: Epidemic poliomyelitis, post-poliomyelitis sequelae and the eradication program
Author: Margaret Peel
Affiliation: University of Melbourne - Department of Microbiology and Immunology Melbourne, Australia
Position: Principal Microbiologist
Description: Retired
Journal: Microbiology Australia
Citation: 41(4):196 DOI: 10.1071/MA20053
Publication Year and Month: 2020 11

Abstract: Epidemics of paralytic poliomyelitis (polio) first emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the United States and the Scandinavian countries. They continued through the first half of the 20th century becoming global. A major epidemic occurred in Australia in 1951 but significant outbreaks were reported from the late 1930s to 1954. The poliovirus is an enterovirus that is usually transmitted by the faecal–oral route but only one in about 150 infections results in paralysis when the central nervous system is invaded. The Salk inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) became available in Australia in 1956 and the Sabin live attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) was introduced in 1966. After decades of stability, many survivors of the earlier epidemics experience late-onset sequelae including post-polio syndrome. The World Health Organization launched the global polio eradication initiative (GPEI) in 1988 based on the easily administered OPV. The GPEI has resulted in a dramatic decrease in cases of wild polio so that only Pakistan and Afghanistan report such cases in 2020. However, a major challenge to eradication is the reversion of OPV to neurovirulent mutants resulting in circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV). A novel, genetically stabilised OPV has been developed recently to stop the emergence and spread of cVDPV and OPV is being replaced by IPV in immunisation programs worldwide. Eradication of poliomyelitis is near to achievement and the expectation is that poliomyelitis will join smallpox as dreaded epidemic diseases of the past that will be consigned to history.

Conclusions: Eradication of poliomyelitis is near to achievement and the expectation is that poliomyelitis will join smallpox as dreaded epidemic diseases of the past that will be consigned to history.

Outcome of Research: Effective

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


There is currently 2 paper in this category.

Category: Epidemiology, Late Effects of Polio

Title: Epidemic poliomyelitis, post-poliomyelitis sequelae and the eradication program
Author: Margaret Peel
Affiliation: University of Melbourne - Department of Microbiology and Immunology Melbourne, Australia
Position: Principal Microbiologist
Description: Retired
Journal: Microbiology Australia
Citation: 41(4):196 DOI: 10.1071/MA20053
Publication Year and Month: 2020 11

Abstract: Epidemics of paralytic poliomyelitis (polio) first emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the United States and the Scandinavian countries. They continued through the first half of the 20th century becoming global. A major epidemic occurred in Australia in 1951 but significant outbreaks were reported from the late 1930s to 1954. The poliovirus is an enterovirus that is usually transmitted by the faecal–oral route but only one in about 150 infections results in paralysis when the central nervous system is invaded. The Salk inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) became available in Australia in 1956 and the Sabin live attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) was introduced in 1966. After decades of stability, many survivors of the earlier epidemics experience late-onset sequelae including post-polio syndrome. The World Health Organization launched the global polio eradication initiative (GPEI) in 1988 based on the easily administered OPV. The GPEI has resulted in a dramatic decrease in cases of wild polio so that only Pakistan and Afghanistan report such cases in 2020. However, a major challenge to eradication is the reversion of OPV to neurovirulent mutants resulting in circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV). A novel, genetically stabilised OPV has been developed recently to stop the emergence and spread of cVDPV and OPV is being replaced by IPV in immunisation programs worldwide. Eradication of poliomyelitis is near to achievement and the expectation is that poliomyelitis will join smallpox as dreaded epidemic diseases of the past that will be consigned to history.

Conclusions: Eradication of poliomyelitis is near to achievement and the expectation is that poliomyelitis will join smallpox as dreaded epidemic diseases of the past that will be consigned to history.

Outcome of Research: Effective

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Epidemiology

Title: A systematic review of the worldwide
prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis
reported in 31 studies
Author: Kelly M Jones (1), Shivanthi Balalla (1), Alice Theadom (1), Gordon Jackman (2),
Valery L Feigin (1)
Affiliation: 1) National Institute for Stroke and Applied Neurosciences, School of Public Health & Psychosocial Studies, Faculty of Health and Environmental Studies, Auckland University of Technology, North Shore Campus, AA254, 90 Akoranga Dr, Northcote 0627, Private Bag 2006, Auckland, New Zealand

2) Polio New Zealand Inc., New Plymouth, New Zealand
Journal: BMJ Open
Citation: 2017;7:e015470.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015470
Publication Year and Month: 2017 04

Abstract: Background
Accurate prevalence figures estimating the number of survivors of poliomyelitis (disease causing acute flaccid paralysis) following poliovirus infection are not available. We aim to undertake a systematic review of all literature concerning the prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis.

Methods
Electronic databases were searched from 1900 up to May 2016 for peer-reviewed studies using a population-based approach witha defined denominator and some form of diagnostic or clinical verification of polio. Exclusion criteria were any prevalence data that were unable to be extracted or calculated and studies reporting on incidence only. The quality of each included study was assessed using an existing tool modified for use in prevalence studies. Average crude prevalence rates were used to calculate worldwide estimates.

Results
Thirty-one studies met criteria with 90% of studies conducted in low-income to lower middle-income countries. Significant variability in the prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis was revealed, in low- income to lower middle-income (15 per 100 000 in Nigeria to 1733 in India) and upper-middle to high-income countries (24 (Japan) to 380 per 100 000 (Brazil). The total combined prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis for those studies at low to moderate risk of bias ranged from 165 (high-income countries) to 425 (low-income to lower middle-income countries) per 100 000 person-years. Historical lameness surveys of children predominated, with wide variation in case definition and assessment criteria, and limited relevance to current prevalence given the lack of incidence of poliovirus infection in the ensuing years.

Conclusions
These results highlight the need for future epidemiological studies of poliomyelitis to examine nationally representative samples, including all ages and greater focus on high-income countries. Such efforts will improve capacity to provide reliable and more robust worldwide prevalence estimates.

Conclusions: In conclusion, this review reported prevalence of poliomyelitis survivors worldwide from all identified studies. The majority of research to date has been limited to the examination of children and adolescents in low-income to lower middle-income countries (predominantly India) who reside in geographical regions that are not representative of the national population (eg, in terms of age, sex, ethnic distributions) and face high rates of non-polio AFP. Further research of the prevalence of survivors of poliomyelitis is required using a population-based approach, examining nationally representative samples of all ages, particularly in high-income countries including those declared to be polio free. Such efforts will reduce risks for sampling and measurement bias and improve capacity to provide reliable and more robust worldwide prevalence estimates.

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


There is currently 2 paper in this category.

Outcomes of Research or Clinical Trials Activity Levels Acute Flaccid Paralysis Ageing Anaerobic Threshold Anaesthesia Assistive Technology Brain Cardiorespiratory Cardiovascular Clinical Evaluation Cold Intolerance Complementary Therapies Continence Coping Styles and Strategies Cultural Context Diagnosis and Management Differential Diagnosis Drugs Dysphagia Dysphonia Epidemiology Exercise Falls Fatigue Fractures Gender Differences Immune Response Inflammation Late Effects of Polio Muscle Strength Muscular Atrophy Orthoses Pain Polio Immunisation Post-Polio Motor Unit Psychology Quality of Life Renal Complications Respiratory Complications and Management Restless Legs Syndrome Sleep Analaysis Surgery Vitality Vocational Implications