Outcomes of Research or Clinical Trials Activity Levels Acute Flaccid Paralysis Ageing Anaerobic Threshold Anaesthesia Assistive Technology Brain Cardiorespiratory Cardiovascular Clinical Evaluation Cold Intolerance Complementary Therapies Continence Coping Styles and Strategies Cultural Context Diagnosis and Management Differential Diagnosis Drugs Dysphagia Dysphonia Epidemiology Exercise Falls Fatigue Fractures Gender Differences Immune Response Inflammation Late Effects of Polio Muscle Strength Muscular Atrophy Orthoses Pain Polio Immunisation Post-Polio Motor Unit Psychology Quality of Life Renal Complications Respiratory Complications and Management Restless Legs Syndrome Sleep Analaysis Surgery Vitality Vocational Implications

Title order Author order Journal order Date order
Category: Surgery

Title: Anaesthetists need to be wary of postpolio syndrome
Author: Tobin A

Affiliation: Deputy Director, Intensive Care Unit, St Vincent’s Hospital, Victoria, Australia
Journal: ANZCA Bulletin
Citation: ANZCA Bulletin September 2015, pp 42-43
Publication Year and Month: 2015 09

Abstract: This is a brief Safety and Quality news item which does not have an abstract. This is an extract:

Postpolio syndrome (PPS) occurs in a significant proportion of polio survivors years after recovering from the original illness. Anaesthetists need to be aware of the syndrome as polio survivors are relatively numerous (40,000 cases of paralytic polio in Australia from the 1930s to the 1960s), they are of an age where they will be increasingly presenting for elective and emergency procedures and the syndrome has important. Postpolio syndrome patients present a number of potential problems for the anaesthetist. However for those who are aware depressant effects of analgesics of the syndrome, careful assessment and planning should minimise the risk of perioperative complications and provide optimal patient outcomes.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: Other - see Comments.

Comments (if any): This news item has been generously made available by Post-Polio Victoria.

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to download


Category: Surgery

Title: Anesthetic implications of postpolio syndrome: new concerns for an old disease
Author: Schwartz A (1), Bosch LM
Affiliation: (1) Saint Louis University Hospital, St Louis, Missouri, USA
Journal: American Association of Nurse Anesthetists
Citation: AANA J. 2012 Oct;80(5):356-61
Publication Year and Month: 2012 10

Abstract: Poliomyelitis was pandemic in the United States and much of the world in the first half of the 20th century. The uses of polio vaccines have essentially eradicated the disease in the United States today. But poliovirus infection survivors who had experienced a paralytic attack can see a return of some symptoms, which is a syndrome called postpolio syndrome (PPS). The anesthetist must preoperatively assess reported amounts of patient physical activity and patient age, which can indicate the amount of muscle degeneration that may have already occurred. Patients with PPS demonstrate altered respiratory function, cold intolerance, a risk for aspiration, and experience chronic pain in muscles and joints. Patients with PPS display an increased sensitivity to some anesthetic agents such as long-acting narcotics and potent inhaled anesthetic gases with a high blood-gas partition coefficient, along with report of increased fatigue, weakness, and somnolence after anesthesia. Anesthesia care must center on the preservation of muscle function postoperatively. The anesthetist should consider the use of short-acting anesthetic agents, increased doses of analgesics, the use of warming devices, and careful attention to patient positioning. Prolonged postoperative care and hospital admission after surgery are possible.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to download


Category: Surgery

Title: Long-term results after triple arthrodesis: Influence of alignment on ankle osteoarthritis and clinical outcome
Author: Klerken, T., Kosse, N.M., Aarts, C.A.M., Louwerens, J.W.K.
Affiliation: Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Foot and Ankle Surgery. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fas.2017.11.003

Publication Year and Month: 2017 11

Abstract: Background
Pain, deformity and instability are the main reasons for fusion of the tarsal joints, a triple arthrodesis. The short and midterm results show that mobility, function and satisfaction increase postoperatively. However, osteoarthritis (OA) of the adjacent ankle joint is described as a long-term complication. Alignment of the foot could be an influencing factor. The aim of this study was to examine whether malalignment after triple arthrodesis leads to a higher grade of OA at long-term follow-up.


Conclusions
Triple arthrodesis is a salvage procedure in patients with a painful and deformed hindfoot and results in a clinically beneficial outcome, even 15 years after surgery. The present study did not show that malalignment after triple arthrodesis results in a higher grade of OA of the ankle joint in the long-term. The cause of the aggravation of OA is still not fully understood and needs further research. Nevertheless, clinical results are satisfying 15 years postoperatively.

Conclusions: A triple arthrodesis was effective 15 years after surgery. Aggravation of ankle joint osteoarthritis does not relate to patient satisfaction. Slow radiographic aggravation of osteoarthritis of the ankle joint was seen in 42% of the patients.

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Surgery

Title: Postpolio syndrome and anesthesia
Author: Lambert DA, Giannouli E, Schmidt BJ
Affiliation: Department of Anesthesia, University of Manitoba, Canada
Journal: Anesthesiology
Citation: Anesthesiology. 2005 Sep;103(3):638-44
Publication Year and Month: 2005 09

Abstract: The development of polio vaccines 50 years ago essentially halted childhood polio epidemics in the industrialized world. During the past quarter century, a constellation of delayed neuromuscular symptoms, called postpolio syndrome, became recognized among the aging polio survivors. The prevalence of postpolio syndrome in the US population is estimated to be in the hundreds of thousands. The most common symptoms are fatigue, pain, and new onset weakness thought to be related to delayed deterioration of motor neuron function. When a patient with postpolio syndrome presents for surgery, special precautions are warranted, because these patients may have respiratory impairment, sleep apnea, swallowing difficulties, and cold intolerance. This article first reviews clinical features and some pathoetiologic theories of postpolio syndrome and then focuses on anesthetic considerations including the use of common anesthetics, neuromuscular blockade, regional anesthesia, and general anesthetic management strategies.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


There is currently 4 paper in this category.

Category: Surgery

Title: Long-term results after triple arthrodesis: Influence of alignment on ankle osteoarthritis and clinical outcome
Author: Klerken, T., Kosse, N.M., Aarts, C.A.M., Louwerens, J.W.K.
Affiliation: Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Foot and Ankle Surgery. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fas.2017.11.003

Publication Year and Month: 2017 11

Abstract: Background
Pain, deformity and instability are the main reasons for fusion of the tarsal joints, a triple arthrodesis. The short and midterm results show that mobility, function and satisfaction increase postoperatively. However, osteoarthritis (OA) of the adjacent ankle joint is described as a long-term complication. Alignment of the foot could be an influencing factor. The aim of this study was to examine whether malalignment after triple arthrodesis leads to a higher grade of OA at long-term follow-up.


Conclusions
Triple arthrodesis is a salvage procedure in patients with a painful and deformed hindfoot and results in a clinically beneficial outcome, even 15 years after surgery. The present study did not show that malalignment after triple arthrodesis results in a higher grade of OA of the ankle joint in the long-term. The cause of the aggravation of OA is still not fully understood and needs further research. Nevertheless, clinical results are satisfying 15 years postoperatively.

Conclusions: A triple arthrodesis was effective 15 years after surgery. Aggravation of ankle joint osteoarthritis does not relate to patient satisfaction. Slow radiographic aggravation of osteoarthritis of the ankle joint was seen in 42% of the patients.

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Surgery

Title: Postpolio syndrome and anesthesia
Author: Lambert DA, Giannouli E, Schmidt BJ
Affiliation: Department of Anesthesia, University of Manitoba, Canada
Journal: Anesthesiology
Citation: Anesthesiology. 2005 Sep;103(3):638-44
Publication Year and Month: 2005 09

Abstract: The development of polio vaccines 50 years ago essentially halted childhood polio epidemics in the industrialized world. During the past quarter century, a constellation of delayed neuromuscular symptoms, called postpolio syndrome, became recognized among the aging polio survivors. The prevalence of postpolio syndrome in the US population is estimated to be in the hundreds of thousands. The most common symptoms are fatigue, pain, and new onset weakness thought to be related to delayed deterioration of motor neuron function. When a patient with postpolio syndrome presents for surgery, special precautions are warranted, because these patients may have respiratory impairment, sleep apnea, swallowing difficulties, and cold intolerance. This article first reviews clinical features and some pathoetiologic theories of postpolio syndrome and then focuses on anesthetic considerations including the use of common anesthetics, neuromuscular blockade, regional anesthesia, and general anesthetic management strategies.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Surgery

Title: Anesthetic implications of postpolio syndrome: new concerns for an old disease
Author: Schwartz A (1), Bosch LM
Affiliation: (1) Saint Louis University Hospital, St Louis, Missouri, USA
Journal: American Association of Nurse Anesthetists
Citation: AANA J. 2012 Oct;80(5):356-61
Publication Year and Month: 2012 10

Abstract: Poliomyelitis was pandemic in the United States and much of the world in the first half of the 20th century. The uses of polio vaccines have essentially eradicated the disease in the United States today. But poliovirus infection survivors who had experienced a paralytic attack can see a return of some symptoms, which is a syndrome called postpolio syndrome (PPS). The anesthetist must preoperatively assess reported amounts of patient physical activity and patient age, which can indicate the amount of muscle degeneration that may have already occurred. Patients with PPS demonstrate altered respiratory function, cold intolerance, a risk for aspiration, and experience chronic pain in muscles and joints. Patients with PPS display an increased sensitivity to some anesthetic agents such as long-acting narcotics and potent inhaled anesthetic gases with a high blood-gas partition coefficient, along with report of increased fatigue, weakness, and somnolence after anesthesia. Anesthesia care must center on the preservation of muscle function postoperatively. The anesthetist should consider the use of short-acting anesthetic agents, increased doses of analgesics, the use of warming devices, and careful attention to patient positioning. Prolonged postoperative care and hospital admission after surgery are possible.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to download


Category: Surgery

Title: Anaesthetists need to be wary of postpolio syndrome
Author: Tobin A

Affiliation: Deputy Director, Intensive Care Unit, St Vincent’s Hospital, Victoria, Australia
Journal: ANZCA Bulletin
Citation: ANZCA Bulletin September 2015, pp 42-43
Publication Year and Month: 2015 09

Abstract: This is a brief Safety and Quality news item which does not have an abstract. This is an extract:

Postpolio syndrome (PPS) occurs in a significant proportion of polio survivors years after recovering from the original illness. Anaesthetists need to be aware of the syndrome as polio survivors are relatively numerous (40,000 cases of paralytic polio in Australia from the 1930s to the 1960s), they are of an age where they will be increasingly presenting for elective and emergency procedures and the syndrome has important. Postpolio syndrome patients present a number of potential problems for the anaesthetist. However for those who are aware depressant effects of analgesics of the syndrome, careful assessment and planning should minimise the risk of perioperative complications and provide optimal patient outcomes.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: Other - see Comments.

Comments (if any): This news item has been generously made available by Post-Polio Victoria.

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to download


There is currently 4 paper in this category.

Category: Surgery

Title: Anesthetic implications of postpolio syndrome: new concerns for an old disease
Author: Schwartz A (1), Bosch LM
Affiliation: (1) Saint Louis University Hospital, St Louis, Missouri, USA
Journal: American Association of Nurse Anesthetists
Citation: AANA J. 2012 Oct;80(5):356-61
Publication Year and Month: 2012 10

Abstract: Poliomyelitis was pandemic in the United States and much of the world in the first half of the 20th century. The uses of polio vaccines have essentially eradicated the disease in the United States today. But poliovirus infection survivors who had experienced a paralytic attack can see a return of some symptoms, which is a syndrome called postpolio syndrome (PPS). The anesthetist must preoperatively assess reported amounts of patient physical activity and patient age, which can indicate the amount of muscle degeneration that may have already occurred. Patients with PPS demonstrate altered respiratory function, cold intolerance, a risk for aspiration, and experience chronic pain in muscles and joints. Patients with PPS display an increased sensitivity to some anesthetic agents such as long-acting narcotics and potent inhaled anesthetic gases with a high blood-gas partition coefficient, along with report of increased fatigue, weakness, and somnolence after anesthesia. Anesthesia care must center on the preservation of muscle function postoperatively. The anesthetist should consider the use of short-acting anesthetic agents, increased doses of analgesics, the use of warming devices, and careful attention to patient positioning. Prolonged postoperative care and hospital admission after surgery are possible.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to download


Category: Surgery

Title: Postpolio syndrome and anesthesia
Author: Lambert DA, Giannouli E, Schmidt BJ
Affiliation: Department of Anesthesia, University of Manitoba, Canada
Journal: Anesthesiology
Citation: Anesthesiology. 2005 Sep;103(3):638-44
Publication Year and Month: 2005 09

Abstract: The development of polio vaccines 50 years ago essentially halted childhood polio epidemics in the industrialized world. During the past quarter century, a constellation of delayed neuromuscular symptoms, called postpolio syndrome, became recognized among the aging polio survivors. The prevalence of postpolio syndrome in the US population is estimated to be in the hundreds of thousands. The most common symptoms are fatigue, pain, and new onset weakness thought to be related to delayed deterioration of motor neuron function. When a patient with postpolio syndrome presents for surgery, special precautions are warranted, because these patients may have respiratory impairment, sleep apnea, swallowing difficulties, and cold intolerance. This article first reviews clinical features and some pathoetiologic theories of postpolio syndrome and then focuses on anesthetic considerations including the use of common anesthetics, neuromuscular blockade, regional anesthesia, and general anesthetic management strategies.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


Category: Surgery

Title: Anaesthetists need to be wary of postpolio syndrome
Author: Tobin A

Affiliation: Deputy Director, Intensive Care Unit, St Vincent’s Hospital, Victoria, Australia
Journal: ANZCA Bulletin
Citation: ANZCA Bulletin September 2015, pp 42-43
Publication Year and Month: 2015 09

Abstract: This is a brief Safety and Quality news item which does not have an abstract. This is an extract:

Postpolio syndrome (PPS) occurs in a significant proportion of polio survivors years after recovering from the original illness. Anaesthetists need to be aware of the syndrome as polio survivors are relatively numerous (40,000 cases of paralytic polio in Australia from the 1930s to the 1960s), they are of an age where they will be increasingly presenting for elective and emergency procedures and the syndrome has important. Postpolio syndrome patients present a number of potential problems for the anaesthetist. However for those who are aware depressant effects of analgesics of the syndrome, careful assessment and planning should minimise the risk of perioperative complications and provide optimal patient outcomes.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: Other - see Comments.

Comments (if any): This news item has been generously made available by Post-Polio Victoria.

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to download


Category: Surgery

Title: Long-term results after triple arthrodesis: Influence of alignment on ankle osteoarthritis and clinical outcome
Author: Klerken, T., Kosse, N.M., Aarts, C.A.M., Louwerens, J.W.K.
Affiliation: Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Foot and Ankle Surgery. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fas.2017.11.003

Publication Year and Month: 2017 11

Abstract: Background
Pain, deformity and instability are the main reasons for fusion of the tarsal joints, a triple arthrodesis. The short and midterm results show that mobility, function and satisfaction increase postoperatively. However, osteoarthritis (OA) of the adjacent ankle joint is described as a long-term complication. Alignment of the foot could be an influencing factor. The aim of this study was to examine whether malalignment after triple arthrodesis leads to a higher grade of OA at long-term follow-up.


Conclusions
Triple arthrodesis is a salvage procedure in patients with a painful and deformed hindfoot and results in a clinically beneficial outcome, even 15 years after surgery. The present study did not show that malalignment after triple arthrodesis results in a higher grade of OA of the ankle joint in the long-term. The cause of the aggravation of OA is still not fully understood and needs further research. Nevertheless, clinical results are satisfying 15 years postoperatively.

Conclusions: A triple arthrodesis was effective 15 years after surgery. Aggravation of ankle joint osteoarthritis does not relate to patient satisfaction. Slow radiographic aggravation of osteoarthritis of the ankle joint was seen in 42% of the patients.

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


There is currently 4 paper in this category.

Category: Surgery

Title: Long-term results after triple arthrodesis: Influence of alignment on ankle osteoarthritis and clinical outcome
Author: Klerken, T., Kosse, N.M., Aarts, C.A.M., Louwerens, J.W.K.
Affiliation: Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Journal: NEW - PUT DETAILS IN CITATION FIELD
Citation: Foot and Ankle Surgery. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fas.2017.11.003

Publication Year and Month: 2017 11

Abstract: Background
Pain, deformity and instability are the main reasons for fusion of the tarsal joints, a triple arthrodesis. The short and midterm results show that mobility, function and satisfaction increase postoperatively. However, osteoarthritis (OA) of the adjacent ankle joint is described as a long-term complication. Alignment of the foot could be an influencing factor. The aim of this study was to examine whether malalignment after triple arthrodesis leads to a higher grade of OA at long-term follow-up.


Conclusions
Triple arthrodesis is a salvage procedure in patients with a painful and deformed hindfoot and results in a clinically beneficial outcome, even 15 years after surgery. The present study did not show that malalignment after triple arthrodesis results in a higher grade of OA of the ankle joint in the long-term. The cause of the aggravation of OA is still not fully understood and needs further research. Nevertheless, clinical results are satisfying 15 years postoperatively.

Conclusions: A triple arthrodesis was effective 15 years after surgery. Aggravation of ankle joint osteoarthritis does not relate to patient satisfaction. Slow radiographic aggravation of osteoarthritis of the ankle joint was seen in 42% of the patients.

Outcome of Research: More research required

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view Abstract


Category: Surgery

Title: Anaesthetists need to be wary of postpolio syndrome
Author: Tobin A

Affiliation: Deputy Director, Intensive Care Unit, St Vincent’s Hospital, Victoria, Australia
Journal: ANZCA Bulletin
Citation: ANZCA Bulletin September 2015, pp 42-43
Publication Year and Month: 2015 09

Abstract: This is a brief Safety and Quality news item which does not have an abstract. This is an extract:

Postpolio syndrome (PPS) occurs in a significant proportion of polio survivors years after recovering from the original illness. Anaesthetists need to be aware of the syndrome as polio survivors are relatively numerous (40,000 cases of paralytic polio in Australia from the 1930s to the 1960s), they are of an age where they will be increasingly presenting for elective and emergency procedures and the syndrome has important. Postpolio syndrome patients present a number of potential problems for the anaesthetist. However for those who are aware depressant effects of analgesics of the syndrome, careful assessment and planning should minimise the risk of perioperative complications and provide optimal patient outcomes.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: Other - see Comments.

Comments (if any): This news item has been generously made available by Post-Polio Victoria.

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to download


Category: Surgery

Title: Anesthetic implications of postpolio syndrome: new concerns for an old disease
Author: Schwartz A (1), Bosch LM
Affiliation: (1) Saint Louis University Hospital, St Louis, Missouri, USA
Journal: American Association of Nurse Anesthetists
Citation: AANA J. 2012 Oct;80(5):356-61
Publication Year and Month: 2012 10

Abstract: Poliomyelitis was pandemic in the United States and much of the world in the first half of the 20th century. The uses of polio vaccines have essentially eradicated the disease in the United States today. But poliovirus infection survivors who had experienced a paralytic attack can see a return of some symptoms, which is a syndrome called postpolio syndrome (PPS). The anesthetist must preoperatively assess reported amounts of patient physical activity and patient age, which can indicate the amount of muscle degeneration that may have already occurred. Patients with PPS demonstrate altered respiratory function, cold intolerance, a risk for aspiration, and experience chronic pain in muscles and joints. Patients with PPS display an increased sensitivity to some anesthetic agents such as long-acting narcotics and potent inhaled anesthetic gases with a high blood-gas partition coefficient, along with report of increased fatigue, weakness, and somnolence after anesthesia. Anesthesia care must center on the preservation of muscle function postoperatively. The anesthetist should consider the use of short-acting anesthetic agents, increased doses of analgesics, the use of warming devices, and careful attention to patient positioning. Prolonged postoperative care and hospital admission after surgery are possible.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research: Not applicable

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to download


Category: Surgery

Title: Postpolio syndrome and anesthesia
Author: Lambert DA, Giannouli E, Schmidt BJ
Affiliation: Department of Anesthesia, University of Manitoba, Canada
Journal: Anesthesiology
Citation: Anesthesiology. 2005 Sep;103(3):638-44
Publication Year and Month: 2005 09

Abstract: The development of polio vaccines 50 years ago essentially halted childhood polio epidemics in the industrialized world. During the past quarter century, a constellation of delayed neuromuscular symptoms, called postpolio syndrome, became recognized among the aging polio survivors. The prevalence of postpolio syndrome in the US population is estimated to be in the hundreds of thousands. The most common symptoms are fatigue, pain, and new onset weakness thought to be related to delayed deterioration of motor neuron function. When a patient with postpolio syndrome presents for surgery, special precautions are warranted, because these patients may have respiratory impairment, sleep apnea, swallowing difficulties, and cold intolerance. This article first reviews clinical features and some pathoetiologic theories of postpolio syndrome and then focuses on anesthetic considerations including the use of common anesthetics, neuromuscular blockade, regional anesthesia, and general anesthetic management strategies.

Conclusions:

Outcome of Research:

Availability of Paper: The full text of this paper has been generously made available by the publisher.

Comments (if any):

Link to Paper (if available): Click here to view full text or to download


There is currently 4 paper in this category.

Outcomes of Research or Clinical Trials Activity Levels Acute Flaccid Paralysis Ageing Anaerobic Threshold Anaesthesia Assistive Technology Brain Cardiorespiratory Cardiovascular Clinical Evaluation Cold Intolerance Complementary Therapies Continence Coping Styles and Strategies Cultural Context Diagnosis and Management Differential Diagnosis Drugs Dysphagia Dysphonia Epidemiology Exercise Falls Fatigue Fractures Gender Differences Immune Response Inflammation Late Effects of Polio Muscle Strength Muscular Atrophy Orthoses Pain Polio Immunisation Post-Polio Motor Unit Psychology Quality of Life Renal Complications Respiratory Complications and Management Restless Legs Syndrome Sleep Analaysis Surgery Vitality Vocational Implications